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Learning design
Learning design
Learning design
Learning design
Learning design
Learning design
Learning design
Learning design
Learning design
Learning design
Learning design
Learning design
Learning design
Learning design
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Learning design

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Overview of learning design using IT for language teachers

Overview of learning design using IT for language teachers

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  • The horizontal axis represents the polarisation between theories of language input. Implicit input arises from natural exposure and sub-conscious processing, explicit from teaching and conscious processing. The vertical axis represents the concept of how language input is processed. Nativist implies that language learning is an innate skill, interactionist that language is a specialised form of knowledge that is acquired through interaction with the environment. He adds this observation:   “ Of course polarizations are never absolute and theories as well as individuals place themselves on various stages along the continuum of these axes.” (p22 )
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    • 1. Learning design Embedding online tools in your teaching T.MacKinnon, April 2010
    • 2. Big questions <ul><li>What do language teachers do? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are our learners? </li></ul><ul><li>What beliefs do we hold about how learners learn? </li></ul><ul><li>What is our role in the language learning process? </li></ul>T.MacKinnon, April 2010
    • 3. What do we do? CLT: Communicative Language Teaching Presentation Practice Production T.MacKinnon, April 2010
    • 4. Who are our learners? <ul><li>Knowles (1980) proposes Androgogy rather than Pedagogy: </li></ul><ul><li>Adult learners: </li></ul><ul><li>Decide for themselves what is important </li></ul><ul><li>Use experience to validate information </li></ul><ul><li>Expect what they learn to be immediately useful </li></ul><ul><li>Have much experience </li></ul><ul><li>Have significant ability to act as resource to group </li></ul>T.MacKinnon, April 2010
    • 5. What beliefs do we hold about how learners learn? Macaro, 2003 T.MacKinnon, April 2010
    • 6. Where are you? transmission interpretation At the interpretation end, the tutor is concerned to train the learner to become autonomous in language acquisition, more in tune with a constructivist view. At the transmission end of this continuum tutors would have positivist views that learning is achieved through the transmission of objective reality. They would see mastery and internalisation of language structure and form to be the learner’s goal. T.MacKinnon, April 2010 Wright, 1987
    • 7. Digital revolution T.MacKinnon, April 2010
    • 8. Issues affecting technology use <ul><li>Affective factors (Arnold, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Tutor expertise (CALL study) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of engagement (Lurkers!) </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of control </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul>T.MacKinnon, April 2010
    • 9. Lewis’ Lexical Approach <ul><li>Intensive and extensive listening and reading in the target </li></ul><ul><li>language. </li></ul><ul><li>• First and second language comparisons and translation— </li></ul><ul><li>carried out chunk-for-chunk, rather than word-for-word— </li></ul><ul><li>aimed at raising language awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>• Repetition and recycling of activities, such as summarizing </li></ul><ul><li>a text orally one day and again a few days later to keep words </li></ul><ul><li>and expressions that have been learned active. </li></ul><ul><li>• Guessing the meaning of vocabulary items from context. </li></ul><ul><li>• Noticing and recording language patterns and collocations. </li></ul><ul><li>• Working with dictionaries and other reference tools. </li></ul><ul><li>• Working with language corpuses created by the teacher for use </li></ul><ul><li>in the classroom or accessible on the Internet </li></ul>T.MacKinnon, April 2010
    • 10. Krashen’s Natural Approach T.MacKinnon, April 2010 Comprehensible input
    • 11. The seven hypotheses for constructivist language learning (Chapelle, 1998) : <ul><li>The linguistic characteristics of target language input need to be made salient </li></ul><ul><li>Learners should receive help in comprehending semantic and syntactic aspects of linguistic input </li></ul><ul><li>Learners need to have opportunities to produce target language output </li></ul><ul><li>Learners need to notice errors in their own input </li></ul><ul><li>Learners need to correct their linguistic output </li></ul><ul><li>Learners need to engage in target language interaction whose structure can be modified for negotiation of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Learners should engage in L2 tasks designed to maximise opportunities for good interaction </li></ul>T.MacKinnon, April 2010
    • 12. Lewis proposes a new model: observe hypothesise experiment T.MacKinnon, April 2010
    • 13. Online tools can provide: T.MacKinnon, April 2010 <ul><li>New affordances (eg. asynchronous conversation) </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation, wow factor (see Barnes and Murray, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Re-location of some of your lesson content </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation of some activities (assessment, drill, real language use) </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to connect with learners </li></ul>But be aware : The changes you make may change you!
    • 14. Further reading T.MacKinnon, April 2010 Arnold, J. ed., 1999. Affect in Language Learning. Cambridge: CUP. Benson, P. and Voller, P. eds., 1997. Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning London: Addison Wesley Longman Ltd. Conole, G. and Oliver, M. eds., 2007. Contemporary Perspectives in E-learning Research. Oxen: Routledge. JISC. 2007. Student Expectations Study. Downloaded from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/studentexpectations.pdf Klapper, J. 2006. Understanding and developing good practice. Language teaching in Higher Education. London:CILT. Richards, J. and Rodgers, T. 2001. Approaches and methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: CUP. Wright, T., 1987. Roles of Teachers and Learners. Oxford: OUP.

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