Chapter 24 blog notes

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Chapter 24 blog notes

  1. 1. Chapter 24Southern Africa
  2. 2. Section 1Physical Geography
  3. 3. Physical Features• Amazing scenery• Grassy plains, steamy swamps, mighty rivers, rocky waterfalls, & steep mts. and plateaus
  4. 4. Plateaus & Mountains• Most of land lies on large plateau • Land rises sharply from narrow coastal plain• Escarpment: the steep face at the edge of a plateau or other raised area • Drakensberg Mt. range make up eastern escarpment • Inyanga Mts. separate Zimbabwe & Mozambique
  5. 5. Plains & Rivers• Plains: • Grassy & home to lions, leopards, elephants, baboons, & antelope• Rivers: • Okavango River • Never reaches the ocean; forms inland delta that is home to crocodiles, zebras, hippos, & other animals • Orange River • Passes through Augrabies Falls • 19 separate waterfalls • Limpopo River: • Flows into Indian Ocean • Waterfalls & other obstacles block ships • Allow irrigation for farmland
  6. 6. Climate & Vegetation• Climate varies from east to west• East coast: • Wet & rainy• West: • Very dry • Deserts w/ semiarid & steppe climates
  7. 7. Savanna & Deserts• Savanna • Cover much of South Africa • Shrubs & short trees • Grassy plains (veld)• Namib Desert • Some parts get ½ inch of rainfall per year • Plants get water from dew & fog• Kalahari Desert • Northern part gets rain to support grasses & trees • Mostly covered with scattered shrubs
  8. 8. Tropical Forests• Madagascar • Lush vegetation & tropical forests • Species of animals only found here • 50 species of lemurs
  9. 9. Resources• Rich in natural resources • Forests provide timber • Rivers supply hydroelectricity and irrigation • Minerals • Most valuable • Gold, diamond, coal, platinum, copper, uranium, & iron ore • Mines are good to the economy, but can be damaging to the environment
  10. 10. Section 2Southern Africa’s History &Culture
  11. 11. Early History• Landscape & climate have influenced history • Monsoon winds blow different directions depending on time of year • Ancient ships used these winds to make regular trading voyages between Africa & Asia
  12. 12. The Khoisan• 18,000 B.C. The Khoisan hunter-gatherers lived in the region. • Left paintings of people & animals on rock surfaces • Some descendants live today & Khoisan language is used (unusual click sounds)• Bantu Migrations • 1,500–2,000 years ago Bantu migrations spread from central Africa. • Today there are more than 200 Bantu languages • Early Bantu people introduced the use
  13. 13. Shona & Swahili• A.D. 1000 Bantu group Shona built an empire • Farmed, raised cattle, & traded gold • Constructed stone-walled towns called zimbabwe• Traded with Swahili speaking people • Adopted Islam and other Arab customs by A.D. 1100s • Sailors & traders • Also traded in Asia
  14. 14. Madagascar• 1st settlers came from Asia, A.D. 700• Culture shows influence from both Africa & Asia• Malagasy is the official language, & it is related to languages spoken in Indonesia • Many root words from the Bantu language
  15. 15. Mozambique• 1500s Portugese set up forts in Mozambique • Hoped to take over gold trade• Established large estates along the Zambezi River & used slaves• 1700s & 1800s became an important part of the slave trade• Slaves were captured & sent as slaves to Brazil & other parts of the world
  16. 16. Dutch, British, & Portuguese• Cape of Good Hope • Lacked gold & copper, but had Mediterranean climate & no mosquitoes• 1652 Dutch set up trade stations near the Cape • Became know as Cape Town • Provided supplies for ships • Slaves brought in to work• Afrikaners & Afrikaans • new languages developed in Cape Town • Afrikaners = white descendents of the original colonists • Colureds = descendents from Malays, Khoisan, or a mixture of these with Europeans
  17. 17. British Colony• Afrikaner frontier farmers called Boers spread out from the original colony• 1800s British took over the Cape• Boers resisted British colonial government • Many moved farther east & north • Movement called the Great Trek• Bantu speaking Zulu became a powerful fighting force • Conquered surrounding African peoples, creating their own empire • Zulu & Boers clashed at the time when Boers moved into their territory • Zulu challenged by the British & defeated after a series of battles
  18. 18. Changing Trade Patterns• British banned slavery in empire in 1833• Angola & Mozambique remained main Portuguese slave markets• Late 1800s slave trade ended• Focus moved to ivory • Elephant populations were wiped out in some parts of Africa • Then to diamonds & gold
  19. 19. Apartheid• Dividing people into 4 groups based off of race • White, blacks, Coloureds, & Asians • Each group given rural “homeland” • Not good for farming, mining, or did not have natural resources • Blacks: had bad housing, healthcare, & schools • Whites: had best stuff • Coloureds: ok, better than blacks• Townships: • Where blacks lived • Overcrowded clusters of tiny home
  20. 20. Independence• Independence came peaceful for some, but most often resulted after fighting
  21. 21. Culture• Diverse culture created • Both European & African influences• 100s of different ethnic groups
  22. 22. Language• Many different languages • Related to Khoisan or Bantu • Khoisan: series of click sounds; live in remote areas of Botswana and Namibia • Bantu: 200 languages; 11 are official languages of South Africa • European languages are spoken as well
  23. 23. Religion• Europeans brought Christianity• Traditional African religions • Ancestors & spirits of dead have divine powers• Mix of Christianity & traditional African religion
  24. 24. Celebrations and Art• Day of independence celebrated• Christian holidays are important• Many cultures reflected in art • Ethnic designs in clothing, lamps, linens, etc.
  25. 25. Diamonds, Gold, & Colonies• 1860s diamonds were discovered• 1886 gold was discovered in Transvaal, a Boers controlled area• Thousands of British & others came • Railroads were built to connect the interior with the coast • As the British moved north the Boers moved north into Botswana • Botswana rulers asked the British for protection from the Boers • 1885 Botswana came under British control• Southern Africa became divided between
  26. 26. South Africa• 1899 tensions over land & mineral wealth led to war between the Boers & British• Usually out numbered Boers held off British armies for three years• 1920 following the defeat of Germany in WWI Namibia was placed under South Africa’s control
  27. 27. Section 3South Africa Today
  28. 28. South Africa• Stable gov’t & strong economy• New rights & freedoms• Resolving problems from the past• Still many challenges
  29. 29. End of Apartheid• Has been biggest challenge• People around the world objected to apartheid laws • Sanctions were imposed on South Africa • Banned trade, refused to invest money, scientific & sports organization excluded South Africans in meetings & competitions • Isolated South Africa• Protest within increased • African National Congress (ANC) outlawed • Formed to protect the rights of black
  30. 30. • Protests continued• 1980s • South Africa began to move away from apartheid system• 1990 • Political prisoners released (i.e.: Nelson Mandela) • Mandela became president in 1994• Today • All races have equal rights • Schools, universities, hospitals, & transportation open to all • Economic equality is moving slower
  31. 31. Government & Economy• Positioned to create better future for country• Republic & elected president• Constitution emphasizes equality & human rights• Government is trying to create jobs & better working conditions • Especially black workers & farmers • Most of industries still controlled by wealthy whites • Fear of rapid reform could weaken the economy • Drive educated & wealthy whites to leave the country• Resources • Coal & hydroelectric power • Uranium mines provide fuel for nuclear power plants • Gold & diamonds, copper, platinum, iron ore, &
  32. 32. Other Countries of Southern Africa• Lesotho & Swaziland • Influenced by South Africa • Both enclaves: small territory surrounded by foreign territory • Lesotho has few resources or ag. Land • Many work in South Africa • Highest female literacy rate in Africa • Swaziland • Mineral deposits & industry • Cattle raising & farming • Good transportation system helps with foreign trade • Both are kingdoms
  33. 33. Namibia• Gained independence from South Africa in 1990• Republic w/ elected president & legislature• Few live in the deserts • Deserts have rich mineral deposits • Diamonds, copper, uranium, lead, & zinc• Fishing in Atlantic Ocean & sheep ranching are important sources of income• Strong economy, but most people are poor
  34. 34. Botswana• Big Success story • Thanks to: Mineral resources & stable democratic gov’t• Main economic activities • Diamond mining & cattle ranching• International industries built recently• Tourism is increasing• High unemployment rate, but world’s highest rates of economic growth since 1960s
  35. 35. Zimbabwe• Poor economy & political instability• Does not lack resources • Gold & copper mines and agriculture & manufacturing • High inflation, debts, & war have hurt economy• Much inequality • Whites make up less than 1% of population but own most of large farms & ranches • 2000 gov’t program started to take land away from white farmers & give to black residents • Many white farmers have left country & caused food shortages• Land reform attempt, poor economy, & violent acts against political opponents have made people upset w/ president
  36. 36. Mozambique• One of world’s poorest countries• Economy damaged by civil wars, but is improving• Ports ship products from interior of Africa • Taxes on shipments is important part of economy• Plantations grow cashews, cotton, & sugar for export • Imports more than it exports • Relies on foreign aid
  37. 37. Madagascar & Comoros• Madagascar • Ruled by socialist dictator for more than 20 years • Today elected president working to improve economy • Income comes from exports of coffee, vanilla, sugar, & cloves • Some manufacturing • Tourism is important• Comoros • Made up of 4 tiny islands • Lack of resources & political instability • Struggling to improve education & promote tourism
  38. 38. Issues & Challenges• Poverty is a serious challenge of the region • Droughts often destroy food crops • Many people are unemployed• Disease • High number of people w/ HIV • Gov’t trying to educate people to slow the spread• Environmental destruction • Deforestation = soil erosion • African Union working to promote cooperation among African countries
  39. 39. Section 4The Other Southern AfricanCountries
  40. 40. Namibia• Most live in savannas of the north or in the cooler central highlands• 6% is white mainly German descent • Rest of population is divided among several ethnic groups• Most are Christian• English is the official language• 1990 white farmers held most of the productive land• Income from mining of diamonds, copper, lead, zinc, & uranium• Fishing & sheep ranching also important• Culture show many different influences • Ancient rock engravings & paintings of Khoisan • Beer & pastries reflect German colonization
  41. 41. Botswana• Large, landlocked, semiarid country• Mineral resources & stable politics have made it successful• Cattle ranching & mining of copper and diamonds are main economic activities• International companies have set up factories here• Belongs to the Organization of African Unity (OAU) • Founded in 1963, tries to promote cooperation between African countries• 79% belong to Tswana ethnic group • Most live in savanna & steppe climate in east & south• 15% are Christian • Rest follow traditional African religions• Okavango River flows through Botswana • Home to elephants, crocodiles, antelope, lions, hyenas • Tourists come to see these animals• Ostrich-eggshell beadwork & woven baskets are traditional crafts
  42. 42. Zimbabwe• 1980 became independent• Has since struggled to create a equal distribution of land & wealth• 1% whites • Still own most of large farms & ranches• Exports: gold, copper, chrome, nickel, tin, tobacco, corn, s ugar, & beef• Manufactures: shoes, batteries, radios• AIDS epidemic has killed hundreds of thousands • Make economic growth harder• Malaria & Tuberculosis are also deadly diseases• Tensions exist between Shona & Ndebele ethnic groups
  43. 43. Mozambique• One of world’s poorest countries• Economy: badly damaged by civil war• Ports ship products from interior Africa • Taxes from shipments helps countries revenue• Energy: coal & hydroelectric dams• Plantations grow cotton, cashews, sugar, & tea• Various Bantu ethnic groups found here • Each with own language• 30% are Christian & 20% are Muslim• Famous for pepper or periperri sauces
  44. 44. Madagascar• Former French colony• Socialist dictator rules until 1990s • New political system struggled with countries poverty • Voted former dictator back into power• People are very poor• Little industry• Economy based on exports of coffee, sugar, vanilla, & cloves• Depend on subsistence farming• Animals • Many found no where else • 40 species of lemurs • Destruction of rain forests threatens many animals• Malagasy & French are the spoken languages• 52% follow traditional African religions• 41% are Christian• 7% are Muslim

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