Introduce the Communicative Language Approach in Language Teaching CLT General Objectives and Purpose Teaching Techniques Teaching Example
Introduce the Communicative Language Teaching approach, and how was this approach developed in teaching languages. Present the CLT objectives in language teaching and teaching techniques examples.
CLT origins, can be found in changes in the British Language teaching tradition in the 1960s. Back then, the Situational Language teaching approach was the norm. SLT consisted in internalizing the structures of a language. Mostly, learning grammar rules without vocabulary development.
The SLT did not fill the need to develop language competence in Language teaching. A group of experts saw the need to focus in communicative proficiency rather than mastery of structures. (Richards, J.C. & Rodgers, T.S. p.64) Sandra J. Savignon, Christopher Candlin, D.A. Wilkins and Henry Widdowson along with others promoted the CLT approach. Along with the changes in Europe it helped to reform the language teaching.
The objective of language learning is: to learn to express communication functions and categories of meaning. Purpose of CLT: Let students communicate fluently in a target language (L2). Develop “communicative competence”(Hymes, 1972). Contrary to the traditional Grammar translation methods. Lists, rules, translations
Use Language as: ◦ means of communication ◦ object of learning ◦ means of expressing values Focus on communication rather than structure Language learning within the school curriculum Focus on meaningful tasks Collaboration
The learner role as a negotiator, between himself, the learning process, interaction with the group’s activities and classroom procedures. In other words, the learner should contribute as much as he gains in the classroom, learning in an interdependent way. (Richards J., C., Rodgers T. S.(p.77).
Two main roles: First, to facilitate the communication process between all participants in the classroom, and a guide between students activities and texts. Second, to act as an independent participant within the learning-teaching group. (Richards J.C., Rodgers T. S.(p.77).
Materials are seen as a way of influencing the quality of classroom interaction and language use. They have promote communicative language use. Some Instructional Materials are: Visual cues Taped cues Pictures
Exercise types and activities compatible with the CLT, are unlimited. If they help to engage in communication they are welcome. Information sharing, negotiation of meaning and interaction.
Communicating behind a screen to give instructions on how to draw a picture or shape Follow directions Conversation and discussion sessions Dialogues and role plays Simulations Improvisations Debates
Students will work in pairs and communicate with their partner. They will answer the questions and organize which animals can go in each box. They are many good answers.
During research, I realized that my elementary teachers rarely used this teaching approach. I rarely got any oral practice in my English class. Therefore, to my future students I plan to use this approach so that they can lose the fear of speaking a second language. I will help them overcome their fears and boost their confidence by the different techniques available.
This approach can help future teachers develop their students’ oral communication skills. Students will lose the fear of communicating in a second language, in this case English as a Second Language. (ESL) It can help promote confidence and security in the classroom environment, in everyday use, and when travelling abroad.
Richards, J. C. Rodgers, T. S. (1992). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press. Littlewood, W. (1981). Communicative Language Teaching an I ntroduction. London: Cambridge University Press. Nunan, D. (1999). Second Language Teaching & Learning. New York: Heinle & Heinle Publishers. Sun, G. & Cheng, L. (Spring 2002). From Context to Curriculum: A Case Study of Communicative Language Teaching in China. [Electronic version]. TESL Canada Journal. VOL. 19, NO.2. Retrieved August 29, 2012, from the Eric database. Criado, R. & Sánchez A. (2009). English Language Teaching in Spain: Do Textbooks Comply with the Official Methodological Regulations? A Sample Analysis. [Electronic version]. University of Murcia Publications. IJES, vol. 9 (1). Orwig, C. J. (1999, March 21). Communicative Language Teaching. Retrieved: August 28, 2012, from SIL International, 1999. Web site: http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/LANGUAGELEARNING/WaysToApproachLa nguageLearning/CommunicativeLanguageTeaching.htm