SCORM stands for... <ul><li>SCORM is an acronym for “Sharable Content Object Reference Model” </li></ul><ul><li>As the name implies, SCORM is a “Reference Model” for creating units (SCO’s) of web based training that is able to be shared among other SCORM compliant Learning Management Systems, or Content Delivery Systems. </li></ul><ul><li>This enables course content to be reused in a variety of systems and framework, allowing organizations involved in eLearning to change their vendors without rewriting expensive custom interfaces. This is the key to protecting your content investment. </li></ul>
SCORM Goals Advanced Distributed Learning or The ADL is the body that manages the SCORM specification. The ADL created SCORM to address the following four high-level requirements:
Did you know? SCORM is not the only standard in eLearning. The ADL took the best of existing standards created by the Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training (CBT) Committee (AICC), the IMS Global Learning Consortium, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the Alliance for Remote Instructional Authoring and Distribution Networks for Europe (ARIADNE) and others. The ADL created the first version of their “reference model”. This first version of SCORM (v. 1.4) was introduced in January 2001.
SCORM 1.0 Version 1.0 was the initial specification meant as a proof of concept. This version describes the concept of Sharable Content Objects (SCOs) and API model used to manage the communication between SCOS and the run-time environment, as well as the how the run-time environment handles and processes the data received by the content objects.
SCORM 1.1 This was the first production version of the SCORM specification. It added an XML Schema based on the AICC specifications to describe course structure. This version was limited and was quickly updated to SCORM v1.2.
SCORM 1.2 This was the first widely adopted version of the SCORM specification. SCORM 1.2 incorporated the IMS Content Packaging, Sequencing and Metadata specifications. With the inclusion of Metadata developers now had the option to tag their Content Objects as well as accompanying assets. The ADL also introduced a run-time test suite and certification.
<ul><li>SCORM 2004 (1.4) </li></ul><ul><li>This is the current version of the SCORM specification also referred to as SCORM 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Included in version 1.4: </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to specify adaptive sequencing of content objects </li></ul><ul><li>New standards for API communication </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of competencies across content objects using learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>The current version/edition of SCORM is version 1.3.3 </li></ul><ul><li>(SCORM 2004 3rd Edition) </li></ul>
SCORM 2004 Editions 1st Edition (January 2004) – This version was altered to allow each book to be maintained independently. Note: The ADL Technical Team no longer supports this edition. 2nd Edition (July 2004) – The second edition showed improvements to the web-based "Content Aggregation Model" and "Run-Time Environment" for instructional content, as well as improvements to SCORM specifications and standards. 3rd Edition (October 2006) – The third edition focused on the improvement of several aspects of SCORM, including but not limited to: Clarification of concepts and requirements, enhancements and bug fixes. 4th Edition (March 31, 2009) — This is the current version of SCORM and is a maintenance release dealing primarily with known defects in the previous versions. The ADL also added various enhancements to this version which resulted in increased interoperability across LMSs and more flexible persistence of data during sequencing experiences.
SCORM 2004 Specification Books SCORM is a collection of specification and standards that have been combined to create a set of 5 “technical books”. Those books are as follows:
SCORM Overview: This books gives an overview of the SCORM 2004 3 rd edition documentation suite and describes their relation to each other.
SCORM Content Aggregation Model: (SCORM CAM) This book defines the technical methods involved in the process of creating and delivering eLearning content. Specifically, the aggregation of electronic assets into a resource, and the organization of those resources to create a defined sequence for delivery.
SCORM Run-Time Environment: (SCORM RTE) This book describes the requirements needed for an LMS to manage the run-time environment. The RTE book also defines the requirements of Sharable Content Objects and their use of the API and SCORM run-time environment.
SCORM Sequencing and Navigation: (SCORM SN) This book defines how SCORM conformant content can be sequenced, how an LMS interprets set sequencing rules and navigation requests. And how learner or system initiated navigation requests are interpreted by the run-time environment
SCORM Conformance Requirements: This book contains the conformance testing documents for organizations to perform self-testing on LMSs, SCOs, Meta-data XML documents and Content Packages.
SCORM Conformance SCORM conformance is 3rd party testing that provides consumers of elearning content and systems the assurance that certified products have successfully implemented the SCORM specification. However, the ADL must perform the testing to be officially certified.
Content Aggregation Model The SCORM Content Aggregation Model enables assets to be organized into learning resources, describes those assets and delivers them in a pre-set sequence. This promotes consistent storage, labeling, packaging, exchanging and discovery of content. The Content Aggregation Model consists mainly of three SCORM technologies: 1 - The Content Model 2 - Metadata 3 - Content Packaging
1 - The Content Model The Content Model describes the SCORM components that create a learning experience, and explains how these components can be organized. Those components are: Assets, SCOs, and Content Organization.
2 - Metadata Meta-data is defined as data about data. For this purpose, meta-data is data that describes the nature and purpose of the package as a whole. One of the benefits of meta-data is that it enables simple search and discovery which allows other developers easily to find and reuse content. Meta-Data is based on the IEEE itsc – Learning Object Meta-Data (LOM) Specification.
3 - Content Packaging The content package is the collection of all files required to run the content, specifically the manifest file and physical files. (the actual content, media, assessment etc) Content Packages enable learning content to be exchanged between systems or tools. According to SCORM specifications, the Content Packaging must be packaged in a self contained package. This method of delivery is called a Package Interchange File (PIF).
Run-Time Environment In order for SCORMS goal of creating reusable learning resources that are interoperable across multiple LMSs to be realized, they had to find a common way to start these learning resources, a mechanism to allow them to communicate with an LMS and predefined data elements that are exchanged between the content and the LMS. This is the responsibility of the Run-Time Environment which is based primarily on the following three SCORM technologies: 1 - Launch 2 - Application Program Interface (API) 3 - Data Model .
1 - Launch The Launch Mechanism defines a common way for the LMS to launch Web-based learning resources. Launch also defines the procedures and responsibilities for establishing communication between the launched learning resource and the LMS. ( this varies depending on the launched resources type) The communication protocols are standardized through the use of a common API.
3 - Data Model The Data Model is a set of preconfigured elements that can be used to track information on a learners experience with a SCO, and how an LMS interrupts that information. –this is the predefined “language” that forms the basis of communication through the API.
Sequencing and Navigation SCORM Sequencing and Navigation defines how learning content can be sequenced through a set of learner-initiated or system-initiated navigation events, and the behavior and functionality that an LMS must implement in order to process sequencing information at run-time.
1 - Sequencing SCORM Sequencing is based primarily on the concept of the Activity Tree. A SCORM conformant LMS translates the Content Organization into an activity tree, each item indicated in the content organization corresponds to a learning activity. Rules for sequencing can be attached to each activity by the content developer to determine how an LMS should sequence the activity.
2 - Navigation SCORM Navigation defines how learning and system initiated navigation events are triggered and processed, resulting in the identification of learning activities for delivery. Navigation is the process by which a learner and LMS cooperate to identify navigation requests in order to to realize a learning experience.
Stay tuned to for an extensive SCORM section coming soon!