Biological bases of human behavior

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Lecture for midterm

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Biological bases of human behavior

  1. 1. BIOLOGICAL BASES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR
  2. 2. NEURON“THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM”
  3. 3. PARTS OF A NEURON  A CLUSTER OF FIBERS AT ONE END OF A NEURON DENTRITE THAT RECIEVES MESSAGES FROM OTHER NEURONS.  THE PART OF THE NEURON AXON THAT CARRIES MESSAGES DESTINED FOR OTHER NEURON.  SMALL BULGES AT THE END TERMINAL BUTTONS OF AXON THAT SENDS MESSAGES TO OTHER NEURON. MYELIN  PROTECTIVE COAT OF FAT AND PROTEIN THAT WRAPS AROUND THE AXON. NODE OF RANVIER  GAP BETWEEN TWO MYELINATED AXONS
  4. 4. TYPES OF NEURONSENSORY NEURONMOTOR NEURONASSOCIATION NEURON
  5. 5. HOW NEURON FIRE LIKE A GUN, NEURONS EITHER FIRE –THAT IS, TRANSMIT AN ELECTRICAL IMPULSE ALONG THE AXON-OR DON’T FIRE. ALL-OR NONE LAW-THE RULE THAT NEURONS ARE EITHER ON OR OFF. RESTING STATE-THE STATE IN WHICH THERE IS A NEGATIVE ELECTRICAL CHARGE OF ABOUT 270 MILLIVOLTS WITHIN A NEURON. ACTION POTENTIAL-AN ELECTRIC NERVE IMPULSES THAT TRAVELS THROUGH A NEURON WHEN IT IS SET OFF A TRIGGER CHANGING THE NEURON’S CHARGE FROM NEGATIVE TO POSITIVE.
  6. 6. SYNAPES-THE SPACE BETWEEN TWO NEURONSWHERE THE AXON OF A SENDING NEURONCOMMUNICATES WITH THE DENTRITES OF ARECEIVING NEURON BY USING CHEMICALMESSAGES.NEUROTRANSMITTERS-CHEMICALS THATCARRY MESSAGES ACROSS THE SYNAPES TODENTRITE AND SOME TIMES CELL BODY OF ARECEIVER NEURON.
  7. 7. NEUROTRANSMITTERS NAME LOCATION FUNCTIONACETYLCHOLINE BRAIN,SPINAL CORD,PNS MUSCLE MOVEMENT,COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING (excitatory/inhibitory)GLUTAMATE BRAIN,SPINAL CORD MEMORY (excitatory)GAMMA-AMINO BRAIN,SPINAL CORD EATING,AGGRESSION,SLEEPINGBUTYRIC ACID (inhibitory)SEROTONIN BRAIN,SPINAL CORD SLEEPING,MOOD,PAIN DEPRESSION (inhibitory)DOPAMINE BRAIN MUSCLES DISORDER,MENTAL DISORDER,PARKINSON’S DISEASE (inhibitory/excitatory)ENDORPHINS BRAIN,SPINAL CORD PAIN SUPPRESSION,PLEASURE FEELINGS,APPETITES (inhibitory)
  8. 8. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  9. 9. THE HUMANBRAIN
  10. 10. FUNCTIONS OF THE BRAINTO IDENTIFYTO ORGANIZETO INTERPRETTO RESPOND
  11. 11. MAJOR CORES OF THE BRAIN FORE BRAIN MIDBRAIN HINDBRAIN
  12. 12. The anterior and largest portion of the brain; includes the cerebral hemispheres, the limbicsystem, the thalamus and hypothalamus, and the corpus callosum.Function: to control cognitive, sensory and motor function, and regulate temperature,reproductive functions, eating, sleeping and the display of emotions.
  13. 13. The midbrain is the smallest region of the brain that acts as relay station forauditory and visual information.Portions of the midbrain called the red nucleus and the substantia nigraare involved in the control of body movement.
  14. 14. The area of the brain comprising the pons, medulla and cerebellum.Function: to co-ordinate motor activity, posture, equilibrium and sleeppatterns and regulate unconscious but essential functions, such as breathingand blood circulation.
  15. 15. CENTRAL CORE-THE OLD BRAIN WHICHCONTROLS BASIC FUNCTIONS SUCH AS EATINGAND IS COMMON TO ALL VERTEBRATES.CEREBRAL CORTEX- THE NEW BRAINRESPONSIBLE FOR THE MOST SOPHISTICATEDINFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE BRAIN.IT ALSOCONTAINS FOUR LOBES
  16. 16. FOUR LOBES OF THE BRAIN
  17. 17. FOUR LOBES OF THE BRAIN  LIES IN THE MOTOR FRONTAL LOBE CORTEX,INVOLVES IN DECISION MAKING,PLANNING,AND CARRYING OUT BEHAVIOR,RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CONTROL OF VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS.  DAMAGE: INABILITY OF GOOD CHOICES AND RECOGNIZED CONSEQUENCE  CAN CAUSE INCREASE IRRITABILITY.  CHANGE IN MOOD AND INABILTY TO REGULATE BEHAVIOR
  18. 18.  PARIETAL LOBE  INVOLVES IN PROCESSING SENSORY INFORMATION FROM THE BODY,SUCH AS TOUCHING,LOCATING POSITION OF LIMBS,FEELING TEMPERATURE AND PAIN.  DAMAGE:THE ABILITY TO MULTITASK IS REDUCE OR ELIMINATED,RECOGNITION OF RIGHT AND LEFT  DAMAGE NEGLECT
  19. 19. LOBES OF THE BRAIN TEMPORAL LOBE  PRIMARY LOCATION OF AUDITORY AREA,INVOLVES IN APPRECIATION OF SOUNDS AND SPOKEN LANGUAGE.  RESPONSIBLE FOR LEARNING,MEMORY AND HEARING  DAMAGE:INABILITY TO PAY ATTENTION TO WHAT THEY SEE AND HEAR  INABILITY TO COMPREHEND LANGUAGE  IMPAIRED MEMEORY  EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE  PROSOPAGNOSIA
  20. 20.  OCCIPITAL LOBE  INVOLVES IN PROCESSING VISUAL INFORMATION,WHICH INCLUDES SEEING COLORS AND PERCIEVING AND RECOGNIZING OBJECTS,ANIMALS AND PEOPLE.  DAMAGE:LOSE OF VISUAL CAPABILITY  INABILITY TO IDENTIFY COLOR  HALLUCINATION
  21. 21. OTHER PARTS OF THE BRAIN
  22. 22. PARTS OF THE BRAIN HYPOTHALAMUS  RESPONSIBLE FOR REGULATING BASIC BIOLOGICAL NEEDS:HUNGER,THRIST, TEMPERATURE CONTROL THALAMUS  RELAY CENTER FOR CORTEX,HANDLES INCOMING AND OUTGOING SIGNALS. PITUTARY GLAND  MASTER GLAND REGULATES OTHER ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
  23. 23. PARTS OF THE BRAIN MEDULLA  RESPONSIBLE FOR REGULATING UNCONSCIOUS FUNCTIONS SUCH AS BREATHING AND CIRCULATION. PONS  INVOLVES IN SLEEP AND AROUSAL. CEREBELLUM  CONTROLS BODILY BALANCE. CORPUS CALLOSUM  BRIDGE OF FIBERS PASSING INFORMATIONBETWEEN THE TWO CEREBRAL HEMISPHRES
  24. 24. AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION OF RIGHT AND LEFT CEREBRAL HEMISPHERESLEFT HEMISPHERE RIGHT HEMISPHERE RIGHT HAND TOUCH  LEFTHAND TOUCH SPEECH  SPATIAL LANGUAGE CONSTRUCTION WRITING  CREATIVE THINKING LOGIC  FANTASY MATH  ART AND MUSIC SCIENCE APPRECIATION
  25. 25. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  26. 26. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM A CHEMICAL COMMUNICATION NETWORK THAT SENDS MESSAGES THOUGHOUT THE BODY VIA THE BLOOD STREAM. HORMONES-CHEMICALS THAT CIRCULATE THROUGH THE BLOOD STREAM AND REGULATE THE FUNCTIONING OR GROWTH OF THE BODY. PITUITARY GLAND-THE MAJOR COMPONENT OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM WHICH SECRETES HORMONES THAT CONTROL GROWTH AND THE OTHER PARTS OF THE ENDOCRINE SYTEM.
  27. 27. MAJOR ENDOCRINE GLANDS AND ITS FUNCTIONS HYPOTHALAMUS  HOMEOSTASIS PITUITARY GLAND  GROWTH PARATHYROID GLAND  METABOLIC RATE THYROID GLAND THYMUS  IMMUNE SYSTEM ADRENAL GLAND PANCREAS  INSULIN AND GLUCAGON,CONTROLS SUGAR METABOLISM OVARY TESTES  PROMOTE MALE/FEMALE SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS.
  28. 28. MAJOR PROCESSESCONTROLLED BY HORMONES REPRODUCTION GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT MOBILIZING THE BODY AGAINST STRESSORS MAINTAINING ELECTROLYTE,WATER,NUTRIENT BALANCE OF THE BLOOD METABOLISM
  29. 29. PITUITARY GLAND
  30. 30. ANTERIORLOBE/ADENOHYPOPHYSISADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE-REGULATE SEVERAL PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES INCLUDING STRESS,GROWTH,REPRODUCTION AND LACTATION.-TARGET GLAND-ADRENAL GLANDMINERALOCORTICOID,GLUCOCORTICOID,SEXCORTICOIDOVERPRODUCTION OF ACTH-CUSHING SYNDROME-WEIGHT GAIN,EXCESSIVE GROWTH OF FATS,ROUND FACE
  31. 31. THYROID STIMULATING HORMONETARGET GLAND-THYROID GLAND- T3 (TRIIDITHYRONINE) T4 (THYROXINE)- BASALMETABOLISMOVERSECRETION-HYPERTHYROIDISMUNDER SECRETION-HYPOTHYRODISM
  32. 32. FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONETARGET GLAND-GONAD-GROWTH OF REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  33. 33. LUTEINIZING HORMONETARGET GLAND-GONAD-SEX HORMONE PRODUCTION
  34. 34. GROWTH HORMONETARGET GLAND-LIVER,ADIPOSE TISSUE-PROMOTES GROWTH,LIPID AND CARBOHYDRATEUNDERSECRETION-DWARFISMOVER SECRETION-GIGANTISMOVERSECRETION(ADOLESENCE)- ACROMEGALY
  35. 35. DWARFISM
  36. 36. ACROMEGALY
  37. 37. PROLACTINTARGET GLAND-OVARIES,MAMMARY GLAND-SECRETION OF ESTROGEN,PROGESTERONE,MILK PRODUCTION
  38. 38. POSTERIORLOBE/NEUROHYPOPHYSISOXYTOCINTARGETGLAND-UTERUS,MAMMARY GLAND-UTERINE CONTRACTION,LACTATION
  39. 39. ANTI DIURETIC HORMONETARGET GLAND-KIDNEYS- STIMULAYE WATER RETENTIONPROBLEM IN ADH-DIABETES INSIPIDUS

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