Performance Enhancement From A Psychological Perspective


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Performance Enhancement From A Psychological Perspective

  2. 2. Psychological Skills Training <ul><li>Psychological skills are the same as physical skills in that they can be taught, learned and practised. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance can be radically improved by employing psychological skills training. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Psychological Skills Training <ul><li>Programs can focus on one or more principles, depending on which areas need improvement, and these might include: </li></ul><ul><li>- goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>- arousal </li></ul><ul><li>- mental rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li>- confidence building </li></ul><ul><li>- concentration </li></ul>
  4. 4. Psychological Skills Training <ul><li>It is best if psychological skills become automatic via overlearning </li></ul><ul><li>That athletes make them an integral part of their training </li></ul><ul><li>That skills are practised to replicate real game scenarios </li></ul>
  5. 5. GOAL SETTING <ul><li>Has been shown to increase work output by up to 40-50% </li></ul><ul><li>Goals need to be set for both training and competitions </li></ul>
  6. 6. GOAL SETTING <ul><li>There are three types of sporting goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome goals focus on end result, times, finishing place or medals </li></ul><ul><li>Performance goals focus on comparing present performance levels with those attained previously, and are independent of other competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Process goals focus on actions such as physical movements and game strategies that athletes must execute during a game in order to maximise their performance </li></ul>
  7. 7. GOAL SETTING <ul><li>Short-term goals: </li></ul><ul><li>continually provide a more manageable focus point for athletes </li></ul><ul><li>act as the stepping stones for achieving long-term goals </li></ul><ul><li>bring about improved performances </li></ul>
  8. 8. GOAL SETTING <ul><li>The acronym SMARTER is an effective way of goal setting: </li></ul><ul><li>S pecific – clear goals </li></ul><ul><li>M easurable – assess progress </li></ul><ul><li>A ccepted – by all (ie. coach, family, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>R ealistic – achievable </li></ul><ul><li>T ime phased – within a time frame </li></ul><ul><li>E xciting – challenged, inspired, rewarded </li></ul><ul><li>R ecorded – written down </li></ul>
  9. 9. AROUSAL <ul><li>The relationship between arousal and performance is commonly referred to as the “inverted-U” hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible to experience situations of: * under-arousal </li></ul><ul><li>* optimal arousal (in the “zone”) </li></ul><ul><li>* over-arousal </li></ul>
  10. 10. AROUSAL <ul><li>Arousal reduction techniques include: </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive muscular relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Biofeedback </li></ul><ul><li>Stress-inoculation training (SIT) </li></ul><ul><li>Listening to calming music </li></ul><ul><li>Using routines </li></ul>
  11. 11. AROUSAL First    Previous    Next    Last       Index    Home    Text                                                                                                                                                     
  12. 12. AROUSAL <ul><li>Arousal promotion techniques include: </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Acting energetically </li></ul><ul><li>Positive talk </li></ul><ul><li>Energising imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-game workout </li></ul>
  13. 13. IMAGERY <ul><li>Athletes can attain optimal arousal and concentration levels by trying to imagine themselves performing skills before actually doing them </li></ul><ul><li>This is known as - mental rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li>- mental imagery </li></ul><ul><li>- visualisation </li></ul>
  14. 14. IMAGERY <ul><li>Effective imagery involves a lot more than simply “seeing” how a performance should be executed </li></ul><ul><li>It calls on as many senses as possible during the rehearsal stage, typically: </li></ul><ul><li>* kinaesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>* auditory </li></ul><ul><li>* tactile </li></ul>
  15. 15. IMAGERY <ul><li>Imagery improves performance by: </li></ul><ul><li>Improving neural pathways between the brain and the muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Providing a mental template of rehearsed sequences </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling athletes to prepare for a range of events and eventualities </li></ul><ul><li>Working in conjunction with other psychological skills </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing athletes to pre-experience the achievement of goals that build confidence </li></ul>
  16. 16. SIMULATION <ul><li>Is carried out by making the physical training environment as similar as possible to the game setting </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts are actually taken through to the physical application stage </li></ul>
  17. 17. CONCENTRATION (ATTENTION) <ul><li>Consists of three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on relevant environmental cues </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining attention focus over time </li></ul><ul><li>Having awareness of the situation </li></ul>
  18. 18. CONCENTRATION (ATTENTION) <ul><li>There are four possible types of attention: </li></ul><ul><li>Broad-internal focus – on thoughts and feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Broad-external focus – outwards on opponent’s actions </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow-internal focus – thoughts and mentally rehearse upcoming movements </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow-external focus – on very few external cues </li></ul>
  19. 19. CONCENTRATION (ATTENTION) <ul><li>Choking – a situation where performance deteriorates because a heightened sense of pressure or importance is placed on an upcoming event or action </li></ul><ul><li>Factors causing this include: </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on environmental distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on past performances </li></ul><ul><li>Future-orientated thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle tension </li></ul><ul><li>Negative self-talk </li></ul><ul><li>Poor handling of game pressure(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Not sticking to game plans </li></ul>
  20. 20. CONCENTRATION (ATTENTION) <ul><li>Concentration can be improved by: </li></ul><ul><li>Use of cue words </li></ul><ul><li>Selective attention training </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul><ul><li>Overlearning </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul>
  21. 21. CONFIDENCE <ul><li>Confidence levels and performance attainment closely reflect the inverted-U shape demonstrated by the arousal theory </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible to lack confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Be over-confident </li></ul><ul><li>Be in “the zone” </li></ul>
  22. 22. CONFIDENCE <ul><li>Confidence levels remain high if athletes feel that they are adequately trained to succeed in the activity being undertaken – both physically and psychologically </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing what to expect by having practised many physical and mental scenarios, and knowing how to respond to them, removes uncertainty and ensures optimal performance levels </li></ul>