HM Sports Psychology 2

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HM Sports Psychology 2

  1. 1. Stress ManagementStress Management Stress, or pressure, occurs when there is aStress, or pressure, occurs when there is a major difference between what youmajor difference between what you believe is demanded of you, and what youbelieve is demanded of you, and what you believe your capabilities are, and whenbelieve your capabilities are, and when you believe the outcome to be veryyou believe the outcome to be very important.important.
  2. 2. An athlete’s perceived ability Equals or exceeds Demand of competition Little anxiety Experienced An athlete’s perceived ability Is Less than Demand of competition High levels of anxiety Experienced Therefore, Stress is the result of a persons negative thoughts and changes in arousal in response tho the environment In other words:In other words:
  3. 3. Stress FormulaeStress Formulae Stress Formula 1: Environmental Stimulus (E) Arousal (A) Negative Thoughts Stress (S) Stress management needs to be somatic; muscle relaxation or yoga. When an athlete is in the presence of the event that arouses them, the athlete can start relaxation response (breathing)
  4. 4. Stress FormulaeStress Formulae Stress Formula 2: Environmental Stimulus (E) Arousal (A) Negative Thoughts (NT) Stress (S) Stress management needs to be cognitive; self talk or hypnosis
  5. 5. Managing StressManaging Stress Stress can be both internal and external”Stress can be both internal and external”  Personal – desire to win, succeed, achieve goalsPersonal – desire to win, succeed, achieve goals  Competition – pressure exerted by opponentsCompetition – pressure exerted by opponents  Social – pressure from coaches, parents, sponsors,Social – pressure from coaches, parents, sponsors, mediamedia  Physical – pressure of having to perform learned skillsPhysical – pressure of having to perform learned skills under the demands of competition.under the demands of competition. Three factors can be changed:Three factors can be changed: 1.1. EnvironmentEnvironment 2.2. Arousal level – through relaxationArousal level – through relaxation 3.3. Negative thoughts – eliminated or reduced throughNegative thoughts – eliminated or reduced through cognitive stress managementcognitive stress management Realising the problem is more in the mind than in theRealising the problem is more in the mind than in the occasion. The key to controlling stress is altering theoccasion. The key to controlling stress is altering the perception of what you believe is being asked of you.perception of what you believe is being asked of you.
  6. 6. Cognitive Stress ManagementCognitive Stress Management  What we believe determines our emotionsWhat we believe determines our emotions and influences our behaviourand influences our behaviour  Self talk is the things we say to ourselvesSelf talk is the things we say to ourselves from how we interpret the events in ourfrom how we interpret the events in our liveslives  Negative self-talk is the reaction to anNegative self-talk is the reaction to an event that causes stress, impairsevent that causes stress, impairs performance and deprives an athlete fromperformance and deprives an athlete from enjoying sportenjoying sport
  7. 7. Negative self talk can be:Negative self talk can be:  IrrationalIrrational  UnproductiveUnproductive  SpecificSpecific  Discrete messagesDiscrete messages  Almost always believedAlmost always believed  SpontaneousSpontaneous  Hard to turn offHard to turn off Stress will make negative self talk less definable,Stress will make negative self talk less definable, more believable and the focus of attention.more believable and the focus of attention.
  8. 8. Causes of Negative ThoughtsCauses of Negative Thoughts  Worrying about performance (comparison toWorrying about performance (comparison to others)others)  Inability to make decisions due to choice ofInability to make decisions due to choice of alternate responsesalternate responses  Being preoccupied with the physical symptomsBeing preoccupied with the physical symptoms of stressof stress  Thinking about the possible consequences ofThinking about the possible consequences of poor performancepoor performance  Thoughts of inadequacy – self criticism, selfThoughts of inadequacy – self criticism, self blameblame
  9. 9. Changing Negative ThoughtsChanging Negative Thoughts Cognitive Restructuring – thought stoppingCognitive Restructuring – thought stopping  Used after athlete recognises that they areUsed after athlete recognises that they are engaging in unproductive negativeengaging in unproductive negative thinkingthinking  ProcedureProcedure  Catch yourself having negative thoughtsCatch yourself having negative thoughts  Internally yell at your self – “STOP”Internally yell at your self – “STOP”  Replace with constructive thinkingReplace with constructive thinking You need to have prepared constructiveYou need to have prepared constructive thoughts to replace the negative thinkingthoughts to replace the negative thinking
  10. 10. HandoutsHandouts  Changing Negative Self-talk to PositiveChanging Negative Self-talk to Positive Self-talkSelf-talk  Sports Commission Anxiety Test (SCAT)Sports Commission Anxiety Test (SCAT)  Stress QuestionnaireStress Questionnaire  Your State of StressYour State of Stress
  11. 11. RelaxationRelaxation Self directed Progressive Relaxation Technique Imagery Relaxation Biofeedback Breathing
  12. 12. 1.1. Self directedSelf directed  Athletes are guided through relaxation ofAthletes are guided through relaxation of the body’s muscle groups whilethe body’s muscle groups while emphasising slow, easy breathingemphasising slow, easy breathing  Visualise tensions leaving the bodyVisualise tensions leaving the body  Coach/leader directedCoach/leader directed  Aim is to reduce gradually the timeAim is to reduce gradually the time needed to be completely relaxed, fromneeded to be completely relaxed, from minutes to secondsminutes to seconds
  13. 13. 2.2. Imagery RelaxationImagery Relaxation  Athletes imagining themselves in anAthletes imagining themselves in an environment where they feel relaxed andenvironment where they feel relaxed and comfortablecomfortable  Set a clear place in your mindSet a clear place in your mind  Need to be alert and not fatiguedNeed to be alert and not fatigued  Find a comfortable positionFind a comfortable position  Needs to be practiced dailyNeeds to be practiced daily  Use first with minor stresses, leading up toUse first with minor stresses, leading up to larger oneslarger ones
  14. 14. 3.3. Progressive RelaxationProgressive Relaxation Techniques (PRT)Techniques (PRT)  Based on principle of neuromuscularBased on principle of neuromuscular contraction and relaxation – learn to feelcontraction and relaxation – learn to feel tension in muscles and then let it gotension in muscles and then let it go  Works best when you relax the muscleWorks best when you relax the muscle past its previous levelpast its previous level  Can only be achieved if person canCan only be achieved if person can identify muscle groupsidentify muscle groups  Time consuming – about 4-6 weeks @ 3-4Time consuming – about 4-6 weeks @ 3-4 times per weektimes per week
  15. 15. 4.4. BiofeedbackBiofeedback  Athletes own biological responses are fedAthletes own biological responses are fed back to them to help develop self-back to them to help develop self- awareness of muscle tensionawareness of muscle tension  Examples of this include:Examples of this include:  The more tense you are the more your bodyThe more tense you are the more your body sweats and heat is dissipatedsweats and heat is dissipated  Skin temperature drops when muscles are tenseSkin temperature drops when muscles are tense and as a result hands can be cold and clammyand as a result hands can be cold and clammy  From biofeedback results, use imageryFrom biofeedback results, use imagery relaxation proceduresrelaxation procedures
  16. 16. 5.5. BreathingBreathing  Used to release tension or to avoidUsed to release tension or to avoid distraction during performancedistraction during performance  There are a series of different techniquesThere are a series of different techniques that can be learnt and then used to controlthat can be learnt and then used to control tension or focus relatively quickly.tension or focus relatively quickly.
  17. 17. Breathing ActivitiesBreathing Activities Imagery ExerciseImagery Exercise Progressive RelaxationProgressive Relaxation Autogenic trainingAutogenic training Self affirmation statementsSelf affirmation statements Self contractSelf contract Mental imageryMental imagery Test for ability to use imageryTest for ability to use imagery
  18. 18. Mental RehearsalMental Rehearsal  It is the technique of mentally picturing theIt is the technique of mentally picturing the performance or skill before it is performedperformance or skill before it is performed It can:It can:  Elevate the body to the desired level ofElevate the body to the desired level of arousalarousal  Provide a clear idea of what has to be doneProvide a clear idea of what has to be done  Heightened concentrationHeightened concentration  Narrow the thoughts to the task at handNarrow the thoughts to the task at hand
  19. 19. To be effective, visualisation requires:To be effective, visualisation requires:  The person to be relaxedThe person to be relaxed  Vivid, realistic pictures in the mindVivid, realistic pictures in the mind  More than one complete rehearsalMore than one complete rehearsal  A narrowing of thoughts to exclude distractionsA narrowing of thoughts to exclude distractions  A feeling of ‘experiencing’, seeing colours, hearingA feeling of ‘experiencing’, seeing colours, hearing sounds, feeling the movements and noticing the crowdsounds, feeling the movements and noticing the crowd  Seeing a successful performance. ‘To visualise failure isSeeing a successful performance. ‘To visualise failure is to experience failure’to experience failure’  Practice so that the process can be ‘turned on’ whenPractice so that the process can be ‘turned on’ when requiredrequired DirectionDirection  Visualise from inside out – feel yourself performingVisualise from inside out – feel yourself performing  Visualise from outside in – as if watching on TVVisualise from outside in – as if watching on TV
  20. 20. Performance PracticePerformance Practice Ideal model – choose a player who you want to copy andIdeal model – choose a player who you want to copy and imagine themimagine them  Top performance – repeat a past performance when you haveTop performance – repeat a past performance when you have played particularly wellplayed particularly well  Future performance – imagine yourself performing at your bestFuture performance – imagine yourself performing at your best at a future competitionat a future competition  Instant replay – is the use of mental rehearsal to prepare for aInstant replay – is the use of mental rehearsal to prepare for a specific gamespecific game  Create a cue image – create an image in your mind thatCreate a cue image – create an image in your mind that produces the feeling you want eg ‘float like a butterfly, stingproduces the feeling you want eg ‘float like a butterfly, sting like a bee’like a bee’  Instant replay – reviewing an action you have just performedInstant replay – reviewing an action you have just performed eg mentally rehearsing an aspect of the game the night or dayeg mentally rehearsing an aspect of the game the night or day after the game (even during training)after the game (even during training)  Rejecting distractions – rehearsing successfully rejectingRejecting distractions – rehearsing successfully rejecting potential distractions eg crowdpotential distractions eg crowd GoalsGoals  Control of your imagesControl of your images  Clarity of your imagesClarity of your images 
  21. 21. Goal settingGoal setting Goal setting is an important component ofGoal setting is an important component of individual and team preparationindividual and team preparation Goal setting is a process whereby theGoal setting is a process whereby the athlete’s goals, priorities and expectationsathlete’s goals, priorities and expectations are written down and provide a plan ofare written down and provide a plan of action for both practice and gameaction for both practice and game performanceperformance They monitor progress over a period ofThey monitor progress over a period of time and can be a powerful motivator.time and can be a powerful motivator.
  22. 22. Goals need to be:Goals need to be:  SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable,SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time)Realistic, Time)  Related to training program and designed toRelated to training program and designed to increase performanceincrease performance  MeasurableMeasurable  Self-controlledSelf-controlled  AchievableAchievable  RealisticRealistic  Mutually accepted and agreed upon by coachMutually accepted and agreed upon by coach and playerand player
  23. 23. Long Term goalsLong Term goals These goals should be decided on early in the seasonThese goals should be decided on early in the season and may even relate to a 4 or 5 year periodand may even relate to a 4 or 5 year period Example – win regional championships in year 1, rank inExample – win regional championships in year 1, rank in top 4 at state championships in year 2, medallist intop 4 at state championships in year 2, medallist in nationals in year 3.nationals in year 3. Your goals must be reviewed regularly, depending on theYour goals must be reviewed regularly, depending on the time frame involved eg yearly, monthly, weeklytime frame involved eg yearly, monthly, weekly At this time you should determineAt this time you should determine  Are they still relevantAre they still relevant  Are they still achievableAre they still achievable  Are they still on targetAre they still on target  What can you do right now to ensure you do achieveWhat can you do right now to ensure you do achieve themthem
  24. 24. Short Term goalsShort Term goals  They should be developed and used as steppingThey should be developed and used as stepping stones to help achieve your long term goalsstones to help achieve your long term goals  It is very important that they are achievable andIt is very important that they are achievable and assessable to ensure motivationassessable to ensure motivation  Unrealistic goals may be more harmful toUnrealistic goals may be more harmful to performance than no goals at allperformance than no goals at all  It is important to evaluate performance inIt is important to evaluate performance in relation to your goalsrelation to your goals  Ensure rewards are given for successfulEnsure rewards are given for successful achievement of goalsachievement of goals
  25. 25. Short term goals can relate to:Short term goals can relate to:  Performance segments; various sections of aPerformance segments; various sections of a performance, such as, starts or play at the endperformance, such as, starts or play at the end of the halfof the half  Specific skills; maintenance of skills or perfectionSpecific skills; maintenance of skills or perfection of new ones, for example, number of skillsof new ones, for example, number of skills performed in a training sessionperformed in a training session  Fitness; target specific componentsFitness; target specific components  Concentration; mental application to requiredConcentration; mental application to required tasktask  Emotional control; controlling arousal levels andEmotional control; controlling arousal levels and emotional reactionsemotional reactions  Social goals; cohesion, cooperationSocial goals; cohesion, cooperation  Performance strategies; overall structuring ofPerformance strategies; overall structuring of approaches to competitionapproaches to competition
  26. 26. Goal setting activityGoal setting activity

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