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  • 1. VMUG Colin Pattinson - BCS Green SG c.pattinson@leedsmet.ac.uk tti @l d t k Date: 11 October 2011
  • 2. Green IT Policies, IT, PoliciesProcedures and Quick wins
  • 3. Agenda• Why?• The IT lifecycle• The numbers• Effi i Efficiency of IT f• Efficiency by IT y y• Recycle, reuse, dispose• The future
  • 4. Why do it• [In alphabetical order]1. Compliance with legislation – Carbon reduction commitment – Compulsory carbon trading2. Corporate social responsibility - Consumer (and employee) pressure – People and planet3. Cost saving g - energy = money - Energy saving = money saving
  • 5. P1 => current trends but not new initiatives
  • 6. UK Government policy developments– Setting the UK Low Carbon Economy – E i i reductions of 36% b 2020 and 80% b 2050 ( Emission d ti f by d by (against 1990 i t levels)– Government IT policies impacting Green IT • MTPROG – stimulating/driving UK industry change • Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) • Carbon measurement – PAS 2050/2060 • Off setting and Neutrality – PAS 2060 Off-setting • Disposal (batteries, WEEE...)– International initiatives • D Data C Centre C C (l CoC (launched D 2008) h d Dec • EPEAT/Energy Star (built into Quick Wins) • Eco Labelling – out for consultation • EC EuP (Energy Using Products) – PCs/Laptops – EU Stakeholder Forum Oct – mandate Energy Star(2011) – Printers – voluntary agreement – Standby power devices – max 1w by 2011, 0.5w by 2012
  • 7. Carbon Reduction Commitment• Cap and trade scheme started April 2010, covering some 20 000 large UK scheme, 2010 20,000 orgs, responsible for 10% of UK emissions• Includes those orgs with total energy consumption of 6,000Mw-h or more pa, during d i 2008• Excludes those already in E• TR or CCA schemes• Aim to change behaviours and infrastructure by incentivising reductions in energy use• Annual purchase of allowances to match emissions• Performance League table based on measured reduction• Rewards f improvements for See : http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/news/pn112/pn112.aspx And link for Environment Agency who are administering the scheme http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/business/topics/pollution/111597.aspx 7
  • 8. Why do anything ? anything..?• Climate Change => warming, disasters (fires and floods), loss of g g, ( ), biodiversity, less to go round more• Population growth, 2000 to 2030 of 2.2billion, of which 2.0billion likely to be located in cities (W ld U b i ti P t Th 2001 Revision)) (World Urbanization Prospects: The R i i• Rising consumption, 5 billion people consume 20% and 1 billion consume 80% (Ericsson)• Resource depletion, 2.5 planets for all to have US/EU living standards => rising energy, food and resource costs and the recession => “we have to do more with less” > energy > resources > emissions
  • 9. Reality of Climate Change © Crown copyright Met Office
  • 10. Model projection Observations© Crown copyright Met Office
  • 11. Some anecdotes• The usage of the Thames Barrier hasincreased from once every two years in the1980s to1980 t an average of six ti f i times a year overthe past five years• Ocean pH has risen by 30% since 1900• The world currently burns some 1,000barrels of oil a second (BBC) An Inefficient truth – GAP (Dec 2007)
  • 12. Some perspectives on IT...Globally – ICT Manufacture use and disposal accounts for 2%+ of global CO2 emissions Manufacture, - Equal to the aviation industry – Man-made CO2 emissions add up to around 49 billion tonnes pa - 1 billi + tonnes from ICT. billion t f ICT – Data storage capacity growing by ~ 40% annually - In 2010, we passed the zettabyte mark for stored data – Worldwide data centres + comms predicted to consume ~ 2000bn kW-h by 2020• In UK – 10 million office PCs, nearly 50% of adult population use PCs at work , y p p - expected to grow to 70% by 2020 – IT consumes 15% of office power rising to 30% by 2020 - Expect 45% of Domestic Power to be used for home IT and CE products by 2020 - In total ICT power consumption already represents 10% of total UK energy consumption – or 4 Nuclear Power stations! References : (Berkeley National Labs + Global Action Plan + IPCC + Energy Saving trust + Carbon Trust)
  • 13. Some comparisons• A computer left on 24/7 will cost about £37 a year year, whereas by switching off at night and weekends, the charge can be reduced to about £10 a year - and save an equivalent amount of energy to make some 34 900 cups of coffee 34,900• Lighting an office overnight uses enough energy to heat water for 1,000 cups of tea Carbon Trust
  • 14. Order of magnitudes?• A typical window left open overnight in winter will waste enough energy to drive a small car for more than 35 miles• A PC monitor switched off overnight saves enough energy to microwave six dinners• Turning off all non essential equipment in an office for one night will save enough energy to run a small car f 100 miles ll for il• Monitors account for almost two-thirds of a computers energy use Www.Computing.co.uk/greencomputing
  • 15. Printing• The average British office worker prints 22 pages every working day –behavioural research suggests that 44% of this is easily avoidable• Over 21% of prints are disposed of before the end of the day day.• Takes 10 pints of water to make A4 sheet from virgin pulp i i l
  • 16. Servers• A medium sized server has roughly the same medium-sized annual carbon footprint as an SUV vehicle doing 15 miles per gallon gallon.• The power required for a rack of high density server blades can be 10-15 times greater than a traditional server. –And we “need” to cool it with air con units consuming perhaps half as much power again An Inefficient truth – GAP (Dec 2007)
  • 17. The IT system life cycle• Environmental impacts during: –manufacture –use –disposal di l - Embedded carbon; hazchem content; ; ;• Identifying choices which enhance sustainability
  • 18. Managing the lifecycle Consumption ‐Power  Power ‐Consumables Power ‐Support/repair Support/repair NGOs NGO Transport CharitiesMaterials Silver surfersRecycle Silver surfers Packaging Operating Production IT device IT device Re‐use Disposal Components Reclaim Waste Heat RoHS WEEE Reg Air Conditioning Ai C diti i Equipment  Equipment regs cooling
  • 19. Manufacture/distribution• Sourcing of materials – beware location/ transport costs• Building products – build to re-use/ re-cycle/ upgrade – a longer life• Energy efficient processes• Move from commodity to service revenue streams, can optimise use of assets• Marketing – eco-labelling, green washing, credibility• Delivering – transport, packaging, installation
  • 20. So h t ?S what...?• The manufacturing process for computers is very resource intensive. manufacture of one PC requires 1 7 tonnes of raw 1.7 materials and water, consumes over ten times the computer’s weight in fossil fuels. p gc25% of PC fossil fuel consumption has already happened before the computer is even switched on for the first time. GAP – Inefficient Truth
  • 21. But : EC Lifecycle for desktop PC Review of research by the European Commission PC Processor 767 kg CO2e Materials - 117 Manufacturing - 21 Distribution - 28 Use - 596 Disposal - 5
  • 22. EC Lifecycle for LaptopLaptop t t lL t total 353 k CO2 – 50% of PC kg CO2e f Materials - 71 Manufacturing - 9 Distribution - 10 Use - 258 Disposal -2
  • 23. Procurement• Don’t sweat the asset (compare footprints for Don t build/use/disposal of IT assets)• Adopt latest and most stretching standards (EPEAT, Energy star 5, Quick Wins..)• Seek – Consolidation of Functions – Device consolidation – Device sharing – Services not assets => dematerialise!• Make the case to invest for Green
  • 24. EPEAT?• Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)• Standard rating (ANSI/IEEE) – Gold, Silver, Bronze• Covers – Toxic reductions – Recycled content – Energy efficiency (Energy Star rating) – D rabilit Durability – Lifecycle extension – End-of-life management – Corporate responsibility – Packaging• Provides an environmental benefits calculator for quantifying benefits q y g• 615 products registered• Procurements have saved enough power for 1.2million US homesSee www.epeat.net
  • 25. Understanding the numbers• Measurements and quoted “efficiency returns” efficiency returns• Don’t accept the plated numbers – See BCS Green IT SG fact sheet on measuring• Not much independent data – No single agreed measurement standards• Many “carbon calculator spreadsheets carbon calculator” – Check the assumptions
  • 26. PUE and DCiE• Measures of data centre efficiency• Power Usage Effectiveness = Total Facility power use Power delivered to computing equipment• Data Centre Infrastructure Efficiency = Power delivered to computing equipment Total Facility power use• PUE values below 1.2 seen as “good”• Many current PUE ~ 2 0 2.0• Relative measures of performance
  • 27. Green data centres – reality ormyth? The Facebook illustration• 500m users – “Although it will include some of the worlds most energy-efficient computers, the sheer scale … will almost certainly use more electricity than many developing countries”• New data centre being built in Portland – Energy efficient systems – Uses local climate to minimise a/c need• But Its chosen energy supplier uses coal for 67% of its generation; < 12% f from renewables bl• However, – “Earlier this year Greenpeace admitted that many of its own web hosting operations are also h i l housed i d d in data centres powered primarily b coal and d i il by l d nuclear power” – See also http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/planet-2/report/2010/3/make-it-green-cloud- computing.pdf (1MB pdf, in colour!) Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/sep/01/facebook-renewable-energy-coal
  • 28. Efficient IT• Quick wins• Practical actions
  • 29. Quick Wins Wins..• The UK Government aims to be amongst the EU leaders in sustainable procurement.• As part of this commitment Defra have, since 2003, developed and published green government procurement specifications known as “Quick Wins”.• These Qu c Wins spec cat o s aim to set a p e de ed level o ese Quick s specifications a pre-defined e e of environmental performance for a range of “high priority” products purchased by central Government departments.•I f Information C ti Communication T h l i ti Technology (ICT) products f ll i t thi d t fall into this “high priority” classification as they account for a large amount of spend and result in a range of environmental impacts which have the potential to be reduced. See : http://online ogcbuyingsolutions gov uk http://online.ogcbuyingsolutions.gov.uk
  • 30. Putting its own house in order.. • UK public sector is largest spender on ICT – c £14b • Challenge of Sustainability targets for UK Government Estate and Operations (SOGE) 12.5% carbon reduction by 2011, and carbon neutrality by 2012 Highly critical Sus Dev Commission report in 2007 on depts progress • Environmental Audit Committee In review of D I i f Departmental SOGE returns for 2007, EAC stated t t l t f 2007 t t d “the increased use of IT would appear to be the biggest single factor in the upward trend in emissions from civil departments” (http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200708/cmselect/cmenvaud/529/529.pdf )
  • 31. UK Departments response.. Departments’Appointed a lead CIO=> Set up a cross-department Green Development Unit to form and take forward a UK Government Green ICT strategy as part of the Government ICT Strategy=> Get procurement right – Procurement criteria – “IT Quick Wins” – part of Government Buying Standards=> Focus on energy and operational efficiency measures • Operational Efficiency Programme • Public Value Programme • Climate Change Plan ICT enables Efficiency => Energy => Emission savings y gy g• The full ICT strategy can be found at http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/cio/ict.aspx and at www.civilservice.gov.uk/it.• A revised version of the Open source, Open standards, Reuse p p , p , policy has also y been published and can be found at http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/media/318020/open_source.pdf
  • 32. HMG Strategy : gyList of Practical Actions• PCs & Laptops – Remove active screensavers – Switch monitors to standby Shut down PCs after office hours – Enable active power management on desktops p g p - (standby / hibernate after a defined period of inactivity) • Ensure re-use of equipment that is no longer required but is still q p g q serviceable • Specify low-power consumption CPUs and high-efficiency Power Supply U it (80% conversion or b tt ) S l Units i better) • Apply Thin Client technology
  • 33. HMG Strategy : List of Practical Actions• Other office ICT Equipment – Apply timer switches to non-networked technology and printers – Set default green printing including duplex and grey scale • Optimise power-saving sleep mode on printers • Printer consolidation • Device consolidation
  • 34. HMG Strategy : List of Practical Actions• Data Centres – Server Optimisation - Storage virtualisation & capacity management - Convert existing physical servers to “virtual servers” - Turn off servers outside their service level agreement, - Create “virtual servers” instead of procuring physical new servers virtual servers servers. - Implement a multi-tiered storage solution • Reduce cooling in the data centre g • Remove unused capacity (servers and data disks) • Specify power conversion-efficient Power Supply Units • Ensure re-use of equipment • Data centre audit
  • 35. Efficient IT to efficiency by IT• Efforts to address the power take of IT – Power management – Virtualisation – Cloud?? - See “is the cloud really green”, coming soon..• Need to use IT to make a difference elsewhere – The other 90% - Or 85%, or 70%, or 55% …
  • 36. Why Print?• Meetings – laptop, OneNote, handling many windows – projectors to share material get better switching material,• Document prep / Reading – different presentation modes – add notes, set up tasks on screen• Team working – Sharepoint sites• Personal quotas?
  • 37. Why so many face to face meetings...?• Equipment – Speakerphones, line connections which work – Data points, WIFI• Portable IP v/conferencing devices – HSBC has installed desktop video conferencing units & reduced air travel by 25%;• Alt Alternatives ti – Webinars –T l Teleconferences f – Sharepoint / Web discussion groups
  • 38. Why still come to the office ? office...?• Common responses: – “My manager expects me to be in the office” – Meetings are organised without taking on board flexible working g g g g patterns – Do not trust home access services, Broadband, 3G etc –H Home space i issues• Benefits – Save commuting time – Save office space • Change the culture, you now have the choice! culture
  • 39. End of life equipment• Reuse recycle disposal Reuse, recycle,
  • 40. Recycling and Disposal y g p • Re-use a source ofRaw and Equipment significant cost savings Component Waste (up to 90% cheaper toprocessed Manufacture use Re-use separation disposalmaterials refurbish than to make ( (landfill) ) a new purchase) • Disposal of working Schools, equipment after refresh charities exercise can generate Upgrades or sale revenue and refills Cost saving • Separate components and revenue before crushing, can be generation opportunities pp worth a lot e.g. £1,800/tonne for RAM Materials separation • Waste disposal suppliers should be ISO 14001 accredited to ensure compliance Revenue with relevant legislation generation opportunity Source: SCC; EU; Defra; Eric Williams et al (UN University, Tokyo); NAO; team analysis 40
  • 41. FRONTLINE/World Ghana: Digital Dumping Ground | PBS g p ghttp://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/ghana804/slideshow/slideshow.html 41
  • 42. FRONTLINE/World Ghana: Digital Dumping Ground | PBShttp://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/ghana804/slideshow/slideshow.html 42
  • 43. What to do…. do• As an individual – Switch it off – Think before travelling – Ask do I need to print?• As an organisation – Efficiencies=> less energy => less carbon – Exploit ICT for carbon efficiency – Encourage employee engagement – Appoint green IT champions‘ – Manage assets and estates for energy efficiency• Thi i f th l This is for the longer t term...• Set policies for the future through the Green Lens ...
  • 44. And what your BCS/CITP is doing...• Green Specialist Group – 1300+ members and growing – Briefings – NewsShoots – Education - Foundation Certificate - Intermediate Certificate - Professional Graduate Diploma - A Green IT book 44
  • 45. 45
  • 46. And more more... Data Centre SG – 2,000 members – Leading players for Code of Conduct – Data centre modelling tool – Data Centre Foundation Certificate• To join a Specialist Group check - http://www.bcs.org/server.php?show=nav.5815 46
  • 47. Conclusions• The future of green IT• Green IT as a career path – Answer the questions – Make a difference – Lead the debate• Within the organisation – Green IT specialist• Consultancy
  • 48. Some more web sites sites...• Quick wins• The Defra Sustainable Development website:• http://www.sustainable-development.gov.uk/what/priority/consumption-production/quickWins/index/htm• The OGC Buying Solutions website:• htt // li http://online.ogcbuyingsolutions.gov.uk/bcm/sustainablesolutions/quickwins b i l ti k/b / t i bl l ti / i k i• Gov strategy• http://www.cio.gov.uk/greening_government_ict/index.asp• General green stuff• Carbon Trust, http://www.carbontrust.co.uk• Energy Star, http://www.energystar.gov a sub-set of http://www.epeat.net/• Computing, Www.Computing.co.uk/greencomputing• Energy Saving Trust, www.energysavingtrust.org.uk• NetRegs, www.netregs.gov.uk#• Intellect, http://www.intellectuk.org/• BCS Green IT Specialist Group• http://www.bcs.org/• http://bcs-green-it.wikispaces.com/