Islam SpreadsSocial Studies for 10th E.G.B. | By: Mateo Andrade
Muhammad´s death For them he was a pious man and a powerful leader , that had unified the Bedouin tribes (this is something no one else could have done) Could his legacy survive without him?
Abu Bakr and the Caliph´s He was Muhammad’s first Caliph (successor), he was determinate to continue with the Prophet´s work. He said: “If you worship Muhammad, Muhammad is dead. If you worship God, God is alive” He found a problem, some Arab tribal leaders’ faith depended on Muhammad´s command. They now refuse to follow Abu and withdrew their loyalty to Islam. He reunites them based on their allegiance to Islam. Once reunite the Arabs start a series of remarkable military conquests.
From Victory to Victory Inspired by the Prophet’s teachings, armies had been created across the Byzantine and Persian empires. In a very and surprising short time the Arab empire reached the Atlantic and borders of India. The first four caliphs make the Armies march from victory to victory. They conquered great parts of the Byzantine empire including Syria and Palestine, with Damascus and Jerusalem ; then they demolished the Persian empire and went to Egypt. From North Africa they went to Europe principally to Spain and France, where they were defeated in the Battle of Tours. Later on to Constantinople but it failed. In the end, it spread to Asia and Africa.
Why they succeeded The Arabs might have a reason for such a great success at battle. The Byzantine and Persian Empire were really weak because of they fighting each other, and take them to exhaustion. Many people from the Fertile Crescent welcome the Arabs as liberators from the Persian rule. The most important is the common faith that Muhammad gave to this people.
Treatment of conquered people The Muslims conquered a lot of people. This brought a lot of changes to this areas in some of the Muslim leaders put a especial tax into non- Muslim population Christian and Jews were allowed to practice their own faiths. They play a very important role as translators, doctors and officials. Non-Muslims end up turning to Islam (conversion). In North Africa and Central Asia Islam was immediately taken: their win in battle make these people realize that God was on their favor. With no religious hierarchy make emphasis that everyone was the same important.
Muslims in Europe The Muslims take control over Spain, after the battle of Tours. Christians fought to recover Spain but they had no results at all. The Muslims that control Spain preside over brilliant courts, They invite Jewish and Christians to study science and philosophy in the city of Cordova.
Muslims in Europe They improve architechture: They build sites like the Alhambra, fortified the Granada Palace. They gow lovely gardens, reflecting pools, and marble columns. This marks a high point in Muslim rule in Spain. They also take control of the island of Sicily. This was brief because knights from Normandy (France) take control of it. Arabic culture remains in there because they had firm control of the island.
Ask Yourself Describe: How did Islam spread through Arab conquest? Analyze: What was the driving force of the Arab Conquest and how did it work? Why do you think the Battle of Tours was a decisive battle? Recall: What innovations were developed by the Muslims and in what areas? Explain: What was the effect of the wars between the Byzantines and the Persian?
Bibliography Ellis, E. G., & Esler, A. (2009). World History. (P. Hall, Ed.) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, US: Pearson Education INC. Images taken from Google.com