Early Childhood Development And Abuse


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Early Childhood Development And Abuse

  1. 1. Ages 2-5 By Rissa, Mary, Jennifer, Heidi, and Jenna Early Childhood
  2. 2. Multicultural and Gender Considerations
  3. 3. <ul><li>Begin to develop unique sense of self </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize ethnic differences </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to other cultures limited by caregiver </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cross Culturally Adopted Children <ul><li>Do not differ in self-esteem or adjustment compared to same-race adoptees </li></ul><ul><li>Children adopted younger seem to do better (stability?) </li></ul><ul><li>Environment, Family, community play an important role </li></ul>
  5. 5. Gender Role and Sexual Identity <ul><li>Strong notions of sex-typed play </li></ul><ul><li>Age 3- sense of gender identity </li></ul><ul><li>Age 4-gender stability </li></ul><ul><li>Seem genetic-- male aggression and female nurturance </li></ul>Sex Stereotyping <ul><li>Help or limit children forming identity? </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural vale assigned </li></ul><ul><li>Greater competency attributed to boys </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gay foster care and adoption <ul><li>More than half of gay men and 41 percent </li></ul><ul><li>of lesbians want to have a child. </li></ul><ul><li>More than one in three lesbians have given </li></ul><ul><li>birth and one in six gay men have fathered </li></ul><ul><li>or adopted a child. </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated two million GLB people are </li></ul><ul><li>interested in adopting. </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 65,500 adopted children are </li></ul><ul><li>living with a lesbian or gay parent. </li></ul><ul><li>Same-sex couples raising adopted children </li></ul><ul><li>are older, more educated, and have more </li></ul><ul><li>economic resources than other adoptive parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted children with same-sex parents are younger and more likely to be foreign born. </li></ul><ul><li>Gay and lesbian parents are raising four percent of all adopted children in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 14,100 foster children are living with lesbian or gay parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Gay and lesbian parents are raising three percent of foster children in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>A national ban on GLB foster care could cost from $87 to $130 million. Costs to individual states could range from $100,000 to $27 million. </li></ul>
  7. 7. “ Perfection” or Permanency?
  8. 8. Social Strengths and Hazards <ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative effects most pronounced in 1 st 5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WIC, Head Start, SCHIP, School Breakfast/Lunch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty Linked to Child abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Neglect is result of lack of resources- goods such as food, education on parenting or development, or services such as childcare </li></ul>
  9. 9. Child Abuse Composition of substantiated (DHHS) child abuse in 2000:    879,000 children were victims of child maltreatment.    Neglect ~ 63%    Physical ~ 19%    Sexual ~10%    Psychological ~ 8%   1 of every 7 victims of sexual assault were under age 6;    40% of offenders who victimized children under age 6 were juveniles (under age 18). Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati Rate of child abuse by race:    White = 51%    African American = 25%    Hispanic = 15%    American Indian/Alaska Natives = 2%    Asian/Pacific Islanders = 1%
  10. 10. <ul><li>Types of abuse (most to least common) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neglect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why Not Report? </li></ul><ul><li>Cues from family </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t realize importance </li></ul><ul><li>Do realize importance </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship with abuser </li></ul><ul><li>No framework </li></ul>
  11. 11. Reporting <ul><li>Most children don’t report, especially males </li></ul><ul><li>Trusting age, and child nearly always knows perpetrator </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to substantiate </li></ul><ul><li>Can children’s testimony be trusted? </li></ul><ul><li>Usually testimony more reliable than physical exams ( Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati) </li></ul><ul><li>The typical child sex offender molests an average of 117 children, most of who do not report the offence. Source: National Institute of Mental Health, 1988. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Effects <ul><li>Long term effects of child abuse include fear, anxiety, depression, anger, hostility, inappropriate sexual behavior, poor self esteem, tendency toward substance abuse and difficulty with close relationships. Source: Browne & Finkelhor, 1986. </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Self-destructive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>May not manifest until child is older </li></ul><ul><li>Social maladjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Victimizing others </li></ul>
  13. 13. Risk Factors <ul><li>Substance Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Family size </li></ul><ul><li>Stress and Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Social isolation </li></ul><ul><li>History of child abuse in caregiver </li></ul><ul><li>Age of caregiver </li></ul><ul><li>Education of caregiver </li></ul><ul><li>Child has Disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Family Structure (single, step-family, extended family) </li></ul><ul><li>Parental employment </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship of parent/child </li></ul>  It is estimated that children with disabilities are 4 to 10 times more vulnerable to sexual abuse than their non-disabled peers. Source: National Resource Center on Child Sexual Abuse, 1992.
  14. 14. Child Interviews
  15. 15. Resources <ul><li>http://www.acf.hhs.gov/ Administration of Children and Families </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption and Foster Care by Lesbian and Gay Parents in the United States , Author(s): Gary Gates, Lee M.V. perman e nt link: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=411437 </li></ul><ul><li>A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice User Manual Series (2003) Author(s):  Office on Child Abuse and Neglect (HHS) Goldman, Salus, Wolcott, Kennedy Year Published:  2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Liederman, David S. “Child Welfare Overview” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW </li></ul><ul><li>Wells, Susan J. “Child Abuse and Neglect Overview” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW </li></ul><ul><li>Barth, Richard P. “Adoption” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.prevent-abuse-now.com/stats.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.childwelfare.gov/index.cfm Child Welfare Information Gateway </li></ul><ul><li>Brisset-Chapman, Sheryl. “Child Abuse and Neglect: Direct Practice” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW </li></ul><ul><li>Conte, Jon R. “Child Sexual Abuse Overview” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW </li></ul><ul><li>Berliner, Lucy. “Child Sexual Abuse: Direct Practice” Encyclopedia of Social Work 19 th ed. Washington D.C., NASW </li></ul>