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Essay Writing
Sohail Ahmed
English Lecturer
The Essay
• The Word Essay literally means an attempt; and hence
essay is the name given to the form of composition
which is a short attempt on a given subject, Usually it
gives details of Narrative, a description of some subject,
and information on some subject.
• The Essay is the most interesting exercise in English composition.
Sohail Ahmed 2
Steps in Writing an Essay
Handing in a Final Copy
 Revising and Editing
 Drafting
 Organizing
 Pre-Writing
Sohail Ahmed 3
Pre-Writing
• Pre-writing literally means, “before writing.” Before you
actually begin writing your essay, you will need to do the
following things:
• Choose a topic to write on
• Brainstorming or generate ideas for topic
• Focus in on central ideas
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Organizing
Sohail Ahmed 5
Coherence
Relevant criticisms
and counter
criticisms
paragraph should be self
contained
Essay shouldn’t give
examiner indigestion
Each paragraph should have link with
reference of topic
Conclusion should
never introduce any
new material
Sohail Ahmed 6
Sohail Ahmed 7
Introduction
• PARAGRAPH SHOULD BE:
 Engaging, strong and creative.
 Open with a quotation or an ideological comment,
which reflects your chosen theme.
 Follow this with specific analysis and end the
paragraph with your thesis statement.
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Thesis Statement
• THESIS SHOULD BE:
• Your thesis statement will have two parts.
 First part states the topic.
 Second part states the point of the essay.
• Uses specific language and avoids vague words.
Sohail Ahmed 9
Body Paragraph
• Introductory sentence (Topic Sentence)
• Point
• Example
• Analysis
• Concluding sentence
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Conclusion
• CONCLUSION SHOULD BE:
 List the main points you have argued (Summarized)
 Refer to something in your introductory paragraph.
 End creatively
Sohail Ahmed 11
Drafting
It is time to start writing the DRAFT essay.Try to remember the following guidelines.`
Don’t worry
about writing
the perfect
Paper the first time.
Goal in writing a
rough draft is to
develop and
support the ideas
listed in your
outline
Don’t focus on
spelling and
grammar
Sohail Ahmed 12
Revising and Editing
• REVISION
Content
Organization
• EDITING
Spelling
Grammar
Punctuation
Sentence structure
Sohail Ahmed 13
The Final Copy
Word-Processed
All new paragraphs indented five spaces
8 ½ by 11 inch white paper
Double spaced, size 12 font
One inch margins on all sides
Sohail Ahmed 14
Types of Essay
• Argumentative Essay
• Compare and Contrast Essay
• Narrative Essay
• Persuasive Essay
• Descriptive Essay
• Cause and Effect Essay
• Expository Essay
Sohail Ahmed 15
Argumentative Essay
• The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires
the student to investigate a topic, collect, generate, and
evaluate evidence, and establish a position on the topic in a
concise manner.
• Argumentative Essay Topics
 argumentative essay on gender issues
 argumentative essay on local produce and organic produce
 argumentative essay on feminism
 modern technology argumentative essay
Sohail Ahmed 16
Compare and Contrast Essay
• This type of essay is basically a composition, which is
concentrated on two points. The compare and contrast
essay reveals the differences and the similarities of these
two points, things, situations, etc.
• Compare and Contrast Essay Topics
 Geriatric and pediatric patient pathology comparison essay
 Science and Art Essay
 Differences between men and women at their workplace
Sohail Ahmed 17
Narrative Essay
• Writing a narrative essay is basically writing a story connected
with personal experiences. The key element of a narrative essay is
a defined point of view presented in the paper and delivered
through sharing emotions and sensory details with the reader.
• Narrative Essay Topics
 My autobiography. My life.
 My family is my strength.
 One Love
Sohail Ahmed 18
Persuasive Essay
• Writing a persuasive essay requires the writer’s ability
to convince the audience and make it accept the
arguments of the essay as well as the conclusions. It is
important to learn how to write a persuasive essay in a
way that will catch the reader’s mind at once.
• Persuasive Essay Topics
 Keep Our Libraries Open essay
 Effects of alcohol on the human body Essay
Sohail Ahmed 19
Descriptive Essay
• A descriptive essay requires a strong accent on the observation
and the descriptions provided by the author. The facts in this
type of essay can be just the background of the vivid
experiences presented by the writer. It is crucial to focus
strictly on the subject of description.
• Descriptive Essay Topics
 Islamabad: the Capital of Pakistan
 Islam and Pakistan
Sohail Ahmed 20
Discursive essay
• The goal of a discursive essay is to present a balanced and objective examination
of a subject. Like an argumentative essay, the topic may be controversial, but the
discursive essay attempts to present a much more balanced discussion of the
issue. It does not, however, have to be expressly neutral. The essay should
present both sides of the discussion, supported by facts and research. The author
may draw tentative conclusions about the subject and suggest them to the reader.
• Topics
 Experiments on animals are neither good nor bad
 2- Morality and ethics with the Euthanasia
Sohail Ahmed 21
Cause and Effect Essay
• This type of essay is concentrated on the ability of the writer to
connect the reasons the things happen and the consequences
they might have. In other words it is the connection between the
causes of events and the effects this cause have on any analyzed
aspect.
• Cause and Effect Essay Topics
 Energy Crisis
 Problem in Big cities
 Cancer
Sohail Ahmed 22
Expository Essay
• This type of essay is aimed to explain some subject by presenting
a very clear and complete picture of other people’s views on this
certain situation or event. It may also be in a form of a report.
The main idea of any expository essay is to present a certain
event or situation in detail to the reader.
• Expository Essay Topics
 Xerox Business Systems
 Religion in Education
Sohail Ahmed 23
Good Luck
Sohail Ahmed 24

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Essay writing by sohail ahmed

  • 2. The Essay • The Word Essay literally means an attempt; and hence essay is the name given to the form of composition which is a short attempt on a given subject, Usually it gives details of Narrative, a description of some subject, and information on some subject. • The Essay is the most interesting exercise in English composition. Sohail Ahmed 2
  • 3. Steps in Writing an Essay Handing in a Final Copy  Revising and Editing  Drafting  Organizing  Pre-Writing Sohail Ahmed 3
  • 4. Pre-Writing • Pre-writing literally means, “before writing.” Before you actually begin writing your essay, you will need to do the following things: • Choose a topic to write on • Brainstorming or generate ideas for topic • Focus in on central ideas Sohail Ahmed 4
  • 6. Coherence Relevant criticisms and counter criticisms paragraph should be self contained Essay shouldn’t give examiner indigestion Each paragraph should have link with reference of topic Conclusion should never introduce any new material Sohail Ahmed 6
  • 8. Introduction • PARAGRAPH SHOULD BE:  Engaging, strong and creative.  Open with a quotation or an ideological comment, which reflects your chosen theme.  Follow this with specific analysis and end the paragraph with your thesis statement. Sohail Ahmed 8
  • 9. Thesis Statement • THESIS SHOULD BE: • Your thesis statement will have two parts.  First part states the topic.  Second part states the point of the essay. • Uses specific language and avoids vague words. Sohail Ahmed 9
  • 10. Body Paragraph • Introductory sentence (Topic Sentence) • Point • Example • Analysis • Concluding sentence Sohail Ahmed 10
  • 11. Conclusion • CONCLUSION SHOULD BE:  List the main points you have argued (Summarized)  Refer to something in your introductory paragraph.  End creatively Sohail Ahmed 11
  • 12. Drafting It is time to start writing the DRAFT essay.Try to remember the following guidelines.` Don’t worry about writing the perfect Paper the first time. Goal in writing a rough draft is to develop and support the ideas listed in your outline Don’t focus on spelling and grammar Sohail Ahmed 12
  • 13. Revising and Editing • REVISION Content Organization • EDITING Spelling Grammar Punctuation Sentence structure Sohail Ahmed 13
  • 14. The Final Copy Word-Processed All new paragraphs indented five spaces 8 ½ by 11 inch white paper Double spaced, size 12 font One inch margins on all sides Sohail Ahmed 14
  • 15. Types of Essay • Argumentative Essay • Compare and Contrast Essay • Narrative Essay • Persuasive Essay • Descriptive Essay • Cause and Effect Essay • Expository Essay Sohail Ahmed 15
  • 16. Argumentative Essay • The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic, collect, generate, and evaluate evidence, and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner. • Argumentative Essay Topics  argumentative essay on gender issues  argumentative essay on local produce and organic produce  argumentative essay on feminism  modern technology argumentative essay Sohail Ahmed 16
  • 17. Compare and Contrast Essay • This type of essay is basically a composition, which is concentrated on two points. The compare and contrast essay reveals the differences and the similarities of these two points, things, situations, etc. • Compare and Contrast Essay Topics  Geriatric and pediatric patient pathology comparison essay  Science and Art Essay  Differences between men and women at their workplace Sohail Ahmed 17
  • 18. Narrative Essay • Writing a narrative essay is basically writing a story connected with personal experiences. The key element of a narrative essay is a defined point of view presented in the paper and delivered through sharing emotions and sensory details with the reader. • Narrative Essay Topics  My autobiography. My life.  My family is my strength.  One Love Sohail Ahmed 18
  • 19. Persuasive Essay • Writing a persuasive essay requires the writer’s ability to convince the audience and make it accept the arguments of the essay as well as the conclusions. It is important to learn how to write a persuasive essay in a way that will catch the reader’s mind at once. • Persuasive Essay Topics  Keep Our Libraries Open essay  Effects of alcohol on the human body Essay Sohail Ahmed 19
  • 20. Descriptive Essay • A descriptive essay requires a strong accent on the observation and the descriptions provided by the author. The facts in this type of essay can be just the background of the vivid experiences presented by the writer. It is crucial to focus strictly on the subject of description. • Descriptive Essay Topics  Islamabad: the Capital of Pakistan  Islam and Pakistan Sohail Ahmed 20
  • 21. Discursive essay • The goal of a discursive essay is to present a balanced and objective examination of a subject. Like an argumentative essay, the topic may be controversial, but the discursive essay attempts to present a much more balanced discussion of the issue. It does not, however, have to be expressly neutral. The essay should present both sides of the discussion, supported by facts and research. The author may draw tentative conclusions about the subject and suggest them to the reader. • Topics  Experiments on animals are neither good nor bad  2- Morality and ethics with the Euthanasia Sohail Ahmed 21
  • 22. Cause and Effect Essay • This type of essay is concentrated on the ability of the writer to connect the reasons the things happen and the consequences they might have. In other words it is the connection between the causes of events and the effects this cause have on any analyzed aspect. • Cause and Effect Essay Topics  Energy Crisis  Problem in Big cities  Cancer Sohail Ahmed 22
  • 23. Expository Essay • This type of essay is aimed to explain some subject by presenting a very clear and complete picture of other people’s views on this certain situation or event. It may also be in a form of a report. The main idea of any expository essay is to present a certain event or situation in detail to the reader. • Expository Essay Topics  Xerox Business Systems  Religion in Education Sohail Ahmed 23