in conjunction with Physical Resources furniture disposition policy and in consultation CCS and other departmental IT managers.
Deepak's green computing
“Green computing” –New Horizon of Energy Efficiencyand E-Waste minimization By :Deepak Sharma Course: B.TECH(CS&E) Sem: 8TH SEM DEPT. : ASET
What is Green Computing? Green Computing refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT. Green Computing can be described as the environmentally responsible usage of computer systems and related resources.
contd… It is also study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using and disposing of computers, servers and associated sub-systems such as monitors, printers, storage devices etc efficiently and effectively. It can also be termed as practice or study of efficient and eco-friendly computing.
ORIGIN In 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency launched “Energy Star”, a labeling program designed to promote and recognize energy efficiency in monitors, climate control equipments etc. The term GREEN COMPUTING was coined shortly after energy star began. On October 2006 it was revised and a tiered ranking system of approved products was introduced.
WHY Green Computing? Growing public environmental awareness Reducing impacts on environmental and human health Corporate social responsibility A step for need of tomorrow’s future. Greener IT. Helps to minimise the energy by educating consumers on efficient ways to keep power usage low.
contd… computer energy is often wasteful leaving the computer on when not in use (CPU and fan consume power, screen savers consume power) printing is often wasteful how many of you print out your emails or meeting agendas printing out partial drafts for a “paperless” society, we tend to use more paper today than before computer-prevalence.
contd… pollution manufacturing techniques packaging disposal of computers and components toxicity as we will see, there are toxic chemicals used in the manufacturing of computers and components which can enter the food chain and water!
GOAL The Goal of green computing is to reduce the use of hazardous material, minimize improper use of power consumption, maximize energy efficiency during product’s lifetime and promote recyclability. Green Computing also contributes to prolong the equipments life-time.
Approaches to GREENCOMPUTING • EPEAT • Power Management • Disposal • Materials Recycling • Product life cycle.
ENERGY STAR…It is a government backed program which startedin USA and helps in protection of environmentthrough use of superior energy efficiency. It firststarted as an attempt to reduce energyconsumption and also is an international standardfor energy efficient consumer products . Deviceshaving Energy Star logo use 20-30% less energythan required by federal standards. It now uses atiered ranking approach for approved product.
EPEATEPEAT- Electronic Product EnvironmentalAssessment Tool, is a method for consumers toevaluate the effect of a product on theenvironment. It ranks products as Gold, Silver,Bronze based on a set of environmentalperformance criteria. It evaluates products on 51criteria- 23 required and 28 optional.For a product to be rated as Bronze it shouldmeet all 23 required criteria, for Silver- shouldmeet all 23 required criteria and 50% of optionalcriteria and for Gold- should meet 23 requiredcriteria and 75% of optional criteria
POWER MANAGEMENTThe Advanced Configuration and PowerInterface (ACPI), an open industry standard,allows an operating system to directly control thepower saving aspects of its underlying hardware.This allows a system to automatically turn offcomponents such as monitors and hard drivesafter set periods of inactivity.
Everyday example- EnergyUse of PCs CPU uses 120 Watts CRT uses 150 Watts 8 hours of usage, 5 days a week = 562 KWatts if the computer is left on all the time without proper power saver modes, this can lead to 1,600 KWatts for a large institution, say a university of 40,000 students and faculty, the power bill for just computers can come to $2 million / year
Ctnd… Energy used comes from electrical current to run the CPU, motherboard, memory running the fan and spinning the disk(s) monitor (CRTs consume more power than any other computer component) printers
Manufacturing Using Greener technology PBDE(Polybrominated diphenyl ethers)- free plastic lead-free soldering fewer toxic solvents Plastics labelled with recycling codes Less toxic material used Independent certification bodies must certify their products. EPEAT should be followed. CRT – lead and zinc used in monitors are hazardous waste, should be avoided.
Uses New technology often more energy efficient. Energy saver features are now standard. Recycling of products are put in practice. Energy star concept is on a rise. Waste management is practiced.
E-Waste – what…why? Electronic waste or E-waste or WEEE(Waste Electrical and Electronics Equipments), describes loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete or broken electrical or electronic devices. E-waste is due of improper practice of disposing computer and its components. E-waste management includes recycling, consumer awareness efforts, processing techniques, also tells us benefits of recycling.
E-waste Disposal Current e-waste disposal program represents a best practice. E-waste is divided into two separate streams, CRT monitors and all other electronic equipment ― General e-waste is sent to Production Works where it is dismantled and redistributed to scrap companies and recyclers. ― CRT monitors sent to an environment friendly Toronto-based company. Also as hazardous and non-hazardous.
Land Fills Europe has outlawed using landfills for computer components the US and Europe export a lot of e-waste to Asian landfills (especially China even though China has outlawed the importing of e-waste) in addition, dumping of computer components leads to air pollution and airborne toxins
Recommendations –Disposal Obtain suitable space for storage of e- waste and monitors. Develop and implement methodology for tracking tonnage diverted from landfill. Formalize reuse and reallocation procedures and policies.
Global Effects Electronic wastes :•In the U.S. alone, 500 million obsolete electronicequipments.•Computers, and 130 million cell phones are thrown out every year.
E Waste- Chemicals Found Elements in bulk: lead, tin, copper, silicon, carbon, iron and aluminum Elements in small amounts: cadmium and mercury List of examples of devices containing these elements almost all electronics contain lead & tin (as solder) and copper (as wire & PCB tracks), though the use of lead-free solder is now spreading rapidly lead: solder, CRT monitors (Lead in glass), Lead-acid battery
Elements Used: Mercury, LeadPlastic etc. Mercury is used in batteries, switches, housing, printed circuit boards mercury is found in medical equipment, data transmission equipment, telecommunications equipment and cell phones as well if is estimated that 22% of the yearly use of mercury is in electrical and electronic equipment although a small amount of mercury is used, it is used in nearly all computer constructions. Plastics are found throughout the computer, largely from casings but also internally to hold components together The plastics in computers are often treated with flame retardant chemicals.
Reducing Energy Consumption Turn off the computer when not in use, even if just for an hour Turn off the monitor when not in use (as opposed to running a screen saver) Use power saver mode screen savers use as much electricity as any normal processing Use hardware/software with the Energy Star label Energy Star is a “seal of approval” by the Energy Star organization of the government. Don’t print unless necessary. Use LCDs instead of CRTs as they are more power efficient.
Other Solutions… Reuse: donate your computer components to people who may not have or have lesser quality computers. Refurbish: rather than discarding your computer when the next generation is released, just get a new CPU and memory chips – upgrade rather than replace.
TO KEEP IN MIND…When Purchasing: •Check EPEAT rating (if available) Energy Star only •Contact for eventual disposal •Don’t become an e-waste site for someone else •Minimize packaging & documentation copies for bulk purchases Disposal •Investigate and set up responsible vendor or independent disposal program •Donate good working computers and related equipment
One More Solution:Recycling If companies can recycle the plastics and other components, this can greatly reduce waste and toxins however, the hazardous materials in e-waste can harm the recycle workers if they are not properly protected. Developed countries now have facilities for recycling e-waste. To resolve these problems, the computer manufacturers must start using recyclable chemicals
Blackle A search-engine site powered by Google Search. Based on the concept that : when presenting an empty word page or the Google home page, If a computer screen is : White it consumes 74W & when Black it consumes only 59W. switching from Google to Blackle : Earth would save 750MW/ yr.
Summarize… • Green computing is a novel and an innovative trend in the world of computing which has minimum or no impact on the environment. • Green computing has introduced a range of equipments and technologies which help in limiting the impact on the environment. • Use of EPEAT help in different aspects of the computing world and recognizes the areas for improvement.