Managing A Training Load & Sports Injury Risk Management

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Managing A Training Load & Sports Injury Risk Management

  1. 1. Managing a Training Load & Sports Injury Risk Management VCE Physical Education
  2. 2. Managing a Training Load <ul><li>Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The main aim in undertaking training is to bring about improved performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following the work period, fatigue from the specific training stimulus and general fatigue from the stress of the training load of a training session occur. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to gain the greatest benefits from training, a recovery (returning an athlete to a state of performance readiness both mentally & physically) period should follow the training bout to address the sources of fatigue. The type of training undertaken, its intensity and its duration are central to the recovery strategies used. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Managing a Training Load (Continued) <ul><li>The principle of recovery tells us that in order to maximise performance benefits, an athlete must recover adequately from one training stimulus before the next stimulus is introduced. This enhances adaptations to training and ultimately improves performance. </li></ul><ul><li>When planning training requirements for an athlete, it is essential to include adequate recovery time in the program. Consideration of the cycle of fatigue and recovery is important for progress in training. A balance between the workload and good recovery will ultimately maximise performance. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Managing a Training Load (Continued) <ul><li>Recovery strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the recovery period, a number of practices can be adopted to reduce the effects of fatigue and to return the athlete physically and mentally to a state where they are ready for the next performance. Some of these practices include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stretching  has been shown to assist in preventing DOMS. It is recommended to use PNF and static stretches and to undertake these while the muscles are still warm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Hydration & Diet  it is important to consume food and fluids containing CHO within 20mins of completing exercise. Assessing fluid requirements is important also – weighing yourself before and after training. Adopting a fluid-replacement routine and hydrating in pace with an individual’s sweating rate is imperative (1kg of weight loss=1lt of fluid loss). </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Managing a Training Load (Continued) <ul><ul><li>Hydrotherapy  movement in water encourages stretching benefits while taking the stress off the joints. Non-weight bearing activities such as running in the water and swimming using a variety of strokes further assist with removal of wastes. Many advocate the use of hot/cold baths to assist the recovery process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massage  helps to relax the muscles, and by  blood flow to the site can assist in speeding up delivery of O 2 and nutrients to the muscle and clearing waste products. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Progressive muscle relaxation  involves tensing & relaxing muscles progressively from one muscle group to the next. Relaxation through  muscle tension will, in turn,  mental tension and assist in recovery. Undertaking progressive muscle relaxation regularly enables an athlete to develop skills for releasing tension. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Managing a Training Load (Continued) <ul><ul><li>Meditation  involves relaxing by controlling the CNS and reducing the number of cues and noises to the brain. With less stimulation going to the brain, it is possible for an athlete to influence other functions of the body and possible lower blood pressure and HR, slow breathing and relax muscles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing techniques  it is considered that breathing in and out through the nose as well as learning to expand the rib cage laterally using a series of inhalation & exhalation assists recovery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Mental imagery  involves athletes getting into a relaxed state used to assist recovery from training, build confidence, and assist with relaxation & recovery from injury. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Managing a Training Load (Continued) <ul><li>Factors influencing recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery can be influenced by many factors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time  recovery days are essential – at least one day a week should include minimal or no training. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep  sufficient quality sleep is also an important part of recovery. Athletes should develop a routine that fosters a good night’s sleep – additionally, some of the psychological skills for aiding recovery could involve meditation, progressive muscle relaxation and breathing exercises. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Managing a Training Load (Continued) <ul><li>Aids to recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Sports skins’ are garments manufactured with a gradient compression at specific places to enhance circulation and aid lactic acid removal. The garments are very strong and durable and continue to work on the body after activity ceased. It is recommended that the skins be worn as soon as possible after exercise and they are to be kept on for a period of 4 to 24hrs to be effective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopting a range of recovery strategies depending on the type of training that has been undertaken is central to determining the most appropriate strategies for aiding recovery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.5starplus.com.au/category247_1.htm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.skins.com.au </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Managing a Training Load (Continued) <ul><li>Monitoring training & recovery responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is essential to monitor training & recovery through reliable monitoring techniques and individual guidelines to establish an optimal workload for the athlete. Some of the useful approaches to monitoring training & recovery are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>keeping a ‘Training log’; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the ‘Coach’s observation & communication’ with the athlete; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>developing the athlete’s ‘physical self-monitoring skills’ – i.e. recording resting HR at the same time each day; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>developing the athlete’s ‘psychological self-monitoring skills’ – i.e. monitoring their level of motivation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Managing a Training Load (Continued) <ul><li>Overtraining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If performance plateaus or declines – even though training levels are kept at the same level – or an athlete feels prolonged fatigue, or they have a reduced ability to return to current performance levels even following rest and recovery, they are probably suffering from overtraining. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overtraining is also referred to as ‘burnout’ or ‘staleness’. It is characterised by a number of emotional, behavioural, psychological and physical symptoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The body must be allowed to adapt gradually to increased training loads. Continual training without sufficient rest and recovery leads to excessive fatigue, injury, illness and ultimately a decline in overall performance. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Managing a Training Load (Continued) <ul><li>Overtraining (Continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why does ‘Overtraining’ occur? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generally as a result of poor program design, which might include an imbalance between training & rest. Excessive training (too much, at a high intensity) or sudden changes in training load coupled with inadequate rest, can cause an athlete to experience physical stress form training faster than the body can recover from the training stimulus. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can ‘Overtraining’ be prevented? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Through a well-designed, individualised training program with gradual increases in training stimulus, along with a high priority for rest and recovery is a good basis from which to work. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Managing a Training Load (Continued) <ul><li>Overtraining (Continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the warning signs & symptoms of ‘Overtraining’? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological signs & symptoms  are usually the first signs to appear and can include: moodiness; easily irritated & angry; loss of competitive drive, motivation and enthusiasm for physical activity; feeling tired, drained and lacking in energy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological signs & symptoms  following on from the psychological factors the physiological factors may emerge and include: persistent soreness; heaviness & weakness in muscles; body aches; loss of appetite & weight loss; elevated resting HR. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Risk Management <ul><li>Risk management is the process of measuring or assessing risk and then developing strategies to manage the risk. Risk is the chance of something happening. Some suggested steps in the risk-management process are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification & assessment of risks; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of possible actions available; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk avoidance & risk reduction; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a plan & implementing the plan; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing monitoring & evaluation of the plan. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible questions to consider for all circumstances include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What could possibly go wrong? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What precautions/protections do you have in place to prevent these from happening? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What will you do if it happens? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Risk Management (Continued) <ul><li>When considering training, recovery & sports injuries, a useful approach could be to consider the responses to the following three questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What could go wrong? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How could it happen? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What action could we take to prevent it happening? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Risk Management (Continued) <ul><li>What could go wrong in training & recovery, and how? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate pre-participation screening: the entry point for the individual along with assessment of the existing fitness level must be factored in when designing a suitable training program and there should be sufficient provision for recovery, to avoid training loads being set too high for the given skill and fitness level of the participant. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coaches’ conduct & coaching practices: coaches not keeping qualifications and accreditation current can result in unsuitable activities being included in training programs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Program design: programs based on an unsound application of training principles and inappropriate choices of training methods can lead to overtraining, sprains/strains, back injuries, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Risk Management (Continued) <ul><li>What could go wrong in training & recovery, and how? (Continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activities & equipment: by not individualising the program to the capacities, needs and physical profile of the participant (age, size, body shape, sex, skill level), injury is more likely. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to get medical assistance: or the required first aid equipment can result in an injury not being treated correctly. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Return to training following an injury: need to perform a functional assessment for a safe return after rehab. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not providing sufficiently for recovery: may expose the athlete to a greater risk of injury. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental conditions: failing to implement prevention and treatment of environmental stress factors could also result in injury & illness. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Risk Management (Continued) <ul><li>What can be done to avoid things going wrong? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The complete identification, assessment and prioritisation of risks should occur so as to consider what preventative actions could be implemented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policy development & documentation: is recommended in key areas such as: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coaching (accreditation, updates & expectations) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Codes of behaviour/conduct </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First aid (trainer/first aider qualifications) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of and maintenance of equipment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Playing environments & facilities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental & weather conditions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Risk Management (Continued) <ul><li>What can be done to avoid things going wrong? (Continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The following ‘Risk-management practices’ should be adopted by coaches: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate supervision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proper instruction (including demonstrations on techniques of the activity) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sound planning (training programs, etc) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safe environment (detect dangerous situations) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teach the rules of the sport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate athletes for injuries & limitations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proper classification (age, skill level, sex, size) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Risk Management (Continued) <ul><li>Sports safety guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To assist in the area of development of policy, procedures and practices, Sports Medicine Australia (SMA) have developed ‘SMARTPLAY’ guidelines for sporting clubs, associations & facilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The guidelines offer advice on the development of a sport safety plan in the following areas: medical history forms; injury records; injury referral; modified sports; health policies & guidelines (hydration, infectious diseases, children in sport, pregnancy in sport, drugs in sport, asthma management, alcohol usage); sports first aid & sports trainers; coaches & officials; equipment (including protective equipment); playing environment & facilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> www.smartplay.net </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Risk Management (Continued) <ul><li>Risk-management record keeping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping records of the conditioning process, a training log, running records, training journals and progressive notes can all assist in monitoring an individual in training and also enables goals to be revised. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can also develop a basis for progression and safe application of progressive overload. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Education strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Research & injury surveillance strategies </li></ul>

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