Breaking Down the WallsBreaking Down the Walls
for Children at Risk:for Children at Risk:
The Need for TargetedThe Need fo...
What Places Children at Risk?What Places Children at Risk?
A risk factor approach is based on theA risk factor approach is based on the
belief that significant exposure to key riskb...
“Students who have a high probability of
failing to acquire minimal academic skills
necessary for success in the adult wo...
Characteristics of Students At Risk
•Low socioeconomic status familiesLow socioeconomic status families
•Minority ethnic g...
A child from a low-income familyA child from a low-income family
enters kindergarten with a listeningenters kindergarten w...
Forty million adults in the U.S. can’t readForty million adults in the U.S. can’t read
well enough to read a simple story ...
There are many children who begin theirThere are many children who begin their
lives in poverty and without a securelives ...
From 1983 to 2006, over 10 millionFrom 1983 to 2006, over 10 million
Americans reached the 12th grade withoutAmericans rea...
During the summer break, low-income students loseDuring the summer break, low-income students lose
more than two months of...
By the end of fifth grade, low-incomeBy the end of fifth grade, low-income
children fall more than two yearschildren fall ...
The correlation between preschool-ageThe correlation between preschool-age
aggression and aggression at age 10 is higherag...
Nearly a billion people entered the 21stNearly a billion people entered the 21st
century unable to read a book or signcent...
Poverty Places Children at RiskPoverty Places Children at Risk
Number of children in the world living inNumber of children...
U.S. Children Living inU.S. Children Living in
PovertyPoverty
 The official number of poor in the US in 2008The official ...
The data is in and the numbers tell a troubling story:The data is in and the numbers tell a troubling story:
44 percent of...
Two-thirds of American classrooms haveTwo-thirds of American classrooms have
fewer than 50 children’s books, andfewer than...
The rate of children living in poverty thisThe rate of children living in poverty this
year will climb to nearly 22%, the ...
Up to 500,000 children may be
homeless this year, living either in
shelters or places not meant for
habitation. 2010 censu...
One out of every two children in the UnitedOne out of every two children in the United
States will live in a single-parent...
About 20 million children live in aAbout 20 million children live in a
household with only their mother orhousehold with o...
Children in poverty often have less verbalChildren in poverty often have less verbal
interaction with their parents, resul...
A number of school-age children (5 to 17) speak aA number of school-age children (5 to 17) speak a
language other than Eng...
Children’s homes andChildren’s homes and
families constitute onefamilies constitute one
of the earliestof the earliest
ind...
In addition to poverty, students at risk often comeIn addition to poverty, students at risk often come
from families where...
Each week, child protective services (CPS)Each week, child protective services (CPS)
agencies throughout the United States...
1.7 million (about 2.3 percent) of all1.7 million (about 2.3 percent) of all
American children have a parent inAmerican ch...
Early academic failures are second only to poverty in
predicting school failure.
2010 census
bureau
Students whose behaviors identify them as
academically or behaviorally deficient are more likely
to be exposed to negative...
The justice and welfare systems overwhelmingly
serve individuals who have poorly developed
academic skills and have experi...
Fatherless children areFatherless children are twicetwice
as likely to drop out of school.*as likely to drop out of school...
Early problem behavior is highly related to
successful school experiences (Gresham, Lane, &
Lambros, 2000; Lyman, 2002). C...
Ninety percent of homeless and runaway
children are from fatherless homes.*
2010 census
Eight five percent of all youths sitting in prisons
grew up in a fatherless home.*
Most prevention efforts begin in school because it is
the place where professionals have the greatest, and
typically the e...
When a student struggles academically, weWhen a student struggles academically, we
look for instructional solutionslook fo...
We have toWe have to
look forlook for
solutionssolutions
when awhen a
studentstudent
strugglesstruggles
behaviorallybehavi...
For children who are at risk, the sooner we can provide
support the better chance they have of succeeding.
Teachers EncouragingTeachers Encouraging
At Risk StudentsAt Risk Students
 Make the curriculumMake the curriculum
relevan...
Positive Behavior SupportsPositive Behavior Supports
Check-in, CheckoutCheck-in, Checkout
Social skills trainingSocial ski...
Targeted StrategiesTargeted Strategies
 Showcasing Student’s talents
 Positive Peer Reporting
 Peer Tutoring
 Pre-teac...
The Impact of a PositiveThe Impact of a Positive
Relationship…Relationship…
Can Change a LifeCan Change a Life
So let’s begin…So let’s begin…
Steve Vitto In Support of PBIS Targeted Interventions
Steve Vitto In Support of PBIS Targeted Interventions
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Steve Vitto In Support of PBIS Targeted Interventions

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A PRESENTATION REVIEWING THE INFLUENCES AND CORRELATES THAT CAN PLACE A CHILD AT RISK, AND INTRODUCING SOME EVIDENCED BASED STRATEGIES
FOR SUPPORTING THESE STUDENTS. FOR FURTHER QUESTIONS CONTACT SVITTO@MUSKEGONISD.ORG

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Steve Vitto In Support of PBIS Targeted Interventions

  1. 1. Breaking Down the WallsBreaking Down the Walls for Children at Risk:for Children at Risk: The Need for TargetedThe Need for Targeted InterventionsInterventions Presented by:Steven VittoPresented by:Steven Vitto
  2. 2. What Places Children at Risk?What Places Children at Risk?
  3. 3. A risk factor approach is based on theA risk factor approach is based on the belief that significant exposure to key riskbelief that significant exposure to key risk factors is associated with negative, long-factors is associated with negative, long- term life outcomesterm life outcomes
  4. 4. “Students who have a high probability of failing to acquire minimal academic skills necessary for success in the adult world.”
  5. 5. Characteristics of Students At Risk •Low socioeconomic status familiesLow socioeconomic status families •Minority ethnic groupsMinority ethnic groups •Linguistic minority backgroundLinguistic minority background •History of academic failureHistory of academic failure •Older in age than classmatesOlder in age than classmates •Emotional and behavior problemsEmotional and behavior problems •Lack of psychological attachmentLack of psychological attachment to schoolto school •List your most at-risk students---List your most at-risk students--- these are the ones we want YOU tothese are the ones we want YOU to focus on—the ones who needfocus on—the ones who need YOUR help the most!YOUR help the most! (Ormrod, 2006)
  6. 6. A child from a low-income familyA child from a low-income family enters kindergarten with a listeningenters kindergarten with a listening vocabulary of 3,000 words, while avocabulary of 3,000 words, while a child of a middle-income family enterschild of a middle-income family enters with a listening vocabulary of 20,000with a listening vocabulary of 20,000 words (Hart & Risley, 2005).words (Hart & Risley, 2005).
  7. 7. Forty million adults in the U.S. can’t readForty million adults in the U.S. can’t read well enough to read a simple story to awell enough to read a simple story to a child (NCES, 2005).child (NCES, 2005).
  8. 8. There are many children who begin theirThere are many children who begin their lives in poverty and without a securelives in poverty and without a secure attachmentattachment 2010 census bureau
  9. 9. From 1983 to 2006, over 10 millionFrom 1983 to 2006, over 10 million Americans reached the 12th grade withoutAmericans reached the 12th grade without having learned to read at a basic level. In thehaving learned to read at a basic level. In the same period, over 6 million Americanssame period, over 6 million Americans dropped out of high school (U.S. Departmentdropped out of high school (U.S. Department of Education, 2007)of Education, 2007)
  10. 10. During the summer break, low-income students loseDuring the summer break, low-income students lose more than two months of reading achievement.more than two months of reading achievement.
  11. 11. By the end of fifth grade, low-incomeBy the end of fifth grade, low-income children fall more than two yearschildren fall more than two years behind their middle-income peers inbehind their middle-income peers in verbal achievement as a result ofverbal achievement as a result of summer learning differencessummer learning differences 2010 census bureau
  12. 12. The correlation between preschool-ageThe correlation between preschool-age aggression and aggression at age 10 is higheraggression and aggression at age 10 is higher than that for IQ.than that for IQ. (Kazdin, 2006)(Kazdin, 2006)
  13. 13. Nearly a billion people entered the 21stNearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or signcentury unable to read a book or sign their namestheir names
  14. 14. Poverty Places Children at RiskPoverty Places Children at Risk Number of children in the world living inNumber of children in the world living in poverty = 2.2 billionpoverty = 2.2 billion Every second a child is born into povertyEvery second a child is born into poverty
  15. 15. U.S. Children Living inU.S. Children Living in PovertyPoverty  The official number of poor in the US in 2008The official number of poor in the US in 2008 is 39.1 million people. More than half areis 39.1 million people. More than half are children.children.
  16. 16. The data is in and the numbers tell a troubling story:The data is in and the numbers tell a troubling story: 44 percent of American children grow up in families44 percent of American children grow up in families that face serious struggles to make ends meetthat face serious struggles to make ends meet 2010 census
  17. 17. Two-thirds of American classrooms haveTwo-thirds of American classrooms have fewer than 50 children’s books, andfewer than 50 children’s books, and almost 60 percent of childcare centersalmost 60 percent of childcare centers buy fewer than one book per child abuy fewer than one book per child a year (Neuman et. al, 2007).year (Neuman et. al, 2007).
  18. 18. The rate of children living in poverty thisThe rate of children living in poverty this year will climb to nearly 22%, the highestyear will climb to nearly 22%, the highest rate in two decades.rate in two decades. 2010 census bureau
  19. 19. Up to 500,000 children may be homeless this year, living either in shelters or places not meant for habitation. 2010 census bureau
  20. 20. One out of every two children in the UnitedOne out of every two children in the United States will live in a single-parentStates will live in a single-parent familyfamily atat some time before they reach age 18.some time before they reach age 18. According the United States Census Bureau,According the United States Census Bureau, in 2007in 2007
  21. 21. About 20 million children live in aAbout 20 million children live in a household with only their mother orhousehold with only their mother or their father. This is more than one-their father. This is more than one- fourth of all children in the Unitedfourth of all children in the United States.States. 27% of custodial single mothers and their children live in poverty
  22. 22. Children in poverty often have less verbalChildren in poverty often have less verbal interaction with their parents, resulting ininteraction with their parents, resulting in significantly lower vocabularies at thesignificantly lower vocabularies at the time they enter schooltime they enter school 2010 census bureau
  23. 23. A number of school-age children (5 to 17) speak aA number of school-age children (5 to 17) speak a language other than English at home. These childrenlanguage other than English at home. These children make up nearly 1-in-5 in this age group. Most ofmake up nearly 1-in-5 in this age group. Most of them (7.1 million) speak Spanish at home.them (7.1 million) speak Spanish at home.
  24. 24. Children’s homes andChildren’s homes and families constitute onefamilies constitute one of the earliestof the earliest indicators of potentialindicators of potential academic failure.academic failure. Research hasResearch has demonstrated ademonstrated a connection betweenconnection between poverty and schoolpoverty and school dropout for bothdropout for both regular and specialregular and special education students.education students. 2010 census bureau
  25. 25. In addition to poverty, students at risk often comeIn addition to poverty, students at risk often come from families where academic skills such as readingfrom families where academic skills such as reading are not modeled, and where multiple family stressorsare not modeled, and where multiple family stressors are present (e.g., alcohol and other drug abuse,are present (e.g., alcohol and other drug abuse, divorce, child maltreatment).divorce, child maltreatment).
  26. 26. Each week, child protective services (CPS)Each week, child protective services (CPS) agencies throughout the United Statesagencies throughout the United States receive more than 50,000 reports ofreceive more than 50,000 reports of suspected child abuse or neglect.suspected child abuse or neglect. 2010 census bureau
  27. 27. 1.7 million (about 2.3 percent) of all1.7 million (about 2.3 percent) of all American children have a parent inAmerican children have a parent in prison.prison. 2010 census bureau
  28. 28. Early academic failures are second only to poverty in predicting school failure. 2010 census bureau
  29. 29. Students whose behaviors identify them as academically or behaviorally deficient are more likely to be exposed to negative interaction and punishment in the classroom and are less likely to be engaged in instructional time with their teachers.
  30. 30. The justice and welfare systems overwhelmingly serve individuals who have poorly developed academic skills and have experienced school failure. Lower levels of literacy are strongly associated with higher rates of delinquency and incarceration. 2010 census bureau
  31. 31. Fatherless children areFatherless children are twicetwice as likely to drop out of school.*as likely to drop out of school.*
  32. 32. Early problem behavior is highly related to successful school experiences (Gresham, Lane, & Lambros, 2000; Lyman, 2002). Children who evidence problem behavior at school are likely to struggle early, often, and throughout their school careers (Patterson, 1992; Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 2005).
  33. 33. Ninety percent of homeless and runaway children are from fatherless homes.* 2010 census
  34. 34. Eight five percent of all youths sitting in prisons grew up in a fatherless home.*
  35. 35. Most prevention efforts begin in school because it is the place where professionals have the greatest, and typically the earliest, access to children. School-wide efforts to prevent student failure can be organized under a system of positive behavioral interventions and support that involves the entire school. (Sugai et al., 2005 )
  36. 36. When a student struggles academically, weWhen a student struggles academically, we look for instructional solutionslook for instructional solutions
  37. 37. We have toWe have to look forlook for solutionssolutions when awhen a studentstudent strugglesstruggles behaviorallybehaviorally
  38. 38. For children who are at risk, the sooner we can provide support the better chance they have of succeeding.
  39. 39. Teachers EncouragingTeachers Encouraging At Risk StudentsAt Risk Students  Make the curriculumMake the curriculum relevant to student torelevant to student to students’ lives andstudents’ lives and needsneeds  Use students’Use students’ strengths to promotestrengths to promote high self-esteemhigh self-esteem  Communicate highCommunicate high expectations forexpectations for students’ performancestudents’ performance  Encourage andEncourage and facilitate schoolfacilitate school involvement andinvolvement and extracurricularextracurricular activitiesactivities  How can you do thisHow can you do this with the students youwith the students you listed???listed??? (Ormrod, 2006)(Ormrod, 2006)
  40. 40. Positive Behavior SupportsPositive Behavior Supports Check-in, CheckoutCheck-in, Checkout Social skills trainingSocial skills training MentoringMentoring Teach Organizational skillsTeach Organizational skills Self-monitoringSelf-monitoring New Comers ClubNew Comers Club There are things that schools can to support children who are at risk:
  41. 41. Targeted StrategiesTargeted Strategies  Showcasing Student’s talents  Positive Peer Reporting  Peer Tutoring  Pre-teach Key Concepts  Homework Club  Wrap Around
  42. 42. The Impact of a PositiveThe Impact of a Positive Relationship…Relationship… Can Change a LifeCan Change a Life
  43. 43. So let’s begin…So let’s begin…
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