Imhotep Virtual Medical School                                                    Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.                 ...
Imhotep Virtual Medical School                                             Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.                     IVM...
Imhotep Virtual Medical School                                          Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.The business case for SCORM...
Imhotep Virtual Medical School                                          Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.Overview of SCORMWhat is SC...
Imhotep Virtual Medical School                                          Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.describe how to build or us...
Imhotep Virtual Medical School                                           Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.or workstation with no net...
Imhotep Virtual Medical School                                          Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.        minimal communicati...
Imhotep Virtual Medical School                                          Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.organization of the same le...
Imhotep Virtual Medical School                                          Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.SequencingSCORM 1.2 does no...
Imhotep Virtual Medical School                                          Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.Implementing SCORM-complian...
Imhotep Virtual Medical School                                          Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.the stage window. The runti...
Imhotep Virtual Medical School                                          Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.                       The ...
Imhotep Virtual Medical School                                          Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.To create a SCORM packageCr...
Imhotep Virtual Medical School                                                 Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.RESOURCES       ADL...
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Brief introduction to SCORM- IVMS is a SCORM Complient Courseware


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IVMS is the ultimate medical student Web 2.0 companion. This SDL-Face to Face hybrid courseware is a digitally tagged and content enhanced replication of the United States Medical Licensing Examination's Cognitive Learning Objectives (Steps 1, 2 or 3). Including authoritative reusable learning object (RLO) integration and scholarly Web Interactive PowerPoint-driven multimedia shows/ PDFs. Comprehensive hypermedia BMS learning outcomes and detailed, content enriched learning objectives.

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Brief introduction to SCORM- IVMS is a SCORM Complient Courseware

  1. 1. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. Brief Introduction to SCORM- IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware is the ultimate medical student Web 2.0 companion. This SDL-Face to Face hybrid courseware is adigitally tagged and content enhanced replication of the United States Medical Licensing ExaminationsCognitive Learning Objectives (Steps 1, 2 or 3). Including authoritative reusable learning object (RLO)integration and scholarly Web Interactive PowerPoint-driven multimedia shows/PDFs. Comprehensivehypermedia BMS learning outcomes and detailed, content enriched learning objectives. Marc Imhotep Cray is a Physician (UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School),Pharmacy School trained Pharmacologist / Analytical Chemist, Addiction Medicine Specialist, Basic Medical Sciences (BMS) & Black Studies Master Teacher, Medical Infomatics Expert, Webmaster, Medical & Afrikan-Centered Education Researcher and RBG Street Scholar in Evolution. ·He is formerly Director of Office of Medical Education American International School of Medicine- Georgetown, Guyana. ·Formerly Associate Professor of Basic Medical Sciences and Campus Curriculum Coordinator International University of Health Sciences- School of Medicine-Saint Kitts, West Indies (only PBL Medical School in the Caribbean at the time) ·Dr. Cray is an Expert PBL and Case-Based Learning Tutor / Facilitator ·He has a unique integrated fund of knowledge and eloquence inthe seven traditional BMS with USMLE Step 1 level proficiency in the “4 P’s”-Physiology,Pathophysiology, Pathology and Pharmacology ·Dr.Cray established the first BMS Curriculum DrivenIntroduction to Clinical Medicine-Clinical Skills Center (ICM-CSC) in the West Indies ·Dr. Cray is anexperienced Medical Web Developer, e-Professor / Online Lecturer ·He is an author of several e-articles,e-books and e-magazines (e-Zine), USMLE Tagged Virtual Medical School Courseware and RBG StreetScholars Think Tank... Link to Full CV Imhotep Virtual Medical School Courseware Guidebook IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware Page 1
  2. 2. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. IVMS Quick Start: Current Teaching / Learning CollectionsBrief Introduction to SCORMOverviewThe Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), published by theAdvanced Distributed Learning (ADL) project, is a de facto standard for e-learningcontent. This document is a brief overview of the SCORM specification to help non-technical readers understand the underlying technology and rules. This document isintended for anyone who needs to understand better what SCORM 1.2 enables. Note:This document does not cover SCORM 2004.Imhotep Virtual Medical School:Research Project / Courseware Home Page IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware Page 2
  3. 3. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.The business case for SCORMThe business case for SCORM can besummarized in one picture. Before SCORM,integrating content with a delivery platform for e-Learning or training used to take days, weeks, orsometimes months unless the content was builtspecifically for that platform. Often the costs ofmodifying the content or building special adapters,along with the time to deployment, were simplyprohibitive.Some advantages of SCORM are:  Publish once, play everywhere.  Content can last longer because it is easier to justify ongoing compatibility with standard content.  More places to play the content, and longer life for the content contribute to better returns on investment. This mean that publishers can afford to produce better content.  The same standard supports content that is very simple and inexpensive to produce, as well as content with very high production value.  SCORM specifies a minimum set of metadata that makes it practical to build catalogs of content, regardless of where the content comes from.  Content can be purchased or obtained from the most appropriate source under the most appropriate licensing arrangements, without being tied to a single content provider or authoring tool.  You can mix and match content from different sources, without worrying about technical incompatibilities. Depending on your audience and policies, you may be able to overlook the differences in graphic design. This is not likely to be a problem for younger people raised on MTV and information gathering through surfing wildly different and sometimes baffling web sites.  If things go sour and you have to change vendors, you can take your content with you.  Obsolete content can be archived in a standard, well documented format.All of the above decreases your cost and time to deploy an e-learning solution.Course Demonstration:IVMS Autonomic and Cardiovascular Pharmacology Course IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware Page 3
  4. 4. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.Overview of SCORMWhat is SCORM?SCORM 1.2 is a set of specifications that describes:  How to create Web-based learning content that can be delivered and tracked by different SCORM-compliant learning management systems  What a SCORM-compliant learning management system must do in order to properly deliver and track SCORM-compliant learning contentThe SCORM specification is actually a set of specifications profiles based on variousother industry standards and specifications. This document covers SCORM 1.2.The SCORM specification does not cover all aspects of a learning enterprise; forexample, it does not specify how tracking information is stored and what reports aregenerated, what pedagogical or training models should be used, or how learnerinformation is compiled.SCORM is a collection of specifications adapted from multiple sources to provide acomprehensive suite of e-learning capabilities that enable interoperability, accessibilityand reuse of Web-based learning content [from the ADL SCORMWhat is SCORM-compliant learning content?In the SCORM 1.2 specification, SCORM-compliant learning content is either—inSCORM terminology—a Content Aggregation Package or a Resource Package. AResource Package is a collection of learning assets that is not intended for delivery assuch, for example to archive or migrate a collection of asset. This document does not IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware Page 4
  5. 5. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.describe how to build or use Resource Packages; it focuses on deliverable content. AContent Aggregation Package is:  Intended for delivery to a learner through a Web browser.  Described by metadata.  Organized as a structured collection of one or more learning objects called Shareable Content Objects (typically abbreviated as "SCO", and pronounced "sko").  Packaged in such a way that it can be imported by a compliant learning management system or into a repository used by such a system.  Truly portable, which means that it is designed and constructed in such a way that it can be delivered by any web server without additional special server-side components or installation.What is a SCORM-compliant learning managementsystem?A SCORM-compliant learning management system (LMS) is a system that:  Can accept any SCORM compliant content as described above and make it available to users of the LMS. SCORM does not specify how this is done, but conformance requires that a documented process exist to do it. Some LMS automate the process of "publishing" the content to make it available to the learners. Others require manual copying of files and possibly the manual tweaking of database tables.  Deliver the content to a learner, by providing a runtime environment within which it launches the content. The content is always launched in a web browser window. The runtime environment must meet certain technical requirements defined by the SCORM specification and conformance requirements document.The SCORM 1.2 specification does not require that the LMS user interface behave inany particular way, except for the fact that the user must be able to choose and launchany SCO designed by an item in the content organization.What a LMS does with the tracking information that may be communicated by a SCO isalso not specified by SCORM 1.2. Obviously, often the reason to have a LMS in the firstplace is to collect this tracking information and use it for learning management orreporting purposes, but whether and how to do this is left to the LMS implementers andvendors to decide.Note that although SCORM was designed primarily to support content delivery andtracking through a web server, it does not require the use of the internet or even of anetwork. It is possible to have a SCORM implementation that uses a closed intranet.You may even have purely local, offline implementation. For example, with an offlineruntime environment, you should be able to play SCORM compliant content on a laptop IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware Page 5
  6. 6. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.or workstation with no network connection whatsoever. The offline runtime componentmay or may not include a "mini-LMS" capable of recording tracking information. Such animplementation may perhaps include synchronization with a server-based LMS when amobile computer is reconnected to a network. W hether or how to do this is howeverbeyond the scope of SCORM.Learning objects and SCORMThere is no precise definition of "learning object", but the term itself is useful to describea broad category of digital assets that can be used for learning, training, andperformance or knowledge development. A learning object can be as small as aparagraph of text and as large as a 3 month online course. SCORM can deal withlearning objects of any size. Not everyone, however, is ready to take the conceptualplunge and many people try to relate learning objects to familiar nomenclatures. Forexample, they will tell you that a learning object is something that covers a single topic,or that a learning object is something that a user can complete at a single sitting.Unfortunately, these idiosyncratic definitions dont agree with those of other people whothink that a learning object is a content aggregation of any size. Deliberately undefinedterms do have their use, and "Learning Object" is one of those, along with "food","software", "fuel", "commerce", and so on.SCORM content is made of so-called Shareable Content Objects (SCOs) aggregatedinto a content package. The SCOs are a specialized type of learning object. Each SCOis a unit of content that can be delivered to a learner by a SCORM-compliant learningmanagement system in order to create a useful learning experience.The SCOs used in a SCORM-compliant package may be fully included in the package,or used by reference. For example, under certain conditions a learning sequence mayinclude learning objects that reside on another server. Note that the security restrictionsimplemented in Web browsers to prevent malicious cross-server exploits make the useof learning objects that reside on another server more difficult. How to solve thisproblem is an issue for learning content management system and content repositoryvendors to resolve. There is nothing you can do in the content itself to work around thissecurity barrier.Kinds of SCORM learning objectsA Web-based learning object that can be included in a package for delivery by aSCORM compliant learning management system as an individual activity is called a"Shareable Content Object" (SCO). In practice, SCOs come in two main flavors:  A minimal SCO. This is HTML content or a service that can be launched in the browser window, and uses the SCORM Application Program Interface (API) for IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware Page 6
  7. 7. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. minimal communication with the learning management system. An LMS can track the time between the launch and the normal termination of such an object. Most generic content that can be launched in a browser window, but does not contain links to another learning object, can usually be turned into a SCO by "wrapping" it into a SCO. This could be an HTML page, an Adobe Acrobat file, or a text file. A collection of HTML pages is also acceptable, as long as they only link to each other and not to other learning objects.  A data-enabled SCO. This is like a basic SCO, but also uses the SCORM API to get or send data to the LMS. The data may include tracking data, learner information, etc. as defined in the SCORM 1.2 specification. Online or offline learning objectsRegardless of how many SCORM features they use, SCORM 1.2 compatible learningobjects do not communicate across the Web to a remote server. They onlycommunicate with a specific object within the same browser environment on the clientside. The implementer of the delivery environment provides that object. There is a well-defined way for the content to find that object and communicate with it using simpleJavaScript code or its equivalent. This has major advantages:  SCOs can be very easy to implement, because they do not need to include the complex communication protocol required to send and receive data across the Web or across a local network.  SCOs can be run in an offline environment without requiring a local Web server or proxy server, because they communicate with other local browser objects rather than with a server-based object.The SCORM API implementation is instantiated on the client side by a runtime servicebefore the SCO is launched. This implementation may vary from vendor to vendor. Forexample, the API may be implemented in an HTML frameset that contains a "stage"frame within which the learning objects are launchedOrganizing and sequencing learning objectsThe person or entity that creates a package of learning objects decides how thelearning objects are organized. However, since SCORM 1.2 does not define anysequencing information, the learner will be able to choose which learning object to useand in which order. SCORM 2004 allows the implementation of richer pedagogical orinstructional models.SCORM 1.2 uses the IMS Packaging specification as a foundation for the packagingand organization of learning objects. A package may contain more than one IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware Page 7
  8. 8. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.organization of the same learning objects. For example, you could define two or moretracks covering the same subject at different levels of depth, or for different audiences.An LMS can take advantage of this to allow a choice of the more appropriateorganization.SCORM 1.2 specifies how to build a package, but it does not specify how an LMS usessome optional features of the package such as multiple content organizations.Organizing learning objects and SCOsAn organization of itemsThe organization of the SCORM learning objects in a package is described in ahierarchical tree structure, such as a course structure or hierarchy of content. SCORMdoes not specify a particular depth of the tree. Also, SCORM does not specify anyparticular nomenclature to name the levels of the tree, such as "course, lesson, t opic" or"unit, module, lesson.” You are free to use whatever nomenclature you like, or none.The length of the branches of the trees may vary.Each item in the tree can point to a learning object, or it can contain other items. Eachitem must have a title, which a run time environment will display to the learner.An item in the tree can have children and also point to a learning object. For example, ifyour content hierarchy represents sections, chapters and pages, the chapter headingsmay have their own "cover page.”You can mix and match SCOs at all levels of technical compatibility within the sameorganization. For example, you can aggregate simple, one-page SCOs created withNotepad with complex SCOs created with an advanced authoring tool such asToolBook.Similarity with other content organization modelsOlder organization models, like the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) coursestructure made of Blocks and Assignable Units, can be mapped directly into thisorganization model.Content organization models that use directed graphs cannot be represented directly inthe SCORM hierarchical tree structure. However, many directed graphs can berepresented by making multiple items point to another organization in the package,instead of referencing a SCO. See the description of the packaging manifest (below)and the IMS Content Packaging specifications for more information on how to achievethis with sub-manifests. IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware Page 8
  9. 9. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.SequencingSCORM 1.2 does not define how to sequence SCOs. It is assumed that the user canchoose any item in the content structure.User-choice sequencingIn user-choice sequencing, the runtime service allows the user to choose any item inthe entire learning object organization. Depending on the implementation, this could beaccomplished through a visual tree, a menu or a set of nested menus. SCORM 1.2does not specify what the user interface to choose an item will look like.For example, a typical implementation with a table of content may work like this: Whenthe learner selects an item in the table of content, the item is highlighted and thecorresponding learning object is launched in the stage window. If the item has children,but no learning object of its own, the first child that has a learning object is highlightedand that learning object is launched.Special rules for some itemsMastery scoreYou can assign a mastery score to an activity that uses a SCO. If a score is reported forthe SCO, the runtime service compares the score with the mastery score to set thestatus of the activity to "passed" or "failed.” This overrides any status that may havebeen reported by the SCO.Timeout and timeout actionSee details in the SCORM specification. The runtime service can unload a SCO whenthe time allowed has expired; however this behavior is not well defined and may not beavailable on all implementations because it requires the run time environment to bemore complex on the client side.PrerequisitesSCORM 1.2 defines a very basic form of prerequisites. A prerequisite referencesanother element in an organization tree that must be completed or mastered. However,because the SCORM specification does not clearly define the behavior associated withprerequisites, only a way to specify them, use prerequisites at your own risk. IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware Page 9
  10. 10. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.Implementing SCORM-compliant learning objects andSCOsThe runtime serviceIn order to implement SCORM-compliant learning objects and SCOs it is useful tounderstand a little bit of the runtime environment in which they will be used. Todistinguish this runtime service from the rest of the LMS and its login, authentication,storage and reporting services, we will refer to the runtime environment and theprocesses that manage it as the "runtime service.”The distinction between LMS and runtime service can be useful because an LMS andthe user experience may have, for example, different latency requirements.The runtime service can be implemented in part on the client side (i.e., on the learnerscomputer) and in part on the server side (i.e. somewhere on a server). In an offlinesituation, the server side of the environment is emulated by an application that runs onthe learners computer.The client side of the runtime service:  Is provided by the LMS;  Is implemented as a Web page or frameset in a browser window;  Presents some necessary runtime user interface components to the learner, such as a table of content and/or navigation buttons;  Launches learning objects in a "stage window" that is either part of the frameset, or a separate window that it creates as needed;  Includes an API object instance named "API" that can be found and called by JavaScript or ECMAScript;  Is generated or regenerated as needed by the server side.The server side of the runtime service and the rest of the learning management systemare completely invisible to the scripts in SCORM learning objects. The user interfacecomponents of the runtime service, such as a table of content or navigation buttons, arealso completely invisible to SCORM learning objects. How the client side of the runtimeservice is implemented, and how it communicates with the server are totally invisible tothe content. The only parts of the runtime service with which a SCORM learning objectcan detect and communicate are:  The stage window  The API adapter  The functions provided by the API adapterThe learning objects are specifically prohibited from navigating to other learning objectswithin the stage window. Only the runtime service can load another learning object in IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware Page 10
  11. 11. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.the stage window. The runtime service uses the content organization defined in thecontent package as its guide to manage navigation between learning objects.Packaging SCORM-compliant contentSCORM specifies how to package learning objects as SCOs so that they can beaggregated, stored, copied, moved, archived, uploaded and eventually delivered to auser by any SCORM-compliant management system. A package may contain one SCO,or many SCOs.IMS & SCORM content organization modelThe IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a packaging specification forlearning content that provides a useful blueprint to generic content organization in theform of a manifest included with the package. The manifest is used to inventory thecontent of the package, but also to describe it through metadata. The manifest may alsobe used to show how the content is organized. SCORM 1.2 content packaging is basedon the IMS specification.An IMS packaging manifest is an XML document that contains several parts:  Metadata that describe the package.  Organizations: Zero, one or more hierarchical maps that describe how the content is organized. Each item in such a map can reference a resource in the package. For SCORM content intended for delivery to an end user, the manifest must contain at least one organization.  Resources, which specify actual chunks of content that can be used. More than one organization item can reference the same resource. A resource can also have its own metadata. A SCO is typically described by a resource.  Sub-manifests (nested manifests), which describe a subset of the content in a package. A sub-manifest can have its own metadata, organizations and resources. IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware Page 11
  12. 12. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D. The IMS Content Packaging model used in SCORMFor example, if you were to display an organization as a table of contents, by selectingan item in the table of contents you could launch or open the corresponding resource.Instead of an atomic resource, an item in an organization may reference a sub-manifest,and thus an entire other organization. This can be very useful if the same organized"chunks" of content are used in more than one place in a course, for example. This alsomakes the packaging of organizations in the shape of a directed graph moreconvenient. Because they are self-contained and can have metadata, sub-manifestscan also be useful as a way to identify the parts of a package that can be extracted andreused in another context.This packaging model is the foundation for the SCORM 1.2 content structure andorganization. SCORM 1.2 extends the package definition by specifying additional dataelements. In the XML document, those extensions are identified by the namespaceprefix adlcp:Where to put the metadataSCORM specifies how to add metadata to a package. You put this metadata at the toplevel of the manifest. SCORM also adds the option to reference a separate metadatafile included in the package. To conform to SCORM 1.2, you may either include themetadata in the manifest directly, or use the SCORM-defined extension to reference anexternal metadata file. You cannot do both, i.e. you may not have both inline metadatain the manifest and a reference to a metadata file. SCORM also allows additionalmetadata as defined by the IMS schema. IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware Page 12
  13. 13. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.To create a SCORM packageCreate an XML manifest. This is an XML file with a header as specified in SCORM 1.2.  Add a resources section and describe each learning object (SCO) as a resource element in the resources section.  Unless you are referencing external resources, identify all the files that are needed for each learning object as file elements in each resource.  If several learning objects use the same files (for example, the same graphic), consider using the dependency element, and making that element reference a common resource that is a collection of assets, rather than repeating the lists of files several times.  Add an organizations section above the resources section.  Create one or more organization trees that contain item elements that reference the resources.  Add a metadata section above the organizations section.  Add metadata elements as specified in SCORM 1.2 to describe the package and its content.  Create a zip file that contains the manifest, the XML control files (XSD, etc.) and all the files included in the package. You can use subdirectories. The manifest file must be in the base directory of the directory tree, and its name must be "imsmanifest.xml". See the IMS Content Packaging Best Practices guide for more information instructions. SCORM conformance and interoperability requires that you include the XSD files specified in SCORM 1.2. Those are not the most recent XSDs posted on the IMS Web site.Content paths and directoriesWhen the SCORM content you created is installed in an LMS or repository, it willprobably not end up in the same directory as on your development system, or have thesame access rights associated with it. Therefore you must follow these rules in theorganization of any internal links in your Web content:  All files used, linked or referenced by any web content in the package must be in a directory that is either the base directory of the package, or a descendant of that directory.  All references must be relative. You may not hard wire paths relative to either the disk root directory or a specific disk drive or volume. For example, the values of href and src attributes in HTML files may not begin with a "/" (forward slash), or specify a relative path that goes further toward the root than the base directory of the package. IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware Page 13
  14. 14. Imhotep Virtual Medical School Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.RESOURCES  ADL Guidelines for Creating Reusable Content with SCORM 2004  SCORM Resource Portal: Product and Service Directory, News, Forums, Jobs, and whitepapers  Concise articles like "SCORM For Dummies" and "SCORM For Developers", graphical reference poster and tools to help with conformance  SCORM Information and Resources: Overview, Terminology, Conformance, Tutorials on content creation, and Downloads  ADL Community: Community site for advanced distributed learning technologies, including SCORM  SCORM Primer by Philip Dodds, Chief Architect of SCORM  SCORM Developer Network (Redbird DevNet): SCORM-related News, Forums, Jobs, Documentation, and more...  SCORM BRASIL (Portuguese): Forums, Cursos, Documentação, e mais...DownloadsName Date Issues DownloadADL Guidelines for Creating Reusable Content with SCORM 2004 08/01/2008(For Public Comment) IVMS is a SCORM Compliant Courseware Page 14