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Learning design

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Learning design

  1. 1. Learning designEmbedding online tools in your teaching T.MacKinnon, April 2010
  2. 2. Big questions• What do language teachers do?• Who are our learners?• What beliefs do we hold about how learners learn?• What is our role in the language learning process? T.MacKinnon, April 2010
  3. 3. What do we do?CLT:Communicative Language TeachingPresentationPracticeProduction T.MacKinnon, April 2010
  4. 4. Who are our learners?Knowles (1980) proposes Androgogy rather thanPedagogy:Adult learners:•Decide for themselves what is important•Use experience to validate information•Expect what they learn to be immediately useful•Have much experience•Have significant ability to act as resource to group T.MacKinnon, April 2010
  5. 5. What beliefs do we hold about how learners learn? Macaro, 2003 T.MacKinnon, April 2010
  6. 6. Where are you?At the transmission end of thiscontinuum tutors would have At the interpretation end, the tutor ispositivist views that learning is concerned to train the learner to becomeachieved through the transmission autonomous in language acquisition, moreof objective reality. They would see in tune with a constructivist view.mastery and internalisation oflanguage structure and form to bethe learner’s goal. interpretation transmission Wright, 1987 T.MacKinnon, April 2010
  7. 7. Digital revolution T.MacKinnon, April 2010
  8. 8. Issues affecting technology use• Affective factors (Arnold, 1999)• Tutor expertise (CALL study)• Lack of engagement (Lurkers!)• Transfer of control• Constructivism T.MacKinnon, April 2010
  9. 9. Lewis’ Lexical Approach•Intensive and extensive listening and reading in the targetlanguage.• First and second language comparisons and translation—carried out chunk-for-chunk, rather than word-for-word—aimed at raising language awareness.• Repetition and recycling of activities, such as summarizinga text orally one day and again a few days later to keep wordsand expressions that have been learned active.• Guessing the meaning of vocabulary items from context.• Noticing and recording language patterns and collocations.•Working with dictionaries and other reference tools.•Working with language corpuses created by the teacher for usein the classroom or accessible on the Internet T.MacKinnon, April 2010
  10. 10. Krashen’s Natural Approach Comprehensible input T.MacKinnon, April 2010
  11. 11. The seven hypotheses for constructivist language learning (Chapelle, 1998) :•The linguistic characteristics of target language input need to be madesalient•Learners should receive help in comprehending semantic and syntacticaspects of linguistic input•Learners need to have opportunities to produce target language output•Learners need to notice errors in their own input•Learners need to correct their linguistic output•Learners need to engage in target language interaction whose structurecan be modified for negotiation of meaning•Learners should engage in L2 tasks designed to maximise opportunitiesfor good interaction T.MacKinnon, April 2010
  12. 12. Lewis proposes a new model: observe experiment hypothesise T.MacKinnon, April 2010
  13. 13. Online tools can provide:•New affordances (eg. asynchronous conversation)•Innovation, wow factor (see Barnes and Murray, 1998)•Re-location of some of your lesson content•Facilitation of some activities (assessment, drill, real languageuse)•Opportunity to connect with learners But be aware: The changes you make may change you! T.MacKinnon, April 2010
  14. 14. Further readingArnold, J. ed., 1999. Affect in Language Learning. Cambridge: CUP.Benson, P. and Voller, P. eds., 1997. Autonomy and Independence in LanguageLearning London: Addison Wesley Longman Ltd.Conole, G. and Oliver, M. eds., 2007. Contemporary Perspectives in E-learningResearch. Oxen: Routledge.JISC. 2007. Student Expectations Study. Downloaded from:, J. 2006. Understanding and developing good practice. Language teaching inHigher Education. London:CILT.Richards, J. and Rodgers, T. 2001. Approaches and methods in Language Teaching.Cambridge: CUP.Wright, T., 1987. Roles of Teachers and Learners. Oxford: OUP. T.MacKinnon, April 2010

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