An introduction to SCORM 2004

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This presentation looks at SCORM (and in particular SCORM 2004) from an end user perspective. We address those aspects of SCORM that go beyond technology and aim at supporting effective learning …

This presentation looks at SCORM (and in particular SCORM 2004) from an end user perspective. We address those aspects of SCORM that go beyond technology and aim at supporting effective learning practices in both corporate and academic contexts. We focus on its rationale and its current status, trying to understand its real potential for those who really have strategic goals about training and education in their organizations.

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  • Its ironic in slide 10 you used an Apple computer which is know for operating system that is limited when it come to interoperability (compared to PC), just as scorm's interoperability limits it functionality to track, report and software platforms (compared to customized LMS to work with realworld simulation skills training software). :>)
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  • This is the most simplified introduction for a layman's consumption.
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  • 1. SCORM FOR ALL FRANCESCO PUCCI - ANDREA LORENZON
  • 2. AGENDA SCORM... What??? ... Learning Object SCO Content Package ... Why SCORM? Durability Reusability Accessibility Interoperability What is SCORM? Packaging Tracking Metadata Sequencing and Navigation How does it work? Learning Activities Learning Objectives Navigation rules ... SCORM and its market Certification Adoption The future of SCORM References
  • 3. SCORM... WHAT??? CREATING A COMMON GROUND FOR DISCUSSION
  • 4. LEARNING OBJECT the basic (simple or complex) unit of a learning experience OR: • a small, atomic, self-contained chunk of learning that can be reused in different contexts
  • 5. (LEARNING OBJECT) TEMPLATE  A generic model or pattern from which other objects are based or derived OR: • The abstraction of the didactic structure of a Learning Object allowing massive production of content items based on similar pedagogical strategy and embodying the technical aspects of content interactivity.
  • 6. SCO a Shareable Content Object OR: • the element of a SCORM Package that represents a "Learning Object" with tracking capabilities.
  • 7. CONTENT PACKAGE a package containing content objects. OR: • a mechanism for representing the structure for collections of learning resources (for instance, Assets and SCOs)
  • 8. INTEROPERABILITY OF CONTENT "Interoperability is a property of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, present or future, without any restricted access or implementation.“ OR: • the ability of two systems to exchange content packages among them in a way that the same content object provides end users the same user experience on both systems.
  • 9. LMS A Learning Management System (commonly abbreviated as LMS) is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, and reporting of training programs, classroom and online events, e-learning programs, and training content (Ellis 2009). OR: • Any system for: [managing training] [managing educational records] [distributing courses] [online collaboration] [employee registration] [student self-service] [instructor-led training] [training workflow] [wait-list management] [on-line learning] [on-line assessment] [collaborative learning] [training resource management] [talent management] [skills management] [ePortfolio management] [… … …]
  • 10. THE COMMON GROUND AT A GLANCE... 1/n Knowledge and (Learning Object) content assets TEMPLATE Content Package 1/n 1/n 1/n (Learning Object) INSTANCEs SCOs (Shareable Content Objects) DELIVERY CHANNELS LMS
  • 11. PART I: WHY SCORM? (WHY NOT ?!)
  • 12. RETURN ON INVESTMENTS • Considering the time and effort spent by experts to create content, reusing content would be prudent for eLearning. Institutions could spend time on improving or localizing existing modules.
  • 13. DIGITAL REPOSITORIES AND MARKETPLACE • Implementation of specifications like SCORM has facilitated searching, sharing and the reuse of learning objects thereby making the task of creating digital repositories easier and for the content to have a much wider reach and scope than the intended audience and purpose for which they were initially created. • When talking of “marketplace” it’s crucial mentioning metadata as a way to support interoperability of content also from a semantic perspective
  • 14. IN ONE WORD, BETTER 4: Durable Accessible Reusable Interoperable • Durable means that • Accessible means • Reusable means that • Interoperable means SCOs (Sharable that SCOs can be SCOs are developed that it should be Content Objects, found as required; once and then used possible to exchange digital learning each SCO may be in different courses; content packages resources also linked to a usually reusability is among two systems known as the description of its easier to achieve in a way that the Learning Objects) content and learning when the units of same content object must not need objectives (this learning are both provides end users upgrading or description, often small and the same user modification as known as metadata, independent of experience on both learning technology is used to facilitate learning context. systems. systems develop discovery within and over time. across content repositories). • Adopting such requirements should help promoting an adaptable and affordable e-Learning in any organization.
  • 15. IN ONE WORD, BETTER 4, ACTUALLY 5: Adaptable means that each unit of learning (SCO) can behave differently according to the actual needs of the individual learner …this is traditionally achieved through the tracking functions included in each SCO, but with the introduction of "global learning objectives" and "conditional navigation“ in SCORM 2004 the adaptation of learning content may also be achieved at a higher level of granularity i.e. at the level of the whole SCORM package level or even more SCORM packages at the same time
  • 16. PART II: WHAT IS SCORM? (AND WHAT IT’S NOT...)
  • 17. WHAT IS SCORM • Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a Packaging collection of standards and specifications for web-based e-learning. • It defines: ▫ Packaging ▫ Tracking SCORM Tracking ▫ Metadata Metadata
  • 18. WHAT IS SCORM • Packaging ▫ how content may be Packaging packaged into a transferable ZIP file which it calls its Package Interchange Format • Tracking ▫ how the content SCORM Tracking communicates with the host system to keep track of learner's performances • Metadata Metadata ▫ information about the content at several levels of granularity
  • 19. WHAT IS SCORM • Packaging ▫ how content may be Packaging packaged into a transferable ZIP file which it calls its Package Interchange Format • Tracking ▫ how the content SCORM Tracking communicates with the host system to keep track of learner's performances • Metadata Metadata ▫ information about the content at several levels of granularity
  • 20. WHAT IS SCORM • Packaging ▫ how content may be Packaging packaged into a transferable ZIP file which it calls its Package Interchange Format • Tracking ▫ how the content SCORM Tracking communicates with the host system to keep track of learner's performances • Metadata Metadata ▫ information about the content at several levels of granularity
  • 21. WHAT IS SCORM Since 2004 release, SCORM also defines: Packaging • Sequencing and navigation rules ▫ how learners are supposed to browse the branches of a learning package and Sequencing and SCORM Tracking whether their navigation navigation 2004 should respect any precondition or conditional branching rule. Metadata
  • 22. SCORM TIMELINE • Developed by the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) • Sponsored by the US Department of Defence • Goal: develop a strategy for educational and training technology 1999 - DoD Executive Order 13111 II 2000 - SCORM Version 1.0 II I I I 2001 - SCORM Version 1.1 II I I I I 2001 - SCORM Version 1.2 II I IIIII 2004 - SCORM 2004 (1st Edition) II I IIIII I 2004 - SCORM 2004 (2st Edition) II I IIIII II I 2006 - DoD adopts SCORM II I IIIII II I I 2006 - SCORM 2004 (3rd Edition) II I IIIII II I II 2009 - SCORM 2004 (4th Ed.) II I IIIII II I II I II I IIIII II I II I 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
  • 23. SCORM TIMELINE 1988 - AICC founded I 1989 - Common platform for CBT delivery I I 1992 - CMI guidelines for interoperability I I I 1992 - Digital audio guidelines I I II 1993 - LAN-based CMI (LMS) I I II I 1994 - CMI guidelines for interoperability I I II I I 1996 - Navigation icon guidelines I I II I I I 1998 - Web-based CMI (LMS) I I II I I I I 1999 - DoD Executive Order 13111 I I II I I I I I 1999 - CMI (LMS) Javascript-based API (basis of SCORM) I I II I I I I II 2000 - SCORM Version 1.0 I I II I I I I II I 2001 - IMS Content Packaging 1.1 I I II I I I I II I I 2001 - IMS Meta-data I I II I I I I II I I I 2001 - SCORM Version 1.1 I I II I I I I II I I I I 2001 - SCORM Version 1.2 I I II I I I I II I I I I I 2002 - IEEE LOM (Learning Object Metadata) I I II I I I I II I IIIII 2004 - SCORM 2004 (1st Edition) I I II I I I I II I IIIII I 2004 - SCORM 2004 (2st Edition) I I II I I I I II I IIIII II 2005 - PENS guidelines I I II I I I I II I IIIII II I 2006 - DoD adopts SCORM I I II I I I I II I IIIII II I I 2006 - SCORM 2004 (3rd Edition) I I II I I I I II I IIIII II I II 2009 - SCORM 2004 (4th Ed.) I I II I I I I II I IIIII II I II I I I II I I I I II I IIIII II I II I 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
  • 24. SCORM TIMELINE • Developed by the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) • Sponsored by the US Department of Defence • Goal: develop a strategy for educational and training technology 1999 - DoD Executive Order 13111 II 2000 - SCORM Version 1.0 II I I I 2001 - SCORM Version 1.1 II I I I I 2001 - SCORM Version 1.2 II I IIIII 2004 - SCORM 2004 (1st Edition) II I IIIII I 2004 - SCORM 2004 (2st Edition) II I IIIII II I 2006 - DoD adopts SCORM II I IIIII II I I 2006 - SCORM 2004 (3rd Edition) II I IIIII II I II 2009 - SCORM 2004 (4th Ed.) II I IIIII II I II I II I IIIII II I II I 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 What’s next? -> The "SCORM 2.0" concept by LETSI.
  • 25. CONTENT REUSABILITY …the ability of a component to function and integrate outside the environment for which it was primarily designed. S C O Shareable Content Object
  • 26. CONTENT REUSABILITY …the ability of a component to function and integrate outside the environment for which it was primarily designed. S C O Shareable Content Object single small-enough learning object independent
  • 27. CONTENT REUSABILITY S C O Shareable Content Object single small-enough learning object independent this may have an impact on both pedagogy and technology
  • 28. CONTENT REUSABILITY - PEDAGOGY Pedagogy Technology • Scope of the e-learning module is • Learner must be able to access primarily knowledge acquisition all SCO contents in any condition ▫ A SCO should address a consistent set of learning where he can access the main objectives. part of the learning unit ▫ Learning design should start from the conception of each S ▫ Entry point Shareable • must be learning unit having clear in constantly reliable mind which are the learning ▫ External references should objectives that should be C supported by each activity, at also be reliable or alternative every level of granularity. resources • Content provided should be instead ▫ Access-protected resources • A learner consuming a SCO should O be able to achieve the declared can only be used within learning outcomes by consuming • Object limited training environment the SCO itself. ▫ Additional drill-down materials may be used to reinforce the learning process.
  • 29. CONTENT REUSABILITY - TECHNOLOGY Pedagogy Technology • Scope of the e-learning module is • Learner must be able to access primarily knowledge acquisition all SCO contents in any condition ▫ A SCO should address a consistent set of learning where he can access the main objectives. part of the learning unit S • Shareable ▫ Learning design should start from the conception of each ▫ Entry point must be learning unit having clear in constantly reliable mind which are the learning ▫ External references should objectives that should be C supported by each activity, at also be reliable or alternative every level• Content of granularity. resources should be provided instead ▫ Access-protected resources • A learner consuming a SCO should O be able to achieve the declared can only be used within • Object learning outcomes by consuming limited training environment the SCO itself. ▫ Additional drill-down materials may be used to reinforce the learning process.
  • 30. SELF-CONSISTENT PACKAGE • SCORM specifies how to aggregate reusable web- based content objects (Assets and SCOs) into a portable package (PIF). • The PIF contains: ▫ the content objects, each self-consistent ▫ the manifest (imsmanifest.xml) describing their structure and metadata
  • 31. TRACKING LEARNER’S PERFORMANCES SCORM provides a uniform, widely adopted standard mechanism to track learners' progress and mark their achievements and LMS Server farm performances SCOs exchange data with the RunTime Environment in which they are launched Through the RunTime Environment provided by a LMS SCOs can read and write learners' performances and achievements to the backend database creating a consistent tracking record about every learner who accessed them
  • 32. INTEROPERABILITY AND ITS ADVANTAGES Standard content Standard packaging tracking mechanisms Standard Metadata Interoperability of contents
  • 33. WHAT DOES SCORM SPECIFY AND WHAT NOT • SCORM provides detailed specs about production, publishing and delivery of learning content, especially on: ▫ Aggregations of content objects for portability ▫ Launching and tracking of content objects in a package ▫ Prescribing an activity structure for the content package ▫ Prescribing adaptive sequencing behaviors for activities • SCORM does not provide answers to more semantic or pedagogical aspects such as: ▫ How to design learning content ▫ Look and feel aspects at any level ▫ How an LMS should interpret and use tracking data ▫ What is the correct level of granularity of SCOs and SCO aggregations
  • 34. SCORM SOURCES • SCORM 2004 specification books ▫ Overview  introduces SCORM and describes how the other books relate ▫ Content Aggregation Model  describes packaging of content and learning object ▫ Run-Time Environment  describes runtime API and data model used for communication between content objects and learning management systems ▫ Sequencing and Navigation  describes how sequencing between learning activities is defined and interpreted ▫ Compliance Requirements  detailed list of the conformance requirements that are verified by the ADL SCORM conformance test suite. http://www.adlnet.gov/scorm
  • 35. PART III: HOW DOES IT WORK? (WELL... DOES IT REALLY WORK?)
  • 36. HOW TO PRODUCE A SCORM PACKAGE (FOR ENGINEERS) • To create a package of SCOs we: 1. break down a course into individual units of learning 2. create each of these units as a web page from electronic assets, such as text and image files (or other media such as audio, video or animations) 3. add JavaScript commands to the web pages, enabling run-time communication with the VLE through the API Adapter 4. create meta-data descriptions for the assets, the SCOs and the entire course 5. aggregate the resulting set of files into a zip archive
  • 37. HOW TO PRODUCE A SCORM PACKAGE (FOR TEACHERS) Pre Basic The actual Assessments assessment concepts contents Concept Learning Test 1 1 activity 1 Concept Learning ... 2 activity 2 ... ... Test # Concept Learning # activity #
  • 38. ASSET? SCO? AGGREGATION? LEARNING ACTIVITY Asset Asset LMS SCO Aggregation Communication SCO ...
  • 39. ARE THERE LIMITATIONS TO “GRANULARITY”? (NO!) Learning Activity SCO SCO Learning ... Activity Pre Basic The actual SCO Assessments assessment concepts contents SCO Concept Learning Test 1 1 activity 1 Learning Activity Concept Learning ... 2 activity 2 SCO ... ... Test # ... SCO Concept Learning Asset # activity # ...
  • 40. LEARNING CONTENT STRATEGY ESSENTIALS 1 2 KNOWLEDGE PEDAGOGY TECHNOLOGY 1/n RAW ASSETS TEMPLATE 3 4 1/n 1/n AGGREGATION OF LEARNING ACTIVITIES 1/n LEARNING OBJECT INSTANCES (aka “Package of SCOs”)
  • 41. CONTENTS AND… METADATA • Packages and envelopes do not say much about their contents • Forms are a way to describe what is inside our packages or envelops. • Same happens with digital packages and their metadata. by means of the metadata included in its manifest, you can say what is the content of the package, who is it intended for, its publishing details, its copyright information, how long will it take to go through … and so on
  • 42. CONTENTS AND… METADATA AND… RULES. • You can structure the content in chunks • You can suggest (or impose) the sequence (and conditions) shat rule the content flow. • You can adapt navigation constraints rules in real time, and adapting the sequencing rules depending on the intermediate achievements of learners. Sequencing and Tracking Navigation
  • 43. TRACKING FEATURES IN SCORM • Tracking features • The main tracking information ▫ the ability of SCOs to related to a SCO: communicate with the LMS ▫ completion status platform to exchange was the SCO completed and information about learner to which extent? progress ▫ success status did the user interact • SCORM tracking calls are successfully with the content object? typically of two kinds: ▫ score ▫ GET information about did the user get a score? how existing tracking records for much? the user ▫ time spent on the learning ▫ SET a new value on user resource interaction with the content how much “relevant” time was spent on this object?
  • 44. CONDITIONAL NAVIGATION • Sequencing and Navigation rules dynamically affect the way learners may interact with the content objects included in a package ▫ from SCORM Pre-requisites ▫ to the adoption of IMS Simple Sequencing specs SCO 1.2 SCO 2.1 SCO 2.2 SCO 1.1 SCO 2.3 Pre- Learning Learning Final Assessment Activity 1 Activity 2 assessment SET SET GET GET GET SET GET OBJ 001 OBJ 002
  • 45. THE “OBJECTIVES” • Abstract representations Objectives are de-touched from the context in which they are set (or read). used as indicators of learners' performances, Any SCO (or any external component of a LMS or other knowledge or skills, enterprise software) may have access to objectives not necessarily for the sake tracking and use them to adapt learning paths or other skills-related events and conditions. of defining immediate navigation rules. SCO 1.2 SCO 2.1 SCO 2.2 SCO 1.1 SCO 2.3 Pre- Learning Learning Final Assessment Activity 1 Activity 2 assessment SET SET GET GET GET SET GET OBJ 001 OBJ 002
  • 46. FROM LEARNING OBJECTIVES TO COMPETENCES AND SKILLS SCORM 2004 objectives IMS RDCEO competences • Objective Progress Information: • Reusable competency definition: Each learning objective has a set of The “Reusable Definition of tracking information allowing learner Competency or Educational Objective” progress toward learning objectives to spec describes the part of competency be tracked data that can be reused for more than one learner and more than one • SCORM 2004 Objectives have: context. ▫ A Unique Identifier ▫ A Satisfied Status • A Competency Definition has: Satisfied / Not satisfied ▫ A Unique Identifier ▫ A Normalized Measure ▫ A set of information (including The measure for the objective, metadata) to describe the skill normalized between -1..1 per se, its possible levels of (e.g. a standardized score) proficiency, the observable behaviour associated to it, … Whether and how it is implemented will vary from LMS to LMS. This is however an exciting potential opportunity that leverages SCORM standard features.
  • 47. WHEN SCORM IS A GOOD FIT AND WHEN IT'S NOT WOW! Ehm... • Being SCORM conformant is great • SCORM is probably not the right when: answer if: ▫ You want to integrate with other ▫ You are designing simple, vendors. static hyperlinked content ▫ You are creating a large library (like a web page or a simple of learning objects website) ▫ You are using an LMS to deliver ▫ You just need to publish and manage learning content simple reference material ▫ You are designing learning ▫ Your content is short lived and content that might be reused in will only be used one time in other contexts one system ▫ You are designing learning content that tracks learner ▫ You are using a single internal performance system that will never change ▫ You are designing learning ▫ You are developing non- content that will monitor the traditional online learning learner and adapt according to (such as advanced simulations and the learner’s needs serious games)
  • 48. PART IV: SCORM AND ITS MARKET
  • 49. SCORM SHOPPING SCORM Content Delivery platform • Standalone authoring tools • SCORM-compliant LMSs • LCMSs with authoring capabilities • LCMSs with delivery capabilities • LMS with Content Management • SCORM modules for third party and authoring capabilities platforms • SCORM plugins for traditional authoring tools (PPT, ...) • SCORM conformant off-the-shelf course catalogues
  • 50. SCORM SHOPPING: SCORM COMPLIANCE AND CERTIFICATION SCORM Content Delivery platform • Standalone authoring tools • SCORM-compliant LMSs • LCMSs with authoring capabilities • LCMSs with delivery capabilities • LMS with Content Management • SCORM modules for third party and authoring capabilities platforms • SCORM plugins for traditional authoring tools (PPT, ...) • SCORM conformant off-the-shelf course catalogues
  • 51. DIFFUSION OF SCORM SCORM certified products SCORM adopters • Classified by: • Classified by: ▫ SCORM Version ▫ SCORM Version ▫ Category ▫ Category  Content Package  Authoring tool  Learning Management System  Content developer (LMS)  Gaming and simulation  Metadata  Intelligent tutoring system  Shareable Content Object  LCMS/LMS (SCO)  Manifest maker ▫ Country  Metadata Generator ▫ Source  Industry  Academia  Government ▫ Country
  • 52. SOME NAMES... Pay as you go... Some useful directories • Bersin & Associates • SCORM Certified products http://www.bersin.com http://www.adlnet.gov/Technologies/sco rm/Custom%20Pages/Certified%20Prod ucts.aspx • Brandon-Hall Research Center • SCORM Adopters http://www.brandon-hall.com/ http://www.adlnet.gov/Technologies/sco rm/Custom%20Pages/SCORM%20Adopt • Gartner ers.aspx http://www.gartner.com/technology /research/content/education.jsp • SCORM Authoring tools http://docs.moodle.org/en/Tools_for_cre • ... ating_SCORM_content • Instructional tools http://www.c4lpt.co.uk/Directory/Tools/i nstructional.html
  • 53. SOME NAMES...
  • 54. WHAT’S NEXT ? LETSI AND THE "SCORM 2.0" CONCEPT LETSI LETSI's roadmap: Learning, Education, and Training developing a modern and expanded Systems Interoperability learning systems interoperability framework “a non-profit association of • SCORM […] provided a foundation for learning content exchange and individuals and organizations interoperability […]. who see the need for a sea change in the way technology is used • […] to better support browser-based in education and job training” learning and distributed learning use cases […] in the late 1990s. • […] Today's use cases and interoperability • LETSI’s "Assumptions Document" requirements go considerably beyond the currently available for review: design scope set for SCORM nearly a decade ago. https://letsi.org/index.php?option=com_cont ent&view=article&id=82&Itemid=95 • […] LETSI […] focused on a next- generation learning interoperability framework to succeed the current generation of SCORM and similar frameworks • … a project we called "SCORM 2.0"
  • 55. THANK YOU! QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS... Contact us: andrea.lorenzon@teeled.com francesco.pucci@teeled.com www.teeled.com
  • 56. SOME RESOURCES • MIT’s OpenCourseWare, • LETSI: The International Federation http://ocw.mit.edu for Learning, Education, and • The Commonwealth of Learning, Training Systems Interoperability: http://www.col.org http://letsi.org • Moodle LMS, • Claude Ostyn on "Best practices for http://www.moodle.org global objective identifiers": • SCORM 2004, http://www.ostyn.com/standards/do http://www.adlnet.gov/scorm cs/globalobjbp.htm • SCORM 2004 overview • The three types of learning: (by Ostyn consulting): http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/ http://www.ostyn.com/standards/do hrd/bloom.html cs/scorm2004overview.htm • Bloom's taxonomy and the cognitive • SCORM explained domains of learning: (by Rustici Software): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloom http://www.scorm.com/scorm- %27s_Taxonomy explained/ • Ellis, Ryann K. (2009), Field Guide • The "Assumptions Document“ to Learning Management Systems, about LETSI's SCORM 2.0 project: ASTD Learning Circuits: https://letsi.org/index.php?option=c http://www.astd.org/NR/rdonlyres/1 om_content&view=article&id=82&It 2ECDB99-3B91-403E-9B15- emid=95 7E597444645D/23395/LMS_fieldgui de_20091.pdf • IEEE LTSC - Learning Technology Standards Committee: http://www.ieeeltsc.org