Early childhood pp


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Early childhood pp

  2. 2. EARLY CHILDHOOD <ul><li>Period between the ages of 3 and 6 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Children develop a more sophisticated ability to understand the world around them and their relationship to the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Period also referred to as preschool age or early school age (Hutchinson, 2008, p. 142). </li></ul>Photo taken from iexpress.com
  3. 3. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD <ul><li>The Brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The brain is the continuing development of early childhood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The brain during early childhood does not grow as rapidly as it does during infancy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The brain is 3 quarters of its adult size at the age of three. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The development that occurs inside the brain continues through the remaining childhood and adolescent years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior changes in the brain increases due to myelination, in which nerve cells are covered and insulated with fat cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myelination increases the speed and efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s brains undergo dramatic anatomical changes between the ages of 3 and 15 (Santrock, 2008, p. 211). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD (CON’T) <ul><li>Height and Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The average child grows 2 ½ inches in height and gains between 5 and 7 pounds a year during early childhood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls are slightly smaller and lighter than boys during these years, this usually continues through puberty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children tend to loose their top heavy look and body fat is on a decrease. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls have more fatty tissue than boys because boys have more muscle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s growth patterns vary individually, this is mainly due to heredity and now environmental experiences are involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children in urban status are taller than those of rural status. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African American children are taller that White children (Santrock, 2008, p. 211). </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD (CON’T) <ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too many young children in the United States are being raised on diets that are too high in fat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child’s life should be centered on activities, not meals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other nutritional concerns include malnutrition in early childhood and the inadequate diets of many children living in poverty. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Illness and Death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccines have virtually eradicated many diseases that once resulted in the deaths of many young children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The disorders still most likely to be fatal for young children in the United States are cancer and cardiovascular disease, but accidents are the leading cause of death in young children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A special concern is the poor health status of many young children in low-income families. There has been a dramatic increase in HIV/AIDS in young children in developing countries in the last decade (Santrock, 2008, p. 241). </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD <ul><li>Language and Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In order for language to exist, children must be able to “organize” their experiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the end of toddlerhood, young children have a vocabulary of about 1,000 words, and they are increasing that store by about 50 words per month. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can speak in two word sentences, and they have learned the question form of language. They ask, “why” questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the fourth year of life, language development is remarkably sophisticated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 year olds are usually speaking in sentences of 8 to 10 words, they can tell a story mostly in words rather than using gestures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By age 4, young children in all cultures understand the basic grammar rules of their language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They accomplish this mostly by a figuring out process. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD <ul><li>Gross Motor Skills- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills that require the use of the large muscle groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The preschool child no longer has to make an effort simply to stay upright and move around. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 3 years of age, children enjoy simple movements, such as hopping, jumping, and running back and forth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 4 years of age, they are more adventurous; scrambling over gyms to display athletic abilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 5 years of age children enjoy races with other children and their parents (Santrock, 2008, p. 212). </li></ul></ul>photo taken from poundingheartbeat.com
  8. 8. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD (CONT). <ul><li>Fine Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the ability to scribble and draw. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 3 years of age children have the ability to pick up objects between their thumbs and forefingers. They are still somewhat clumsy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 4 years of age motor coordination has improved and become more precise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 5 years of age motor coordination has substantially improved; hand, body and arm movements are all in sync with the eyes (Santrock, 2008, p. 212). </li></ul></ul>Photo taken from ehow.com
  9. 9. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD <ul><li>Peer Relations-Boys tend to gravitate to other boys, and girls to other girls. Rejection by peers becomes on issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Self Concept-the self theories of self-esteem and self worth comes into play. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender identity and sexual interests; here children begin to learn and understand themselves and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Differences between sex, gender, gender identity and sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex-biology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender-cognitive and emotional schemes of being male or female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender identity-sense of being male or female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation-preference for sexually intimate partners (Hutchinson, 2008, p. 152). </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD (CON’T) <ul><li>Racial and Ethnic Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children learn their racial identity early </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With others, they identify with skin color as opposed to race or ethnicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doll studies of Kenneth & Mamie Clark (1939). Black children responded more favorably to white dolls and had negative reactions to black dolls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-concept & self-esteem, controversial about what doll preferences says about how children see their place in society vs. how they view themselves (Hutchinson, 2008, pp-153-154). </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. EARLY CHILDHOOD & THE ROLE OF PLAY <ul><li>“ Play may be one of the few elements in the development of young children that is universal, regardless of culture.” </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic play (fantasy, pretend or imaginary play) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of vivid imaginations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to Explore Reality </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to Gain Control (cope with fear) </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Form Attachment to Fathers (Hutchinson, 2008, pp. 154-158). </li></ul>
  12. 12. ISSUES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD <ul><li>Early Childhood Education -low income and racial minority students in the United States have less access to quality early childhood education that their age peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty- 40% of US children between the ages of 3-6 live in low income families with the incomes below 200% of the poverty level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60% of African American & Latina children under 6 live in low income families. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divorce -over half of the children born in 1990s spent some of their childhood in a single parent household. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many divorced parents have difficulty maintaining effective levels of parenting . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In early childhood, children are more vulnerable than older children to the emotional and psychological consequences of separation and divorce (Anderson, 2005). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ineffective Discipline -Parents struggle with how forceful to be in response to undesired behavior because they are not formally trained in parenting skills. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenting Styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian parenting- parents are rigid and controlling with rules being narrow and specific. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritative parenting-parents are flexible and rules are reasonable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permissive parenting-rules are unclear and children make their own decisions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture and Discipline-discipline is based on one’s culture (Hutchinson, 2008, pp. 159-170). </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. ISSUES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD (CON’T) <ul><li>Violence -parents complain that keeping violence away from children requires tremendous work even in the best of circumstances. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violence is common in some communities that they are labeled “war zones.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood violence has become a major health issue for children. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They demonstrate low self-esteem and difficulty managing and coping with conflict. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic Violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During early childhood, children respond in a number of ways during violent episodes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They have increased behavior problems and problems with adjustment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In early childhood, children are more vulnerable than older children to the effects of living with domestic violence. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child Maltreatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child abuse may take the form of verbal, emotional, physical, or sexual abuse or child neglect. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>86%of children who die from child maltreatment are under 6 years of age. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty and parental isolation are some forms of child maltreatment . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child abuse creates risk to all aspects of growth and development, especially for children ages birth to 6 are at highest risk of having long lasting damage (Hutchinson, 2008, pp. 166-170). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. PARENTING STYLES & PROTECTIVE FACTORS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD <ul><li>Social Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediates many potential risks to the development of young children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of social support increases the likelihood of a positive outcome for parents who divorce or those from violent backgrounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive Parent-Child Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least one parent helps children to feel secure and nurtured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children build initiative during the early childhood years. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective Parenting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a need for firm limits whether they are established by parents or grandparents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective parenting promotes self-esteem and provides young children with a model of how they can take imitative within boundaries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A high level of self-worth may allow young children to persist in mastery of skills despite adverse conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research indicates that self-esteem is a protective factor against the effects of child abuse (Fraser et al., 2004). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even in young children a high IQ serves as a protective factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence may also protect children through increased problem-solving skills, which allow more effective responses to adverse situations (Hutchinson, 2008, 170-171). </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. ATTACHMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD <ul><li>In early childhood, children still depend on their attachment relationships for feelings of security. </li></ul><ul><li>During stressful times the behavior may look like that clinging behavior of the 2 year old. </li></ul><ul><li>Securely attached children will handle their anxieties by verbalizing their needs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, at bed time, the 4 year old child may say, “I would like you to read one more story before you go.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children continue to use transitional objects, such as blankets of a favorite teddy bear to soothe themselves when they are anxious. </li></ul>
  16. 16. PIAGET’S PREOPERATIONAL STAGE <ul><li>In early childhood, children fit into the second state of cognitive development described by Piaget, the preoperational stage. This stage is in turn divided into two substages </li></ul><ul><li>During the preoperational stage children cannot yet perform operations, which are reversible mental actions, but they begin to represent the world with symbols, to form stable concepts, and to reason. </li></ul><ul><li>During the symbolic function substage, which occurs between about 2 and 4 years of age, children begin to mentally represent and object that is not present, but their thoughts is limited by egocentrism and animism. </li></ul><ul><li>During the intuitive substage, which stretches from about 4 to 7 years of age, children begin to reason and to bombard adult with questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought at this substage is called intuitive because children seem so sure about their knowledge yet are unaware of how they know what they know. </li></ul><ul><li>Centration and a lack of conservation also characterize the preoperational stage (Santrock, 2008, p. 241). </li></ul>
  17. 17. ERIKSON’S THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Erikson, labeled the stage of emotional development that takes place during the early childhood years and initiative versus guilt (ages 3 to 6). </li></ul><ul><li>Children learn to get satisfaction from completing tasks. They develop imagination and fantasies, and learn to handle guilt about their fantasies. </li></ul><ul><li>At the beginning of this stage, children’s focus is on family relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>They learn what roles are appropriate for various family members, and they learn to accept parental limits. </li></ul><ul><li>They develop gender identity through identification with the parent of the same sex. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of this stage, the child’s focus turns to friendships outside the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Children engage in cooperative play and enjoy both sharing and competing with peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Children must also have the opportunity to establish peer relationships outside the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Children who become stuck in this stage are plagued with guilt about their goals and fantasies </li></ul><ul><li>They become confused about their gender identity and about family riles. </li></ul><ul><li>These children are overly anxious and self-centered (Hutchinson, 2008, p. 149). </li></ul>
  18. 18. VYGOTSKY’S THEORY <ul><li>Vygotsky, theory represents a social constructivist approach to development. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Vygotsky, children construct knowledge through social interaction, and they use language not only to communicate with others but also to plan, guide, and monitor their own behavior and to help them solve problems. </li></ul><ul><li>His theory suggest that adults should asses and use the child’s zone of proximal development (ZDP), which is the range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but which can be learned with the guidance and assistance of adults or more skilled children. </li></ul><ul><li>The theory also suggests that adults and peers should teach through scaffolding, which involves changing the level of support over the course of a teaching session, which the more skilled person adjusting guidance to fir the student’s current performance level (Santrock, 2008, p. 241). </li></ul>
  19. 19. KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Kohlberg described three levels of moral reasoning of moral reasoning, which two stages in each level. It was expected that in early childhood, children will operate at the preconventional level, with their reasoning about moral issues based, first, on what gets them rewarded or punished. </li></ul><ul><li>Level I-Preconventional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1: Moral reasoning is based on whether behavior is rewarded or punished. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Moral reasoning is based on what will benefit the self of loved one. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level II-Conventional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 3: Moral reasoning is based on the approval of authorities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 4: Moral reasoning is based on upholding societal standards. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level III-Postconventional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 5: Moral reasoning is based on social contracts and cooperation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 6: Moral reasoning is based on universal ethical principles (Hutchinson, 2008, pp. 147-148). </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. SOCIAL WORKERS WHO WORK WITH EARLY CHILDHOOD <ul><li>Social workers provide social services and assistance to improve the social and psychological functioning of children and their families. Workers in this field assess their client’s needs and offer assistance to improve their situation. This often includes coordinating available services to assist a child or family. They may assist single parents in finding day care, arrange adoptions, or help find foster homes for neglected, abandoned, or abused children. These workers may specialize in working with a particular problem, population or setting, such as child protective services, adoption, homelessness, domestic violence, or foster care. </li></ul><ul><li>In schools, social workers often serve as the link between students' families and the school, working with parents, guardians, teachers, and other school officials to ensure that students reach their academic and personal potential. They also assist students in dealing with stress or emotional problems. Many school social workers work directly with children with disabilities and their families. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, they address problems such as misbehavior, truancy, teenage pregnancy, and drug and alcohol problems and advise teachers on how to cope with difficult students. School social workers may teach workshops to entire classes on topics like conflict resolution. </li></ul>
  21. 21. COUNSELORS WHO WORK WITH EARLY CHILDHOOD <ul><li>Elementary school counselors seem to have a different approach to counseling. As a child ages, a counselor will take on a more individual approach to counseling. Counselors are typically only called upon for individual sessions when a child is in elementary school when the child is dealing with a learning curve or disability, a familial issue, or shows poor behavioral trends. Other than that, the standard approach that an elementary school counselor will take is to perform group sessions amongst classes. </li></ul><ul><li>A counselor will observe how each child behaves in the classroom. If the counselor feels that a child has special needs, the counselor will bring this to the attention of the parent, other school Administration, as well as the child’s teachers. Counselors then help to formulate a plan to help a child as they work together to assist, as well as help them improve </li></ul>
  22. 22. REFERENCES <ul><li>Anderson, C. (2005). Single-parent families: Strengths, vulnerabilities, and interventions. In B. Carter & M. McGoldrick, The expanded family life cycle: Individual, family, and social perspectives (3 rd ed., pp. 399-416). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Fraser, M. (2004). Risk and resilience in childhood: An ecological perspective (2 nd ed.). Washington, DC: NASW Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Hutchinson, E.D. (2008). Dimensions of Human Behavior: The Changing Life Courses (3 rd ed.). </li></ul><ul><li>Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Krug, E., Dahlberg, L., Mercy, J., Zwi, A., & Lozano, R. (2002), World report on violence and health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Santrock, J.W. (2008). Life-span development (12 th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill. </li></ul>