Attitudes – LO’s• Define Attitudes, beliefs and values• Explain the difference between attitudes, beliefs and values• Describe the Components of an attitude• Explain how attitudes are formed• Explain how to change attitudes through persuasive communication and cognitive dissonance
Activity 1• 1 group of 3, 1 group of 4 – 2 observers• 4 Tasks to complete
Discuss the taskWhat attitudes did people have?
Task• In pairs come up with potential definitions for belief, values and attitudes• Decide what is the difference between the different terms.
Definitions• Attitudes – ideas charged with emotion (positive or negative) which predisposes a class of actions to a particular social situation• Belief – represent the knowledge or information we have about the world• Values – are deep seated feelings or thoughts (emotions) which form the basis for evaluating if something is worthwhile. (Culturally based)
The link………….• Attitudes are therefore • Blend of beliefs and values• Learned via • Social environment (experience)• Provide us with a means to express our values• Attitude is a key which determines behaviour• Can have attitudes to objects, people, events or ideas• Not all embracing (can hate rugby but not all sport)
Secord and Backman (1964)• Developed 3 components of attitude (Triadic model)• Cognitve (what we know and believe about the attitude object.)• Affective (how we feel about the attitude object.)• Behavioural (how we actually behave towards, respond to or intend to respond to the attitude object.)
Applied to sport…• An athlete can show a positive attitude to sport by believing in the benefits of exercise (Cognitive)• By showing enthusiasm and enjoyment in games (affective)• By turning up to practice and taking a regular part in sport (behavioural)
But……• Relationship between cognitive and behavioural parts are unreliable• i.e. what you believe is not necessarily what you do• E.g. you might believe that weight training will make you stronger but you might not do it!!• Due to Affective component (male might want to look muscular but female may not!)• So quite a simplistic approach
Attitude Formation• Learning (past experiences, successes and failures)• Familiarity• Classical conditioning• Operant Conditioning• Socialisation (Significant others)• Peer groups and social groups
Positive or negative attitudes• Positive attitudes formed: • Belief in exercise • Enjoyable experiences in sport • Being good at a sport • Excited by challenge of sport • Using sport as stress release
Positive or negative attitudes• Negative attitudes formed: • Not believing in benefits of exercise • A bad past experience • Injury • A lack of ability • Fear of taking part • Suffering stress when taking part • Influence of others
Positive attitude towards sport • We must ensure: • See the relevance of specific fitness and practice programmes • Gain a direct experience of the fitness/practice programmes to specific activities • And that any negative attitudes are dealt with ASAP!
Changing attitudes• Persuasive Communication • Four basic factors; • Who is trying to persuade? • What is the message? • Whom is the message trying to reach? • What is the situation context?
Cognitive Dissonance• Challenging one or more components of an attitude causes unease in the performer which may motivate them to change attitude
Example• E.g. You might reject the need for aggression in your sport (Belief 1)• But in order to win against a particular team you must physically intimidate your oponent (Belief 2).• Two beliefs conflict• This dissonance is resolved by telling yourself that it’s alright to playhard against this particular opponent because they play rough too• Modification to (Belief 1)
What else…..• Coaches may also use • Point out benefits to health • Making activities fun and enjoyable • Allowing easy initial success • Using roll models • Attributing the reasons for success internally
Changing Attitudes Task– Using your notes……….. • Look carefully at the methods used by coaches to change attitudes. • You are trying to establish a rugby league team for girls and at the first session quite a few girls arrive but are not sure they want to continue. They think rugby league is mainly for men and is too physical for them. • How can you persuade the girls to continue? • How can you change their attitude?
Attitudes and Predjudice• A prejudice = extreme attitude• E.g. Gender, race, age, officials, team• Formed: social learning, fitting in with social norms, media pressure, past bad experience, fear• Overcome – PC, CD, re-educate (roll models/media), punishment, reinforce fair behaviour