Distance Learning
Standards – SCORM
(Specification)
Timothy K. Shih
Outline
• Distance Learning Standards and
Organizations
• SCORM Overview
• Content Aggregation Model
• Runtime Environment...
Distance Learning
Standards
• Dublin Core (DC)
• QTI (Question & Test Interoperability)
• CELTS (China E-Learning Technolo...
Metadata Specification
• Dublin Core (DC)
– Developed by OCLC (http://dublincore.org/)
– Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
–...
Question and Test
Specification
• QTI (Question & Test Interoperability)
– Developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium
(ht...
Distance Learning
Specification
• CELTS (China E-Learning Technology
Standards )
– http://www.celtsc.edu.cn
– Proposed by ...
Learning Design
Specification
• IMS Learning Design
– http://www.imsglobal.org/learningdesign/
– The IMS Learning Design s...
The SCORM Specification
• SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference
Model)
– Developed by Advanced Distributed Learning (AD...
Distance Learning
Organizations
• Advanced Learning Infrastructure Consortium
(ALIC)
• Alliance of Remote Instructional Au...
OLD: Related Standards/Specification
Development Orgs In Education & Learning
Technology
LTSC
(P1484)
Specs submitted by C...
LTSC
(P1484)
LTSC & JTC1/SC36: Close Collaboration
ISO/IEC
JTC1/SC36
GEM
PROMETEUS
GESTALT
Current, existing
Future possib...
The Evolution of E-Learning
AICC
• Aviation
• Industry
• CBT (Computer-Based Training)
• Committee
IEEE LTSC
• IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee
(LTSC)
• P1484.1 Architecture and Reference Model WG
• P1484.11 C...
LTSA
Learner
Entity
Evaluation
Delivery
Coach Learner
Records
Learning
Resources
BehaviorMultimedia
Interaction Context
As...
IMS
• Accessibility
• Competency Definitions
• Content Packaging
• Digital Repositories
• Enterprise
• Learner Information...
ADL http://www.adlnet.org/
Specifications and Standards
Contact Information
SCORM
Long term vision of the Advanced
Distributed Learning initiative
ADL emphasizes asynchronous technologies that can
deliver...
The Development Groups
• IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc.
http://www.imsglobal.org/
• Aviation Industry CBT (Computer-...
The Missing SCORM Pieces
SCORM 1.2
(Add Packaging)
SCORM 1.0
SCORM 1.3
Seq. Application Profile
WORKING DRAFT 0.9
SCORM 20...
Summary of Evolution
Version Timeline Features
SCORM 1.0 Jan. 2000
 The primitive version which introduces the concept of...
Overview
• The Department of
Defense of USA
established the
Advanced Distributed
Learning (ADL)
initiative in 1997.
• The ...
Conceptual Point for
SCORM
• Accessibility: the ability to locate and access
instructional components from one remote
loca...
Conceptual Point for
SCORM
• Durability: the ability to withstand technology
evolution and changes without costly redesign...
Overview of the SCORM
Content Aggregation Model
• The purpose of the SCORM Content Aggregation
Model is to provide a commo...
Overview of the SCORM
Run-Time Environment
• The purpose of the SCORM Run-time Environment is
to provide a means for inter...
Overview of the SCORM
Sequencing and Navigation
• Sequencing and Navigation describes how SCORM-
conformant content may be...
Functionality by Product
Authoring Tools
LMSs
Store Content
Gather Content
(push/pull using meta-data & federated
search...
For More Information – ADL
http://www.adlnet.org/
For More Information – IMS
http://www.imsglobal.org
The SCORM Book
Content Aggregation Model
The SCORM Content Aggregation Model (CAM) book describes the
components used in a learning exper...
• Content Model: Nomenclature defining the content
components of a learning experience.
• Content Packaging: Defines how t...
Content Model
• The SCORM Content Model is made up of the
following components
– Assets: basic forms, such as text, images...
Assets
• Assets are an electronic
representation of media,
such as text, images,
sound, assessment
objects or any other
pi...
Sharable Content Objects
• Sharable Content Objects (SCO): A Sharable Content
Object (SCO) represents a collection of one ...
Content Organization
• Content Aggregation
– Activity
• The Activities
represented in a
Content Organization
may consist o...
Content Packaging
• The purpose of Content Packaging is to provide a
standardized way to exchange digital learning
resourc...
Content Packaging Defines
• A Manifest file (imsmanifest.xml) describing the
package itself and which contains:
– Meta-dat...
Package Interchange File
(PIF)
• A binding of the content package
components in the form of a compressed
archive file
• A ...
The SCORM Content Package
XML Binding
• The XML binding will adhere to the XML 1.0
specification of the W3C
• The XML bind...
SCORM Content Packaging
Application Profiles
• The SCORM Packaging Application
Profiles describe how the IMS Content
Packa...
Requirements
• “M”: Mandatory “O”: Optional “NP”: Not Permitted
Best Practices and Practical
Guidelines
• For the development of content packages
• Not considered as conformance
requirem...
Meta-Data
• A mechanism for describing specific
instances of the components of the content
model
• Meta-data provide a com...
SCORM Metadata
Components
• Meta-data can be applied to
– Content Aggregation Meta-data
• Enable discoverability of the Co...
Sources of SCORM Meta-data
SCORM Version 1.3
SCORM Version 1.2
IEEE
P1484.12.1
LOM Draft
Standard
Version 6.1
IMS Learning...
Learning Object Metadata
• IEEE LTSC Learning
Object Metadata
• With 77 elements in
9 categories
• Mandatory / Optional
– ...
Meta-data Information Model
(IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 Learning Object Metadata Standard)
• The SCORM Meta-data Information Mode...
An Example of Information
Model
Nr Name Explanation Multiplicity Data Type
1 General This category groups the general info...
Terms Used in Meta-Data
• Nr: Hierarchical number system
• Name: Element name
• Explanation: Detailed description of the e...
LOM XML Binding
• A collection of rules describing how to create meta-
data instances in XML.
• IEEE P1484.12.3 Standard f...
Symbols in XML Binging
Symbol Meaning
This symbol denotes that the element has one or more child
elements.
This symbol den...
An Example of XML Binding
• <lom> Element
indicates the
beginning of the
SCORM Meta-
data XML record.
one or more child el...
Examples of Information Model
5 Educational This category describes the key educational or
pedagogic characteristics of th...
Examples of XML Binding
Examples of XML Binding
<interactivitytype> Element
Description: This data element describes the type of interactivity sup...
Examples of XML Binding
<learningresourcetype> Element
Description: This data element describes a specific kind of resourc...
Examples of XML Binding
<requirement> Element (under the <technical> element)
Description: This data element describes the...
Example:
1 <technical>
2 <requirement>
3 <type>
4 <vocabulary>
5 <source>
6 <langstring xml:lang=“x-none”>LOMv1.0</langstr...
Example One
• <manifest> Elements
• Description: The first,
outermost <manifest>
element in the Manifest
encloses all the
...
Example One Definition
• Data Type: This element is a container element and only contains other
elements.
• Multiplicity: ...
Example One Binding
1 <manifest identifier=”Manifest" version="1.1"
xmlns="http://www.imsproject.org/xsd/imscp_rootv1p1p2"...
Example Two
• <metadata> Element
• Description: This
element contains
context specific meta-
data that is used to
describe...
Example Two Definition
• Data Type: This element is a container
element and only contains other elements.
• Multiplicity: ...
Example Two Binding
1 <metadata>
2 <schema>ADL SCORM</schema>
3 <schemaversion>1.2</schemaversion>
4 <imsmd:lom>
5 <imsmd:...
Example Three
• <organizations>
Element
• Description: This
element describes
one or more
structures or
organizations for
...
Example Three Definition
• Data Type: This element is a container element
and only contains other elements. When defining
...
Example Three Binding
1 <organizations default="TOC1">
2 <organization identifier="TOC1" structure="hierarchical">
3 <titl...
21 <item identifier="ITEM7" identifierref="RESOURCE7" isvisible="false">
22 <title>Content 2</title>
23 </item>
24 <item i...
Example Four
• <resources>
Element
• Description:
A collection of
references to
resources.
There is no
assumption of
order...
Example Four Definition
• Data Type: This element is a container
element and only contains other elements.
• Multiplicity:...
Example Four Binding
1 <resources>
2 <resource identifier="RESOURCE1" type="webcontent" href="lesson1.htm">
3 <file href="...
The SCORM Meta-data
Application Profiles
• The application
profiles provide
specific
guidance for
how to
implement
meta-da...
Sequencing and
Presentation
• Describes how to encode specific
sequencing strategies in XML
– <sequencing> element: encaps...
Elements of <sequencing>
• <controlMode>
• <sequencingRules>
• <limitConditions>
• <auxiliaryResources>
• <rollupRules>
• ...
Element of
<sequencingCollection>
• <sequencing>
– the sequencing element shall exist 1 or more
times if a <sequencingColl...
Sequencing and
Content Packaging
• The Content Packaging <imscp:organization> element and the
<imscp:item> element can inc...
Run-Time Environment
The SCORM Run-Time Environment (RTE) book describes the Learning
Management System (LMS) requirements...
General LMSs
• Testing/Assessment Service
• Sequencing Service
• Content Management Service
• Course Administration Servic...
Highly Generalized Model
Launch, API and Data Model
• The Launch mechanism defines a common way for
LMSs to start Web-based learning resources. Thi...
RTE – A Client-Server
Architecture
• SCORM has a common way to start learning resources, a common
mechanism for learning r...
RTE Temporal Model
• Learner Attempt – A tracked effort by a learner to satisfy the
requirements of a learning activity th...
Launch
• The two SCORM components that can be
launched by an LMS are Assets and SCOs.
• An Asset does not need to communic...
Launch (continue)
• It is the responsibility of the LMS to manage
the sequencing and navigation between
learning resources...
Application Program Interface
(API)
• API is merely a set of predefined
functions.
• The LMS provides an API Adapter that
...
Categories of API Methods
• The API Implementation are divided into
three categories:
– Session Methods: Initialize(), Ter...
API Methods
API Instance State Transitions
• The states encountered by the API Instance are
defined as
– Not Initialized
– Running
– T...
API States
• Not Initialized: This describes the conceptual communication
state between the actual launching of the SCO an...
Data Model
• The purpose of establishing a common data
model is to make sure that a defined set of
information about SCOs ...
Data Model in SCORM RTE
• Prior to SCORM 2004, the SCORM Run-Time Environment Data
Model was based on the AICC CMI
• The S...
Data Model (Cont.)
• Examples include: student profile information,
question and test interactions, state information,
ass...
Some Examples
• GetValue(“cmi.comments_from_learner._children”)
• SetValue(“cmi.comments_from_learner.0.comment”,”S
ome co...
ADL Sample RTE Source: http://www.adlnet.gov/
Released
04/05/2007
SCORM 2004 3rd Edition Sample Run-Time Environment Versi...
Sequencing and Navigation
• The SCORM Sequencing and Navigation (SN) book describes how
SCORM-conformant content may be se...
The SCORM Sequencing and
Navigation (SN)
• SCORM Sequencing depends on:
– A defined structure of learning activities, the ...
Sequencing and Navigation
• Sequencing and Navigation: what and when
learning resource is to be presented to the
learner
–...
Learning Activity
• A learning activity may be
loosely described as an
instructional event or
events embedded in a
content...
Learning Activities
Characteristics
• Learning activities have a discrete start
and finish
• Learning activities have well...
Tracking Activities
• Tracking status for each activity attempted by
the learner
• Learning objectives are separate from
l...
Activity Duration Tracking
• An attempt is defined as an effort to complete a
learning activity.
Attem pt Attem ptAttem pt...
Activity Tree
• The Activity Tree is an LMS internal representation of
the defined learning activities, including the trac...
Cluster
• A cluster is an organized
aggregation of activities
consisting of a single parent
activity and its first level
c...
Relationship between a Content
Organization an Activity Tree (I)
Relationship between a Content
Organization an Activity Tree (II)
Sequencing Definition
Model
• Derived from the IMS Simple Sequencing
(SS) Specification
• A set of elements that can be us...
Sequencing Definition Model
• Sequencing Control Modes – control the sequencing behavior for a cluster (i.e.,
Choice, Choi...
Sequencing Control Modes (1/4)
• The Control Modes are defined to allow the content
developer to control the sequencing be...
Sequencing Control Modes (2/4)
• Sequencing Control Choice
– the learner is free to choose any activity in
any order
– a r...
Sequencing Control Modes (3/4)
• Sequencing Control Choice Exit
– The sequencing request shall cause the current
activity ...
Sequencing Control Modes (4/4)
• Sequencing Control Forward Only
– traversal of the children of that node is
always in for...
Sequencing Rules
• The application of sequencing rules to an
activity may alter the default sequencing
path (e.g., forward...
The Sequencing XML Binding
• The XML Binding
defines how the IMS
Simple Sequencing
Definition model is
interpreted and
bou...
Sequencing and Content
Packaging
• The Content Packaging organization element and each
item element within it can have def...
Sequencing and Content
Packaging (Cont.)
• Sequencing information can also be associated at a
resource level (<resourceSeq...
Sequencing Default
• If a SCORM Content Package does not
include any sequencing rules, the implied
default behavior is to ...
Overall Sequencing Process
• Navigation Behavior – Describes how a navigation request is
validated and translated into ter...
Model of Sequencing Process
Future Scope of SCORM
• Designing new run-time and content data
model architectures
• Incorporating simulation aspects
• I...
Summary
• SCORM is a collection of specifications adapted from
multiple sources to provide a comprehensive suite of e-
lea...
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04 distance learning standards-scorm specification

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04 distance learning standards-scorm specification

  1. 1. Distance Learning Standards – SCORM (Specification) Timothy K. Shih
  2. 2. Outline • Distance Learning Standards and Organizations • SCORM Overview • Content Aggregation Model • Runtime Environment • Sequence & Navigation • Future Scope of SCORM • Summary
  3. 3. Distance Learning Standards • Dublin Core (DC) • QTI (Question & Test Interoperability) • CELTS (China E-Learning Technology Standards ) • IMS Learning Design • The SCORM Specification
  4. 4. Metadata Specification • Dublin Core (DC) – Developed by OCLC (http://dublincore.org/) – Dublin Core Metadata Initiative – Version 1.1 – 15 items: • Title, Creator, Subject and keyword, Description, Publisher, Contributor, Date, Type, Format, Identifier, Source, Language, Relation, Coverage, Rights
  5. 5. Question and Test Specification • QTI (Question & Test Interoperability) – Developed by IMS Global Learning Consortium (http://www.imsglobal.org/question/index.html) – To describe a data model for the representation of question and test data and their corresponding results reports – QTI 2.1 (http://www.imsglobal.org/question/qti_v2p1pd/imsqti_oviewv2p1pd.html)
  6. 6. Distance Learning Specification • CELTS (China E-Learning Technology Standards ) – http://www.celtsc.edu.cn – Proposed by CELTSC (China E-Learning Technology Standardization Committee) – Uses IEEE 1484 – 5 Categories of Standard Projects • Guidance • Learning Resource • Learning Environment • Learner • Educational Management
  7. 7. Learning Design Specification • IMS Learning Design – http://www.imsglobal.org/learningdesign/ – The IMS Learning Design specification supports the use of a wide range of pedagogies in online learning. – Version 1 Final Specification was approved by the IMS Technical Board in February 2003.
  8. 8. The SCORM Specification • SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) – Developed by Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL, http://www.adlnet.gov) – SCORM 2004 • Main Components: – Content Aggregation Model • Content Model • Metadata (Standard) • Content Packaging – SCORM RTE – Sequencing and Navigation Model • Derived from IMS Simple Sequencing (SS) Version 1.0
  9. 9. Distance Learning Organizations • Advanced Learning Infrastructure Consortium (ALIC) • Alliance of Remote Instructional Authoring and Distribution Networks for Europe (ARIADNE) • Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) • Dublin Core Metadata Initiative • IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. • Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC)
  10. 10. OLD: Related Standards/Specification Development Orgs In Education & Learning Technology LTSC (P1484) Specs submitted by Consortia/Fora IEEE, ANSI, ISO: Accredited Standards GEM PROMETEUS GESTALT Stds/ Specs Sampling of Organizations
  11. 11. LTSC (P1484) LTSC & JTC1/SC36: Close Collaboration ISO/IEC JTC1/SC36 GEM PROMETEUS GESTALT Current, existing Future possibilities Sampling of Organizations New: Related Standards/Specification Development Orgs In Education & Learning Technology
  12. 12. The Evolution of E-Learning
  13. 13. AICC • Aviation • Industry • CBT (Computer-Based Training) • Committee
  14. 14. IEEE LTSC • IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC) • P1484.1 Architecture and Reference Model WG • P1484.11 Computer Managed Instruction (CMI) WG • P1484.12 Learning Objects Metadata (LOM) WG • P1484.18 Platform and Media Profiles WG • P1484.20 Competency Definitions WG • Digital Rights Expression Language Study Group
  15. 15. LTSA Learner Entity Evaluation Delivery Coach Learner Records Learning Resources BehaviorMultimedia Interaction Context Assessment Locator Locator Learning Content Catalog Info Query (history/obj.) Learner Info (new) Learner Info (current) Learning Preferences PrivateOwner Rights Secure from Attack A Revised Learning Technology System Architecture
  16. 16. IMS • Accessibility • Competency Definitions • Content Packaging • Digital Repositories • Enterprise • Learner Information Package • Learning Design • Meta-data • Question & Test • Simple Sequencing
  17. 17. ADL http://www.adlnet.org/
  18. 18. Specifications and Standards Contact Information
  19. 19. SCORM
  20. 20. Long term vision of the Advanced Distributed Learning initiative ADL emphasizes asynchronous technologies that can deliver instruction and mentoring without requiring students to gather in specific places at specific times.
  21. 21. The Development Groups • IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. http://www.imsglobal.org/ • Aviation Industry CBT (Computer-Based Training) Committee (AICC) http://www.aicc.org/ • Alliance of Remote Instructional Authoring & Distribution Networks for Europe (ARIADNE) http://www.ariadne-eu.org/ • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC) http://ltsc.ieee.org/
  22. 22. The Missing SCORM Pieces SCORM 1.2 (Add Packaging) SCORM 1.0 SCORM 1.3 Seq. Application Profile WORKING DRAFT 0.9 SCORM 2004 Sequencing & Navigation Improved Data Model Element SCORM 1.3 Working Draft 1 November 27, 2002 January 31, 2000 October 1, 2001 October 22, 2003 Revised Content Aggregation Model Revised Sequencing & Navigation July 22, 2004
  23. 23. Summary of Evolution Version Timeline Features SCORM 1.0 Jan. 2000  The primitive version which introduces the concept of Sharable Content Objects (SCOs) and some essential APIs for the communication of courseware delivering process. SCORM 1.1 Jan. 2001  Use an XML-based file to describe the content structure  Rename SCORM from “Sharable Courseware Object Reference Model” to “Sharable Content Object Reference Model” SCORM 1.2 Oct. 2001  Concept of Metadata were fully defined in different levels of learning contents  Use learning content manifest to achieve the interoperability between learning contents and back-end servers. SCORM 2004 1st Edition Jan. 2004  Improvements on SCORM 1.2  Add Sequencing and Navigation specification into SCORM for various learning activities. SCORM 2004 2nd Edition Jul. 2004  Refine the Content Aggregation Model and the Run-Time Environment in SCORM specification to achieve better solutions of e- Learning. SCORM 2004 3rd Edition Oct. 2006  It’s the current version, and probably, the final version of SCORM.  Strengthen and solidify SCORM 2004 to enhance the development of e-Learning related works  Provide a comprehensive suite of e-learning capabilities
  24. 24. Overview • The Department of Defense of USA established the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) initiative in 1997. • The Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) includes – Content Aggregation Model – Run-time Environment – Simple Sequencing Specification (in 1.3 WD)
  25. 25. Conceptual Point for SCORM • Accessibility: the ability to locate and access instructional components from one remote location and deliver them to many other locations. • Adaptability: the ability to tailor instruction to individual and organizational needs. • Affordability: the ability to increase efficiency and productivity by reducing the time and costs involved in delivering instruction.
  26. 26. Conceptual Point for SCORM • Durability: the ability to withstand technology evolution and changes without costly redesign, reconfiguration or recoding. • Interoperability: the ability to take instructional components developed in one location with one set of tools or platform and use them in another location with a different set of tools or platform. • Reusability: the flexibility to incorporate instructional components in multiple applications and contexts.
  27. 27. Overview of the SCORM Content Aggregation Model • The purpose of the SCORM Content Aggregation Model is to provide a common means for composing learning content from discoverable, reusable, sharable and interoperable sources. • The SCORM Content Aggregation Model further defines how learning content can be identified and described, aggregated into a course or portion of a course and moved between systems that may include Learning Management Systems (LMS) and repositories. – Content Packaging – Meta-data – Sequencing and Presentation
  28. 28. Overview of the SCORM Run-Time Environment • The purpose of the SCORM Run-time Environment is to provide a means for interoperability between Sharable Content Object-based learning content and Learning Management Systems. A requirement of the SCORM is that learning content be interoperable across multiple LMSs regardless of the tools used to create the content. For this to be possible, there must be a common way to start content, a common way for content to communicate with an LMS and predefined data elements that are exchanged between an LMS and content during its execution. – Application Programming Interface (API) – Data Model
  29. 29. Overview of the SCORM Sequencing and Navigation • Sequencing and Navigation describes how SCORM- conformant content may be sequenced to the learner through a set of learner-initiated or system-initiated navigation events. The branching and flow of that content may be described by a predefined set of activities, typically defined at design time. – The Sequencing Definition Model – Sequencing Behaviors – The SCORM Navigation Model
  30. 30. Functionality by Product Authoring Tools LMSs Store Content Gather Content (push/pull using meta-data & federated searches) Publish Content (provide meta-data to other repositories) Repackage Content Export Content Import Content •Student Enrollment •Course Enrollment •Designate Instructors & Assign Instructor Rights & Roles •Match Students with Instructors •Monitor/Track Student/Learner Performance •Sequence Content Presentation •Create & Associate Meta-data •Create Content •Package Content Repositories
  31. 31. For More Information – ADL http://www.adlnet.org/
  32. 32. For More Information – IMS http://www.imsglobal.org
  33. 33. The SCORM Book
  34. 34. Content Aggregation Model The SCORM Content Aggregation Model (CAM) book describes the components used in a learning experience, how to package those components for exchange from system to system, how to describe those components to enable search and discovery and how to define sequencing rules for the components. The CAM promotes the consistent storage, labeling, packaging, exchange and discovery of content.
  35. 35. • Content Model: Nomenclature defining the content components of a learning experience. • Content Packaging: Defines how to represent the intended behavior of a learning experience (Content Structure) and how to aggregate activities of learning resources for movement between different environments (Content Packaging). • Meta-data: A mechanism for describing specific instances of the components of the content model. • Sequencing and Navigation: A rule-based model for defining a set of rules that describe the intended sequence and ordering of activities. The activities may or may not reference learning resources to be delivered to the learner. Content Aggregation Model
  36. 36. Content Model • The SCORM Content Model is made up of the following components – Assets: basic forms, such as text, images, sound, web pages, assessment objects or other pieces of data that can be delivered to a Web client. – Sharable Content Objects (SCOs): a collection of one or more Assets. – Content Organization: a map that represents the intended use of the content through structured units of instruction (Activities).
  37. 37. Assets • Assets are an electronic representation of media, such as text, images, sound, assessment objects or any other piece of data that can be rendered by a Web client and presented to a learner.
  38. 38. Sharable Content Objects • Sharable Content Objects (SCO): A Sharable Content Object (SCO) represents a collection of one or more Assets that include a specific launchable asset that utilizes the SCORM Run-Time Environment to communicate with Learning Management Systems (LMSs).
  39. 39. Content Organization • Content Aggregation – Activity • The Activities represented in a Content Organization may consist of other Activities (sub- Activities), which may themselves consist of other activities. – Activity Tree • Resource
  40. 40. Content Packaging • The purpose of Content Packaging is to provide a standardized way to exchange digital learning resources between different systems or tools. Content Package Manifest File (imsmanifest.xml)
  41. 41. Content Packaging Defines • A Manifest file (imsmanifest.xml) describing the package itself and which contains: – Meta-data: data describing the content package as a whole – Organizations: contains the content structure or organization of the learning resources making up a stand-alone unit or units of instruction. – Resources: defines the learning resources bundled in the content package – (sub)Manifest(s): describes any logically nested units of instruction (which can be treated as stand- alone units)
  42. 42. Package Interchange File (PIF) • A binding of the content package components in the form of a compressed archive file • A directory for imsmanifest.xml • All control files and the resources referenced in the content package • PIF be conformant with RFC 1951 – In zip file format or a CD-ROM
  43. 43. The SCORM Content Package XML Binding • The XML binding will adhere to the XML 1.0 specification of the W3C • The XML binding must maintain the definitional structure of the IMS Content Packaging Information Model • Example: <manifest identifier=”SAMPLE1" version="1.3" xml:base=”mycontent” xmlns="http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imscp_v1p1" xmlns:adlcp="http://www.adlnet.org/xsd/adlcp_v1p3" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imscp_v1p1 imscp_v1p1.xsd http://www.adlnet.org/xsd/adlcp_v1p3 adlcp_v1p3.xsd"> <!-- imsmanifest contents --> </manifest>
  44. 44. SCORM Content Packaging Application Profiles • The SCORM Packaging Application Profiles describe how the IMS Content Packaging Specification will be applied within the overall context of the SCORM. They provide practical guidance for implementers and define the SCORM conformance requirements – Resource Packages (for Assets and SCOs) – Content Aggregation Packages
  45. 45. Requirements • “M”: Mandatory “O”: Optional “NP”: Not Permitted
  46. 46. Best Practices and Practical Guidelines • For the development of content packages • Not considered as conformance requirements – Packaging Multiple Courses – Multiple Organizations for a Single Course – Packaging Learning Content for Reuse – Using the <dependency> Element
  47. 47. Meta-Data • A mechanism for describing specific instances of the components of the content model • Meta-data provide a common nomenclature enabling learning resources to be described in a common way • Learning resources that are described with meta-data can be systematically searched for and retrieved for use and reuse
  48. 48. SCORM Metadata Components • Meta-data can be applied to – Content Aggregation Meta-data • Enable discoverability of the Content Aggregation • Provide descriptive information about the Content Aggregation – Content Organization Meta-data • enable discoverability within, for example, a content repository • provide descriptive information about the content structure – Activity Meta-data • Describe an individual Activity. • Make the Activity accessible (enabling discovery) within a content repository – SCO Meta-data • Facilitate reuse and discoverability of such content within a content repository. – Asset Meta-data • Facilitate reuse and discoverability, within a content repository during content creation.
  49. 49. Sources of SCORM Meta-data SCORM Version 1.3 SCORM Version 1.2 IEEE P1484.12.1 LOM Draft Standard Version 6.1 IMS Learning Resource Meta- data Version 1.2 (Information Model) IEEE P1484.12.1 LOM Draft Standard Version 6.1 IEEE P1484.12.1 LOM Draft Standard Version 6.4 IEEE 1484.12.1- 2002 (June 2002) IMS Learning Resource Meta- data Version 1.2 (XML Binding) IEEE P1484.12.3 XML Binding of LOM
  50. 50. Learning Object Metadata • IEEE LTSC Learning Object Metadata • With 77 elements in 9 categories • Mandatory / Optional – 1.0 General – 2.0 Life Cycle – 3.0 Meta-Metadata – 4.0 Technical – 5.0 Educational – 6.0 Rights – 7.0 Relation – 8.0 Annotation – 9.0 Classification
  51. 51. Meta-data Information Model (IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 Learning Object Metadata Standard) • The SCORM Meta-data Information Model has nine categories – The General category groups the general information that describes the resource as a whole. – The Lifecycle category groups the features related to the history and current state of this resource and those who have affected this resource during its evolution. – The Meta-metadata category groups information about the meta-data record itself (rather than the resource that the record describes). – The Technical category groups the technical requirements and characteristics of the resource. – The Educational category groups the educational and pedagogic characteristics of the resource. – The Rights category groups the intellectual property rights and conditions of use for the resource. – The Relation category groups features that define the relationship between this resource and other targeted resources. – The Annotation category provides comments on the educational use of the resource and information on when and by whom the comments were created. – The Classification category describes where this resource falls within a particular classification system.
  52. 52. An Example of Information Model Nr Name Explanation Multiplicity Data Type 1 General This category groups the general information that describes the resource as a whole. 1 and only 1 Container 1.1 Identifier A globally unique label that identifies the resource. This is reserved and shall not be used, as there is no uniformly accepted method for the creation and distribution of globally unique identifiers. This element can be transparent to the meta- data creator. It can be created by the meta-data management system. RESERVED String 1.2 Title Name given to this resource. The title can be an already existing one or it may be created by the indexer ad hoc. 1 and only 1 LangString Type (smallest permitted maximum: 1000 characters)
  53. 53. Terms Used in Meta-Data • Nr: Hierarchical number system • Name: Element name • Explanation: Detailed description of the element • Multiplicity: How many instances of the element are allowed within the immediate parent element. • Data Type: Whether the element’s value is textual, numerical or a date; and any constraints on its size and format. There are three general-purpose types used in the information model: LangString Type, Date Type and Vocabulary Type. The information model for each of these data types is specified following the SCORM Meta-data Information Model
  54. 54. LOM XML Binding • A collection of rules describing how to create meta- data instances in XML. • IEEE P1484.12.3 Standard for Extensible Markup Language (XML) Binding for Learning Object Metadata Data Model • There are two varieties of vocabularies: – Restricted vocabulary indicates that the element must contain a value from the list provided as part of the element’s description. – Best Practice vocabulary presents a recommended list of appropriate values for that element, but the element is not mandated to contain a value from the list.
  55. 55. Symbols in XML Binging Symbol Meaning This symbol denotes that the element has one or more child elements. This symbol denotes that the element contains data. This text denotes the XML Schema Definition (XSD) type assigned to the element. (no symbol) When no multiplicity symbol is present, this denotes that the element may exist one and only one time. + The plus sign denotes that the element may occur one or more times within its parent element. ? The question mark denotes that the element may occur zero or one time within its parent element. * The asterisk denotes that the element may occur zero to many times within its parent element.
  56. 56. An Example of XML Binding • <lom> Element indicates the beginning of the SCORM Meta- data XML record. one or more child elements contains data one and only one one or more zero or one zero to many
  57. 57. Examples of Information Model 5 Educational This category describes the key educational or pedagogic characteristics of this resource. This is the pedagogical information essential to those involved in achieving a quality learning experience. The audience for this meta-data includes teachers, managers, authors and learners. 0 or 1 Container 5.1 Interactivity Type The flow of interaction between this resource and the intended user. IEEE LOM Vocabulary: Active Expositive Mixed Undefined In an expositive resource, the information flows mainly from this resource to the learner. Expositive documents are typically used for learning-by-reading. These include essays, video clips, graphical material and hypertext documents. In an active resource, information also flows from the learner to this resource. Active documents are typically used for learning-by-doing. These include simulations, questionnaires and exercises. Note: Activating links to navigate in hypertext documents is not considered as an information flow. Thus, hypertext documents are expositive. 0 or 1 Vocabulary Type (Restricted) 5.2 Learning Resource Type …
  58. 58. Examples of XML Binding
  59. 59. Examples of XML Binding <interactivitytype> Element Description: This data element describes the type of interactivity supported by the learning resource. The vocabularies defined for this element are restricted vocabularies. Multiplicity: The <interactivitytype> element occurs 0 or 1 time within the <educational> element. Attributes: • None Elements: • <vocabulary> LOM Defined Vocabularies (<source> element set to LOMv1.0) Restricted Vocabulary: • Active • Expositive • Mixed • Undefined Example: 1 <educational> 2 <interactivitytype> 3 <vocabulary> 4 <source> 5 <langstring xml:lang=“x-none”>LOMv1.0</langstring> 6 </source> 7 <value> 8 <langstring xml:lang=“x-none”>Active</langstring> 9 </value> 10 </vocabulary> 11 </interactivitytype> 12 </educational>
  60. 60. Examples of XML Binding <learningresourcetype> Element Description: This data element describes a specific kind of resource, most dominant kind first. The vocabularies defined for this element are recommended best practice vocabularies. Multiplicity: The <learningresourcetype> element occurs 0 or more times within the <educational> element. The smallest permitted maximum is 10 items. Attributes: • None Elements: • <vocabulary> LOM Defined Vocabularies (<source> element set to LOMv1.0) Best Practice Vocabulary: • Exercise • Simulation • Questionnaire • Diagram • Figure • Graph • Index • Slide • Table • Narrative Text • Exam • Experiment • Problem Statement • Self Assesment Example: 1 <educational> 2 <learningresourcetype> 3 <vocabulary> 4 <source> 5 <langstring xml:lang=“x-none”>LOMv1.0</langstring> 6 </source> 7 <value> 8 <langstring xml:lang=“x-none”>Simulation</langstring> 9 </value> 10 </vocabulary> 11 </learningresourcetype> 12 </educational>
  61. 61. Examples of XML Binding <requirement> Element (under the <technical> element) Description: This data element describes the technical capabilities required in order to use this learning resource. If there are multiple requirements, then all are required, i.e. the logical connector is AND. Multiplicity: The <requirement> element occurs 0 or more times within the <technical> element. The smallest permitted maximum is 40 items. Attributes: • None Elements: • <type> • <name> • <minimumversion> • <maximumversion>
  62. 62. Example: 1 <technical> 2 <requirement> 3 <type> 4 <vocabulary> 5 <source> 6 <langstring xml:lang=“x-none”>LOMv1.0</langstring> 7 </source> 8 <value> 9 <langstring xml:lang=“x-none”>Browser</langstring> 10 </value> 11 </vocabulary> 12 </type> 13 <name> 14 <vocabulary> 15 <source> 16 <langstring xml:lang=“x-none”>LOMv1.0</langstring> 17 </source> 18 <value> 19 <langstring xml:lang=“x-none”>Mircosoft Internet Explorer</langstring> 20 </value> 21 </vocabulary> 22 </name> 23 <minimumversion>4.0</minimumversion> 24 <maximimversion>5.0</maximumversion> 25 </requirement> 26 </technical>
  63. 63. Example One • <manifest> Elements • Description: The first, outermost <manifest> element in the Manifest encloses all the reference data. Subsequent occurrences of the <manifest> elements inside the outermost <manifest> are used to compartmentalize files, meta-data and organization structure for aggregation, disaggregation and reuse. • All namespace declarations should be declared inside the <manifest> element.
  64. 64. Example One Definition • Data Type: This element is a container element and only contains other elements. • Multiplicity: The manifest element is the top-level element for content package. • Attributes: – identifier (required) – An identifier, provided by an author or authoring tool, that is unique within the Manifest. – version (optional) – Identifies the version of the Manifest. It is used to distinguish between manifests with the same identifier. – xml:base (optional). This provides a relative path offset for the files contained in the manifest. The usage of this element is defined in the XML Base Working Draft from the W3C. Data type = String. • Elements: – <metadata> – <organizations> – <resources> – <manifest>
  65. 65. Example One Binding 1 <manifest identifier=”Manifest" version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.imsproject.org/xsd/imscp_rootv1p1p2" xmlns:adlcp="http://www.adlnet.org/xsd/adl_cp_rootv1p1" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsproject.org/xsd/imscp_rootv1p1p2 imscp_rootv1p1p2.xsd http://www.imsproject.org/xsd/imsmd_rootv1p2 ims_md_rootv1p1.xsd http://www.adlnet.org/xsd/adl_cp_rootv1p1 adl_cp_rootv1p1.xsd"> 2 <!-- imsmanifest contents --> 3 </manifest>
  66. 66. Example Two • <metadata> Element • Description: This element contains context specific meta- data that is used to describe the content of the overall package (Package level meta- data). Implementers are free to choose from any of the meta-data elements defined in the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data Specification Version 1.2.
  67. 67. Example Two Definition • Data Type: This element is a container element and only contains other elements. • Multiplicity: The <metadata> element may occur 0 or 1 time within the <manifest> element. • Attributes: – None • Elements: – <schema> – <schemaversion> – <adlcp:location> – IMS Meta-data
  68. 68. Example Two Binding 1 <metadata> 2 <schema>ADL SCORM</schema> 3 <schemaversion>1.2</schemaversion> 4 <imsmd:lom> 5 <imsmd:general> 6 <imsmd:title> 7 <imsmd:langstring xml:lang="en-US">Simple Manifest </imsmd:langstring> 8 </imsmd:title> 9 </imsmd:general> 10 </imsmd:lom> 11 </metadata>
  69. 69. Example Three • <organizations> Element • Description: This element describes one or more structures or organizations for this package.
  70. 70. Example Three Definition • Data Type: This element is a container element and only contains other elements. When defining a SCORM Resource Package, this element is required to be empty. When defining a SCORM Content Aggregation Package, this element is required to contain at least one organization sub- element. • Multiplicity: The organizations element may occur 0 or 1 time within a <manifest> element. • Attributes: – default (required). Identifies the default organization to use. Data type = IDRef. • Elements: – <organization>
  71. 71. Example Three Binding 1 <organizations default="TOC1"> 2 <organization identifier="TOC1" structure="hierarchical"> 3 <title>default</title> 4 <item identifier="ITEM1" identifierref="RESOURCE1" isvisible="true"> 5 <title>Lesson 1</title> 6 <item identifier="ITEM2" identifierref="RESOURCE2" isvisible="true"> 7 <title>Introduction 1</title> 8 </item> 9 <item identifier="ITEM3" identifierref="RESOURCE3" isvisible="true"> 10 <title>Content 1</title> 11 </item> 12 <item identifier="ITEM4" identifierref="RESOURCE4" isvisible="true"> 13 <title>Summary 1</title> 14 </item> 15 </item> 16 <item identifier="ITEM5" identifierref="RESOURCE5" isvisible="false"> 17 <title>Lesson 2</title> 18 <item identifier="ITEM6" identifierref="RESOURCE6" isvisible="false"> 19 <title>Introduction 2</title> 20 </item>
  72. 72. 21 <item identifier="ITEM7" identifierref="RESOURCE7" isvisible="false"> 22 <title>Content 2</title> 23 </item> 24 <item identifier="ITEM8" identifierref="RESOURCE8" isvisible="false"> 25 <title>Summary 2</title> 26 </item> 27 </item> 28 <item identifier="ITEM9" identifierref="RESOURCE9" isvisible="true"> 29 <title>Lesson 3</title> 30 <item identifier="ITEM10" identifierref="RESOURCE10" isvisible="true" parameters="foo"> 31 <title>Introduction 3</title> 32 </item> 33 <item identifier="ITEM11" identifierref="RESOURCE11" isvisible="true"> 34 <title>Content 3</title> 35 </item> 36 <item identifier="ITEM12" identifierref="RESOURCE12" isvisible="true"> 37 <title>Summary 3</title> 38 </item> 39 </item> 40 </organization> 41 </organizations>
  73. 73. Example Four • <resources> Element • Description: A collection of references to resources. There is no assumption of order or hierarchy.
  74. 74. Example Four Definition • Data Type: This element is a container element and only contains other elements. • Multiplicity: The <resources> element occurs 1 and only 1 time within the <manifest> element. • Attributes: – xml:base (optional). This provides a relative path offset for the content file(s). The usage of this element is defined in the XML Base Working Draft from the W3C. Data type = String. • Elements: – <resource>
  75. 75. Example Four Binding 1 <resources> 2 <resource identifier="RESOURCE1" type="webcontent" href="lesson1.htm"> 3 <file href="lesson1.htm"/> 4 </resource> 5 <resource identifier="RESOURCE2" type="webcontent" href="intro1.htm"> 6 <file href="intro1.htm"/> 7 </resource> 8 <resource identifier="RESOURCE3" type="webcontent" href="content1.htm"> 9 <file href="content1.htm"/> 10 </resource> 11 <resource identifier="RESOURCE4" type="webcontent" href="summary1.htm"> 12 <file href="summary1.htm"/> 13 </resource> 14 </resources>
  76. 76. The SCORM Meta-data Application Profiles • The application profiles provide specific guidance for how to implement meta-data in the SCORM environment. – M: Mandatory – O: Optional
  77. 77. Sequencing and Presentation • Describes how to encode specific sequencing strategies in XML – <sequencing> element: encapsulates all of the necessary sequencing rules and strategies for a given activity. – <sequencingCollection> element: can be used to collect a set of sequencing rules and strategies to be reused by several activities.
  78. 78. Elements of <sequencing> • <controlMode> • <sequencingRules> • <limitConditions> • <auxiliaryResources> • <rollupRules> • <objectives> • <randomizationControls> • <deliveryControls> • <adlseq:constrainedChoiceConsiderations> • <adlseq:rollupConsiderations>
  79. 79. Element of <sequencingCollection> • <sequencing> – the sequencing element shall exist 1 or more times if a <sequencingCollection> is used to define a set of sequencing information
  80. 80. Sequencing and Content Packaging • The Content Packaging <imscp:organization> element and the <imscp:item> element can include the definition of sequencing behaviors
  81. 81. Run-Time Environment The SCORM Run-Time Environment (RTE) book describes the Learning Management System (LMS) requirements in managing the run-time environment (i.e., content launch process, standardized communication between content and LMSs and standardized data model elements used for passing information relevant to the learner’s experience with the content). The RTE book also covers the requirements of Sharable Content Objects (SCOs) and their use of a common Application Programming Interface (API) and the SCORM Run-Time Environment Data Model.
  82. 82. General LMSs • Testing/Assessment Service • Sequencing Service • Content Management Service • Course Administration Service • Learner Profiles Service • Tracking Service • Delivery Service
  83. 83. Highly Generalized Model
  84. 84. Launch, API and Data Model • The Launch mechanism defines a common way for LMSs to start Web-based learning resources. This mechanism defines the procedures and responsibilities for the establishment of communication between the delivered learning resource and the LMS. • The API is the communication mechanism for informing the LMS of the state of the learning resource (e.g., initialized, finished or in an error condition), and is used for getting and setting data (e.g., score, time limits, etc.) between the LMS and the Sharable Content Object (SCO). • A Data Model is a standard set of data elements used to define the information being communicated, such as the SCO’s completion status or a score from an assessment (i.e., a quiz or a test).
  85. 85. RTE – A Client-Server Architecture • SCORM has a common way to start learning resources, a common mechanism for learning resources to communicate with an LMS and a predefined language or vocabulary forming the basis of the communication. These three aspects of the Run-Time Environment are Launch, Application Program Interface (API) and Data Model.
  86. 86. RTE Temporal Model • Learner Attempt – A tracked effort by a learner to satisfy the requirements of a learning activity that uses a content object • Learner Session – An uninterrupted period of time during which a learner is accessing a content object • Communication Session – An active connection between a content object (i.e., SCO) and an application programming interface • Login Session – A period of time during login and logout
  87. 87. Launch • The two SCORM components that can be launched by an LMS are Assets and SCOs. • An Asset does not need to communicate back to the LMS • An SCO needs to communicate back to the LMS – An LMS only launch one SCO at a time and that only one SCO is active at a time – The launch model requires that only LMSs may launch SCOs. SCOs may not launch other SCOs.
  88. 88. Launch (continue) • It is the responsibility of the LMS to manage the sequencing and navigation between learning resources. • It is the responsibility of the LMS to determine which learning resource is to be launched. • The LMS may implement the launch in any manner desired and may delegate the actual launch responsibility to the client or server portion of the LMS as needed.
  89. 89. Application Program Interface (API) • API is merely a set of predefined functions. • The LMS provides an API Adapter that implements the functionality of the API and exposes its interface to the client SCO. • It is assumed that once the SCO is launched it can then “get” and “set” information with an LMS. All communications between the API Adapter and the SCO are initiated by the SCO.
  90. 90. Categories of API Methods • The API Implementation are divided into three categories: – Session Methods: Initialize(), Terminate() – Data-Transfer Methods: GetValue(), SetValue(), Commit() – Support Methods: GetLastError(), GetErrorString(), GetDiagnostic()
  91. 91. API Methods
  92. 92. API Instance State Transitions • The states encountered by the API Instance are defined as – Not Initialized – Running – Terminated
  93. 93. API States • Not Initialized: This describes the conceptual communication state between the actual launching of the SCO and before the Initialize(“”) API method is successfully invoked by the SCO. During this state, it is the SCO’s responsibility to find the API Instance provided by the LMS. • Running: This describes the conceptual communication state once the Initialize(“”) API method is successfully invoked by the SCO and before the Terminate(“”) API method call is successfully invoked by the SCO. The SCO is permitted to call the following set of API functions: – GetValue(), SetValue(), Commit(), GetLastError(), GetErrorString(), GetDiagnostic() • Terminated: This describes the conceptual communication state once the Terminate(“”) API method is successfully invoked. The SCO is permitted to call the following set of API functions: – GetLastError(), GetErrorString(), GetDiagnostic()
  94. 94. Data Model • The purpose of establishing a common data model is to make sure that a defined set of information about SCOs can be tracked by different LMS environments.
  95. 95. Data Model in SCORM RTE • Prior to SCORM 2004, the SCORM Run-Time Environment Data Model was based on the AICC CMI • The SCORM Run-Time Environment Data Model is based on the 1484.11.1 Draft Standard for Learning Technology - Data Model for Content Object Communication standard produced by the IEEE LTSC Computer Managed Instruction (CMI). • AICC CMI – cmi.core – cmi.suspend_data – cmi.launch_data – cmi.comments – cmi.comments_from_lms – cmi.objectives – cmi.student_data – cmi.student_preference – cmi.interactions
  96. 96. Data Model (Cont.) • Examples include: student profile information, question and test interactions, state information, assessment, etc. – cmi.core.student_id – cmi.core.student_name – cmi.core.lesson_location – cmi.core.credit • The IEEE CMI working group’s P1484.11.1 Data Model for Content Object Communication
  97. 97. Some Examples • GetValue(“cmi.comments_from_learner._children”) • SetValue(“cmi.comments_from_learner.0.comment”,”S ome comments about the SCO”) • GetValue(“cmi.comments_from_lms._children”) • SetValue(“cmi.completion_status”,”incomplete”) • SetValue(“cmi.exit”,”suspend”). • ………..
  98. 98. ADL Sample RTE Source: http://www.adlnet.gov/ Released 04/05/2007 SCORM 2004 3rd Edition Sample Run-Time Environment Version 1.0.1
  99. 99. Sequencing and Navigation • The SCORM Sequencing and Navigation (SN) book describes how SCORM-conformant content may be sequenced to the learner through a set of learner or system-initiated navigation events. The branching and flow of that content may be described by a predefined set of activities.
  100. 100. The SCORM Sequencing and Navigation (SN) • SCORM Sequencing depends on: – A defined structure of learning activities, the Activity Tree – A defined sequencing strategy, the Sequencing Definition Model – The application of defined behavior to external and system triggered events, SCORM Sequencing Behaviors • SCORM Navigation – SCORM Navigation Model, the process by which a learner and an LMS cooperate to identify navigation requests to realize a learning experience
  101. 101. Sequencing and Navigation • Sequencing and Navigation: what and when learning resource is to be presented to the learner – Based on the outcomes of a learner’s interactions – The conditions under which a piece of content is delivered or skipped – Does not define the following: • other actors, such as instructors, mentors, or peers • content look and feel and presentation style • other sequencing techniques (i.e., AI-based, simulation, customized learning, etc.), but does not necessarily preclude
  102. 102. Learning Activity • A learning activity may be loosely described as an instructional event or events embedded in a content resource or as an aggregation of activities that eventually resolve to discrete content resources with their contained instructional events. A Sample Learning Activity
  103. 103. Learning Activities Characteristics • Learning activities have a discrete start and finish • Learning activities have well-defined completion and mastery conditions • Learning activities can consist of sub- activities, nested to any depth • Learning activities occur in context of their parent activity, if one exists
  104. 104. Tracking Activities • Tracking status for each activity attempted by the learner • Learning objectives are separate from learning activities. Learning objectives represent a set of locally and globally scoped data items, each with a satisfaction status and a satisfaction measure. – Activities may have more than one associated local objective and may reference multiple globally shared objectives. – Multiple activities may reference the same global objective, thus sharing the data values.
  105. 105. Activity Duration Tracking • An attempt is defined as an effort to complete a learning activity. Attem pt Attem ptAttem pt Activity Exit/Suspend Resum e ExitExit/Suspend Resum e Activity Experienced Duration Atctivity Absolute Duration + + Tim e Activity Duration Tracking
  106. 106. Activity Tree • The Activity Tree is an LMS internal representation of the defined learning activities, including the tracking status information for each activity in the hierarchy on a per learner basis.
  107. 107. Cluster • A cluster is an organized aggregation of activities consisting of a single parent activity and its first level children, but not the descendants of its children. • Cluster is considered the basic sequencing building block. • Sets of clusters are combined to form an activity tree. • The parent activity of a cluster will contain the information about the sequencing strategy for the cluster. Cluster Examples
  108. 108. Relationship between a Content Organization an Activity Tree (I)
  109. 109. Relationship between a Content Organization an Activity Tree (II)
  110. 110. Sequencing Definition Model • Derived from the IMS Simple Sequencing (SS) Specification • A set of elements that can be used to describe and affect various sequencing behaviors • The definition model elements are applied to learning activities within the context of an Activity Tree. • Each element has a default value
  111. 111. Sequencing Definition Model • Sequencing Control Modes – control the sequencing behavior for a cluster (i.e., Choice, Choice Exit, Flow, and Forward Only) • Sequencing Rules – a set of if [condition_set] then [action/behavior]. • Limit Conditions – based on the Tracking Model, override Sequencing Rules (e.g., max number of attempt, max duration, etc). • Auxiliary Resource – additional services or resources associated with an activity. • Rollup Rules – the process of evaluating the Objective and Attempt Progress data for a set of child activities for a parent activity. • Objectives – to associate learning objectives with an activity. • Objective Map – defines a mapping of an activity’s local objective information to and from a shared global objective (sharing objective information). • Rollup Controls – three types of tracking status model information for rollup process (i.e., Objective Satisfaction, Objective Measure, and Activity Completion Status). • Selection Controls – include descriptions of how the children of an activity should be selected during the sequencing process. • Randomization Controls – decide whether or not a sequencer shall randomly select activities for delivery. • Delivery Controls – shall be used by LMSs to aid in the tracking of data associated with activities.
  112. 112. Sequencing Control Modes (1/4) • The Control Modes are defined to allow the content developer to control the sequencing behavior for a cluster. Multiple modes can be enabled simultaneously, for a cluster, to create combinations of sequencing control behaviors. • Six Sequencing Control Modes: – Sequencing Control – Choice – Sequencing Control – Choice Exit – Sequencing Control – Flow – Sequencing Control – Forward Only – Use Current Attempt Objective Information (using sequencing rules) – Use Current Attempt Progress Information (using sequencing rules)
  113. 113. Sequencing Control Modes (2/4) • Sequencing Control Choice – the learner is free to choose any activity in any order – a requirement of an LMS to provide a user interface control such as a “menu”, ”map” or “table of contents” to permit the “Choice” navigation event – is always enabled unless explicitly disabled • Example: table of contents of a book
  114. 114. Sequencing Control Modes (3/4) • Sequencing Control Choice Exit – The sequencing request shall cause the current activity to Exit and the new chosen activity is attempted. – Example: website (choose a new page and abandon the previous page) • Sequencing Control Flow – requires that the Continue and Previous sequencing requests are enabled for an LMS to process – Example: PowerPoint presentation (bi-direction)
  115. 115. Sequencing Control Modes (4/4) • Sequencing Control Forward Only – traversal of the children of that node is always in forward order – Example: mission-based video game (one step after the other) • Use Current Attempt Objective Information (using sequencing rules) • Use Current Attempt Progress Information (using sequencing rules)
  116. 116. Sequencing Rules • The application of sequencing rules to an activity may alter the default sequencing path (e.g., forward only, choice, etc) • if [condition_set] then [action/behavior]
  117. 117. The Sequencing XML Binding • The XML Binding defines how the IMS Simple Sequencing Definition model is interpreted and bound into XML. • <sequencing> Element
  118. 118. Sequencing and Content Packaging • The Content Packaging organization element and each item element within it can have defined sequencing behaviors through the association of sequencing information. Physical Files (The actual C ontent, M edia, A ssessm ent, C ollaboration and other files) Package M anifest M eta-data O rganizations R esources (sub)M anifests O rganizations O rganization O rganization O rganization O rganization Item Item Item Item Item Item Item ItemSequencing inform ation can be associated w ith the O rganization and/or each Item in the O rganization Content Packaging Structure
  119. 119. Sequencing and Content Packaging (Cont.) • Sequencing information can also be associated at a resource level (<resourceSequencing> element). R esources O rganization Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item R esource R esource R esource R esource R esource R esource Lim ited sequencing inform ation can also be associated w ith each learning resource associated w ith a learning activity.
  120. 120. Sequencing Default • If a SCORM Content Package does not include any sequencing rules, the implied default behavior is to allow a learner to freely choose any activity with no guidance or constraints.
  121. 121. Overall Sequencing Process • Navigation Behavior – Describes how a navigation request is validated and translated into termination and sequencing requests. • Termination Behavior – Describes how the current attempt on an activity ends, how the state of the activity tree is updated, and if some action should be performed due to the attempt ending. • Rollup Behavior – Describes how tracking information for cluster activities is derived from the tracking information of its child activities. • Selection and Randomization Behavior – Describes how the activities in a cluster should be considered during processing a sequencing request. • Sequencing Behavior – Describes how a sequencing request is processed on an Activity Tree in attempt to identify the “next” activity to deliver. • Delivery Behavior – Describes how an activity identified for delivery is validated for delivery, and how an LMS should handle delivery of a validated activity.
  122. 122. Model of Sequencing Process
  123. 123. Future Scope of SCORM • Designing new run-time and content data model architectures • Incorporating simulation aspects • Implementing SCORM-based intelligent tutoring capabilities • Incorporating gaming technologies
  124. 124. Summary • SCORM is a collection of specifications adapted from multiple sources to provide a comprehensive suite of e- learning capabilities that enable interoperability, accessibility and reusability of Web-based learning content • SCORM-«Ilities»: Reusability, Affordability, Durability, Accessibility, Interoperability. • 3 Main Components in SCORM: – Content Aggregation Model – Run-Time Environment – Sequencing and Navigation model

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