2. The Essay
• The Word Essay literally means an attempt; and hence
essay is the name given to the form of composition
which is a short attempt on a given subject, Usually it
gives details of Narrative, a description of some subject,
and information on some subject.
• The Essay is the most interesting exercise in English composition.
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3. Steps in Writing an Essay
Handing in a Final Copy
 Revising and Editing
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• Pre-writing literally means, “before writing.” Before you
actually begin writing your essay, you will need to do the
• Choose a topic to write on
• Brainstorming or generate ideas for topic
• Focus in on central ideas
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paragraph should be self
Essay shouldn’t give
Each paragraph should have link with
reference of topic
never introduce any
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• PARAGRAPH SHOULD BE:
 Engaging, strong and creative.
 Open with a quotation or an ideological comment,
which reflects your chosen theme.
 Follow this with specific analysis and end the
paragraph with your thesis statement.
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9. Thesis Statement
• THESIS SHOULD BE:
• Your thesis statement will have two parts.
 First part states the topic.
 Second part states the point of the essay.
• Uses specific language and avoids vague words.
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10. Body Paragraph
• Introductory sentence (Topic Sentence)
• Concluding sentence
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• CONCLUSION SHOULD BE:
 List the main points you have argued (Summarized)
 Refer to something in your introductory paragraph.
 End creatively
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It is time to start writing the DRAFT essay.Try to remember the following guidelines.`
Paper the first time.
Goal in writing a
rough draft is to
support the ideas
listed in your
Don’t focus on
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13. Revising and Editing
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14. The Final Copy
All new paragraphs indented five spaces
8 ½ by 11 inch white paper
Double spaced, size 12 font
One inch margins on all sides
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15. Types of Essay
• Argumentative Essay
• Compare and Contrast Essay
• Narrative Essay
• Persuasive Essay
• Descriptive Essay
• Cause and Effect Essay
• Expository Essay
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16. Argumentative Essay
• The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires
the student to investigate a topic, collect, generate, and
evaluate evidence, and establish a position on the topic in a
• Argumentative Essay Topics
 argumentative essay on gender issues
 argumentative essay on local produce and organic produce
 argumentative essay on feminism
 modern technology argumentative essay
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17. Compare and Contrast Essay
• This type of essay is basically a composition, which is
concentrated on two points. The compare and contrast
essay reveals the differences and the similarities of these
two points, things, situations, etc.
• Compare and Contrast Essay Topics
 Geriatric and pediatric patient pathology comparison essay
 Science and Art Essay
 Differences between men and women at their workplace
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18. Narrative Essay
• Writing a narrative essay is basically writing a story connected
with personal experiences. The key element of a narrative essay is
a defined point of view presented in the paper and delivered
through sharing emotions and sensory details with the reader.
• Narrative Essay Topics
 My autobiography. My life.
 My family is my strength.
 One Love
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19. Persuasive Essay
• Writing a persuasive essay requires the writer’s ability
to convince the audience and make it accept the
arguments of the essay as well as the conclusions. It is
important to learn how to write a persuasive essay in a
way that will catch the reader’s mind at once.
• Persuasive Essay Topics
 Keep Our Libraries Open essay
 Effects of alcohol on the human body Essay
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20. Descriptive Essay
• A descriptive essay requires a strong accent on the observation
and the descriptions provided by the author. The facts in this
type of essay can be just the background of the vivid
experiences presented by the writer. It is crucial to focus
strictly on the subject of description.
• Descriptive Essay Topics
 Islamabad: the Capital of Pakistan
 Islam and Pakistan
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21. Discursive essay
• The goal of a discursive essay is to present a balanced and objective examination
of a subject. Like an argumentative essay, the topic may be controversial, but the
discursive essay attempts to present a much more balanced discussion of the
issue. It does not, however, have to be expressly neutral. The essay should
present both sides of the discussion, supported by facts and research. The author
may draw tentative conclusions about the subject and suggest them to the reader.
 Experiments on animals are neither good nor bad
 2- Morality and ethics with the Euthanasia
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22. Cause and Effect Essay
• This type of essay is concentrated on the ability of the writer to
connect the reasons the things happen and the consequences
they might have. In other words it is the connection between the
causes of events and the effects this cause have on any analyzed
• Cause and Effect Essay Topics
 Energy Crisis
 Problem in Big cities
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23. Expository Essay
• This type of essay is aimed to explain some subject by presenting
a very clear and complete picture of other people’s views on this
certain situation or event. It may also be in a form of a report.
The main idea of any expository essay is to present a certain
event or situation in detail to the reader.
• Expository Essay Topics
 Xerox Business Systems
 Religion in Education
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