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my understanding of SCORM

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  • About SCORM

    1. 1. SCORM By: Akshay Kumar
    2. 2. What we want? <ul><li>What is SCORM? </li></ul><ul><li>Connection with e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Application of XML Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Technical description about SCORM </li></ul><ul><li>Why it is important to us? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Background: A Thinking process? <ul><li>Design for Reuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the right level of granularity? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tracking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the right level of granularity? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metadata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How much is needed? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does the Table of Content look like? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation Controls? </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Granularity and Reusability Raw Data (Media Elements)‏ Information Objects Learning Objective Lesson (Aggregation)‏ Course (Collection)‏ Source: Academic ADL Co-Lab (adapted from Learnactivity)‏ Context + Reusability -
    5. 5. What is SCORM? <ul><li>A software model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defines the interrelationship of course components, data models, and protocols such that content “objects” are sharable across systems that conform with the same model. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is collection of specification adopted together for achieving some property of content like Accessibility, Adaptability, Affordability, Durability , reusability, interoperability </li></ul>
    6. 6. SCORM and Technology <ul><li>Content Aggregation Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata (from IEEE LOM 1484.12)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Structure (derived from AICC)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Packaging (from IMS)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequencing Information (from IMS)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Run-Time Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE Application Programming Interface (1484.11.2)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE Data Model (1484.11.1)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sequencing & Navigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequencing Information & Behavior (from IMS)‏ </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Generalized view of LMS
    8. 8. SCORM Content Model Components <ul><li>Assets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>building block of a learning resource. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>text, images, sound, assessment objects or any other piece of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than one asset can be collected together to build other assets. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SCO: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A SCO is a collection of one or more Assets that represent a single launchable learning resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tracked by an LMS </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Conceptual Makeup of SCO
    10. 10. SCORM Content Aggregation Model
    11. 11. Conceptual Representation of Activity
    12. 12. Content Organization
    13. 15. <organization> tag <ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Item </li></ul><ul><ul><li>title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adlcp: timeLimitAction, dataFromLMS, completionthreshold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>imsss:sequencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adlnav:presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metadata </li></ul><ul><li>imsss:sequencing </li></ul>
    14. 16. Content Packaging
    15. 18. Sequence and Navigation <ul><li>Three ways for learners to traverse the Activity Tree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User Choice (“Choice”)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The learner can choose any activity in any order at any time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The learner can only move toward the ‘next’ or ‘previous’ activity – the system determines the activity to delivery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward Only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “Previous” button is disabled. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 19. Adding Sequencing Behavior <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 21. Run time environment Communicating with the LMS <ul><li>/* look up window hierarchy to find LMS provided API */ </li></ul><ul><li>API.Initialize(“”); </li></ul><ul><li>var name = API.GetValue(“ cmi.learner_name ”); </li></ul><ul><li>API.SetValue(“ cmi.score.scaled ”, “ 0.9 ”); </li></ul><ul><li>API.Terminate(“”); </li></ul>
    18. 22. Continue… <ul><li>Must use JavaScript </li></ul><ul><li>There are only 8 functions that you may use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where X = cmi data model element, Y = any string, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Z = error code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GetDiagnostic( Y )‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GetLastError()‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GetErrorString( Z )‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initialize(“”)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SetValue( X , Y )‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GetValue( X )‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commit(“”)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminate(“”)‏ </li></ul></ul>
    19. 23. API, API instance and API implementation
    20. 24. CMI data model element <ul><li>Comments From Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Comments From LMS </li></ul><ul><li>Completion Status </li></ul><ul><li>Completion Threshold </li></ul><ul><li>Learner Id </li></ul><ul><li>Learner Name </li></ul><ul><li>Learner Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>etc… </li></ul>
    21. 25. Conceptual API Instance Transition
    22. 26. SCORM Run Time Environment <ul><li>fla </li></ul>
    23. 27. Continue….
    24. 28. Continue….
    25. 29. Overall Picture in Meta-Data <ul><li>Examples with showing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APIWrapper.js </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>imsmanifest.xml </li></ul></ul>
    26. 30. Scope of Adaptation <ul><li>SCORM Content Aggregation Model </li></ul>
    27. 31. Limitation considered.. (one prespecitive)‏ <ul><li>limited adaptivity </li></ul><ul><li>Run time environment do setting of the predefined rule with key value pair only. We can not change these values at run time after SCO made. </li></ul><ul><li>This is again compact and it can not be used in different context by simple change. We have to make a new imsmanifest file for the changed context of learning. </li></ul>
    28. 32. Continue…. <ul><li>SCORM describes a solutions for systems, components and content interopability for learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data and Behavioral interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SCORM does not extend beyond learning to management of learning </li></ul><ul><li>SCORM does not impose any pedagogical or assessment model </li></ul><ul><li>SCORM supports only limited pedagogical features </li></ul>
    29. 33. Continue…. <ul><li>No communication across SCO’s </li></ul><ul><li>No access to other SCO’s </li></ul><ul><li>SCO has its own behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Using same hierarchy for structure, behavior and display </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are individual </li></ul><ul><li>It can not adapt learner experience without learner interaction </li></ul><ul><li>There is no concept of alternate resource although we can simulate it by making various navigation restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>There is nothing for picking some of resource from a collection of resource </li></ul>
    30. 34. Development in SCORM <ul><li>January 1999 — Executive Order 13111 signed tasking the DoD to develop common specifications and standards for e-learning across both federal and private sectors </li></ul><ul><li>January 2000 — SCORM Version 1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>January 2001 — SCORM Version 1.1 </li></ul><ul><li>October 2001 — SCORM Version 1.2 </li></ul><ul><li>January 2004 — SCORM 2004 (1st Edition) </li></ul><ul><li>July 2004 — SCORM 2004 (2nd Edition) </li></ul><ul><li>June 2006 — Department of Defense Instruction (DoDI) 1322.26 Requiring DoD Use of SCORM </li></ul><ul><li>October 2006 — SCORM 2004 (3rd Edition) </li></ul>
    31. 35. SCORM BOOK <ul><li>SCORM 2004 3rd Edition Overview </li></ul><ul><li>SCORM 2004 3rd Edition Content Aggregation Model (CAM) book </li></ul><ul><li>SCORM 2004 3rd Edition Run-Time Environment (RTE) book </li></ul><ul><li>SCORM 2004 3rd Edition Sequencing and Navigation (SN) book </li></ul>
    32. 36. SCORM 2004 3rd Edition Overview <ul><li>It gives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an overview of the SCORM 2004 3rd Edition documentation suite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the SCORM 2004 3rd Edition Conformance Test Suite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCORM 2004 3rd Edition Sample Run-Time Environment.  </li></ul></ul>
    33. 37. The SCORM Content Aggregation Model (CAM) book <ul><li>Describes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>components used in a learning experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to package those components for exchange from system to system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to describe those components to enable search and discovery, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to define the sequencing rules for the components.  </li></ul></ul>
    34. 38. The SCORM SN book <ul><li>describes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how SCORM conformant content may be sequenced through a set of learner-initiated or system-initiated navigation events.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The branching and flow of that content may be described by a predefined set of activities, typically defined at design time.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how a SCORM conformant LMS interprets the sequencing rules expressed by a content developer along with the set of learner-initiated or system-initiated navigation events and their effects on the run-time environment. </li></ul></ul>
    35. 39. The SCORM RTE book <ul><li>describes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Learning Management System (LMS) requirements for managing the run-time environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The RTE covers the requirements of SCOs and their use of the API and the SCORM Run-Time Environment Data Model. </li></ul></ul>
    36. 40. Discussion……… <ul><li>? </li></ul>
    37. 41. References <ul><li>http://www.adlnet.gov/scorm/index.cfm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.adlnet.gov/downloads/index.cfm </li></ul><ul><li>http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/scorm2/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCORM </li></ul><ul><li>http://www2006.org/programme/files/pdf/p65-poster.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://lttf.ieee.org/learn_tech/issues/january2005/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.lsal.org/lsal/expertise/papers/presentations/id2scorm20030304/id2scorm20030304.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.imsglobal.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.imsproject.org / </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.aicc.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.itsc.ieee.org/wg11/files/IEEE_1484.11.1_D5_submitted.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.itsc.ieee.org/ </li></ul>
    38. 42. THANK YOU