Psychological performance enhancement (1)
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  • 1. Unit 4 AOS 2
  • 2. Is the sports science that seeks to understand psychological and mental factors that affect performance in sports, physical activity and exercise, and apply theseto enhance individual and team performance.
  • 3.  The work of sports psychologists tends to focuson techniques that athletes can use in competitive and training situations to maintain control, concentration, confidence and commitment (the four C’s) :-
  • 4.  control (the ability to maintain emotional control regardless of distraction)  concentration (the ability to maintain focus)  confidence (the belief in one’s own abilities)  commitment (the motivation to continue working towards agreed goals).
  • 5.  Strategies used to help enhance performance control:  Sports Performance AnxietyTest  Understanding and controlling arousal (inverted U theory, drive theory, optimum arousal theory)  Progressive muscle relaxation, centered breathing, meditation, pre-comp psych-up)
  • 6.  Involves reducing the number of cues and noises to the brain, therefore relaxing the CNS.  It can lower blood pressure and HR  Slow breathing relaxes muscles
  • 7.  Instructions is needed so the athlete can get the techniques correct  Helps with the inhalation and exhalation of air with obvious benifits
  • 8.  Relaxing the body and imagining/creating life-like situations  EG: Imagining yourself performing a certain activity or an activity you just performed  Powerful relaxation, reflective, training, confidence building tool
  • 9.  Time:  Sleep:  RecoveryAids: Skins
  • 10.  Monitoring techniques include:  Keeping a training log  Coach obervation and communication with the athlete  Development of the athlete individual physical and mental monitoring techniques
  • 11.  Direct communication  Athlete says: ▪ I have heavy legs; I don’t feel well; I am tired  Body Language  Facial expressions, look in their eyes, bending over to recovery from an effort, bad technique  Physiological ▪ Increase in resting HR; loss of body weight; loss appetite  Psychological  Low motivation; low concentration; agressiveness
  • 12.  Sudden increase in morning heart rate (20% above normal)  Non-responsive to relaxation techniques  Sleep disturbances  Low quality of sleep for more than two days  Feeling constantly tired
  • 13.  Also known as burnout  Characterised by a number of emotional, behavioral, psychological and physical symptoms  You are probably suffering from overtraining:  If you find your performance is starting to plateau or decrease and your training levels are the same.  If the athlete has prolonged fatigue
  • 14.  Can result in  Excessive fatigue  Illness  Injury
  • 15.  Poor program design  An imbalance between training and recovery  Excessive overload + inadequate rest  Training monotony  Inadequate monitoring techniques in place  Long term fatigue occurs gradually and is hard to monitor  Inadequate nutrition, sleep  Anxiety about other factory in life (job, money, relationships)  Failure to achieve goals  Mental conflict  Lifestyle
  • 16.  Well-designed training program with a high priority on rest and recovery  Balance between work and rest  Allow at least 24-48 hours recovery after a hard session  Careful monitoring of physiological and psychological conditions of the athlete  Monitoring of any overtraining symptoms  Good diet  Overtraining signs shouldn’t be ignored
  • 17.  Moodiness  Irritation and angry  Loss of competitive drive  Loss of motivation and enthusiasm  Reduced concentration  Lack on energy  Inability to relax  Altered sleep patterns  Boredom  Reduced confidence  And more (p. 297)
  • 18.  Soreness  Heaviness  Weakness in the muscles  Body aches  Increase evidence of injury  Prolonged fatigue  Delayed recovery from training  Elevated resting HR  Dehydration  Increase susceptibility to illness  Weight loss  Nausea  Gastrointestinal disturbances