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CT	
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To	
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9	
  
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At	
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  NEXT??	
  	
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  take	
  Bme	
  and	
  money	
  to	
  complete,	
  but	
  we	
  don’t	
  always	
  plan	
...
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MCN 2013 (ffrench) From Documentation to Discovery: Preservation Photographic Imaging Leaps from the Illustrative to the Quantitive (PRESENTATION NOTES)

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During this panel presentation information was shared on a collaborative project between the Yale University Art Gallery and the Yale CS department. Staff established that significant imaging data potentially crucial to the work of restoring damaged paintings, could be improved by leveraging the combined strengths of multiple modalities. we therefore aimed to undertake a collaborative exploratory project, with the assistance of Post-Doc students in the Computing and the Arts department of Computer Science at Yale, to design new software that would allow these modalities to be used together.

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MCN 2013 (ffrench) From Documentation to Discovery: Preservation Photographic Imaging Leaps from the Illustrative to the Quantitive (PRESENTATION NOTES)

  1. 1. My  name  is  John  ffrench  and  I  am  the  Director  of  Visual  Resources  at  the  Yale   University  Art  Gallery.  I  oversee  the  imaging  department  which  photographs  the   collecBon  and  also  events,  exhibiBons,  etc  as  well  as  overseeing  the  Rights  and   ReproducBons  office  who  deal  with  the  disseminaBon  of  images  for  external   requests.  With  the  project  I  am  discussing  today,  I  was  more  of  an  organizing   parBcipant  or  intermediary  if  you  will  between  the  conservaBon  staff  and  the   computer  science  group.  It  is  important  to  know  a  few  things  before  we  begin.  I  am   NOT  a  computer  scienBst  –  though  I  can  claim  to  have  several  as  good  friends.  And  I   am  not  a  conservator,  though  my  group  does  provide  treatment  photography  for  the   conservaBon  department.  Also  I  happen  to  be  married  to  a  conservator  so  that  helps!     Recently,  new  two  and  three  dimensional  imaging  modaliBes  have  been  found  useful   in  gaining  insight  into  the  restoraBon  of  damaged  painBngs.  Non-­‐Invasive  Imaging  is   parBcularly  useful  in  restoraBon  as  it  provides  extensive  informaBon  about  a  work   without  physical  contact.  However,  combining  the  results  of  different  modaliBes  is   extremely  difficult,  and  conservators  generally  use  informaBon  from  each  mode  in   isolaBon.  In  this  project,  soSware  was  developed  to  overcome  the  barriers  in   combining  data  and  to  create  an  intuiBve  interface  for  conservators  to  examine   works.  The  soSware  allows  the  conservator  to  combine  images  in  a  common  view   and  idenBfy  the  same  region  in  the  work  in  mulBple  images  simultaneously.  The   soSware  further  allows  the  conservator  to  combine  data  values  to  idenBfy  materials     1  
  2. 2. In  an  interdisciplinary  collaboraBon,  art  and  computer  imaging  experts  from  the  Yale   University  Art  Gallery  and  the  Department  of  Computer  Science  began  a  project  in   2011  to  examine  selected  Early  Italian  panel  painBngs  combining  a  variety  of  imaging   techniques  that  include  digital  photography,  3D  scanning,  tomography  and  a  novel   form  of  photography  called  Polynomial  Texture  Mapping  (PTM).     At  that  Bme  no  soSware  existed  that  allowed  for  the  various  imaging  modaliBes  to   share  common  coordinate  systems.    For  example,  it  was  not  possible  to  overlay  the   PTM  data  on  the  correct  corresponding  secBon  of  a  3D  model.     Irma  Passeri,  a  conservator  at  the  Art  Gallery’s  laboratory,  working  with  Holly   Rushmeier,  Professor  of  Computer  Science,  established  that  significant  imaging  data   potenBally  crucial  to  the  work  of  restoring  damaged  painBngs,  could  be  improved  by   leveraging  the  combined  strengths  of  mulBple  modaliBes.    Professor  Rushmeier   therefore  aimed  to  undertake  an  exploratory  project  in  collaboraBon  with  Ms.   Passeri,  with  the  assistance  of  Post-­‐Doc  students  in  the  CompuBng  and  the  Arts   department  of  Computer  Science  at  Yale,  to  design  new  soSware  that  would  allow   these  modaliBes  to  be  used  together.     When  fully  refined  and  tested,  the  soSware  applicaBon  was  be  made  available  as  an   open  source  product.     2  
  3. 3. In  2011,  while  there  were  means  to  display  informaBon  showing  various  conservaBon   image  types,  there  was  no  way  for  a  conservator  to  do  comparaBve  analysis  of   different  file  types  without  using  several  programs.       There  were  certainly  programs  such  as  the  Ghent  altarpiece  Project,  however  these   were  more  a  means  of  educaBon  for  the  public  than  that  of  a  research  tool.     Also  Yale  developed  West  Campus,  a  off-­‐site  arts  and  sciences  area  which  has,  or  will   have  shared  and  collaboraBve  imaging  labs,  as  well  as  conservaBon  labs.  The   parBcipants  of  those  spaces  were  looking  for  ways  in  which  to  create  new  means  of   Campus  collaboraBon  and  a  project  like  this  was  a  good  test-­‐bed.   3  
  4. 4. In  extreme  short,  the  project  aimed  to  provide  a  means  for  varying  images  to  be   overlaid  with  each  other  in  a  computer  environment  to  beaer  enable  conservators/ curators  the  ability  to  study  works  of  art  (image  sources  were  tradiBonal   photography  -­‐  historic  images  and  modern,  mulB-­‐spectral  imaging,  UV,  IR,  xray,  CAT   scans,  PTM,  and  3D  laser  scans  to  name  a  few).     This  was  seen  as  an  exciBng  collaboraBon  with  the  Computer  Science  department   and  one  of  the  cultural  insBtuBons  on  campus  as  start  of  many  more  collaboraBon   projects  on  campus.     IniBal  1  year  grant  was  awarded  in  the  amount  of  $80,000  which  would  cover  the   acquisiBon  of  capture,  equipment  for  the  capture  and  research  of  objects   (NextEngine  3D  scanner,  materials  to  build  a  hyper-­‐spectral  camera,  computer   systems  to  store  data  and  build  out  the  soSware  interface),  and  funds  to  cover  50%   of  the  salary  of  a  programmer/imaging  scienBst.     Yale  University  Art  Gallery  would  provide  the  object(s),  studio  space  and  20%  of  staff   Bme  of  a  conservator  and  imaging  specialist.     4  
  5. 5. I’ll  aaempt  to  run  the  soSware  at  the  end  of  this  talk,  but  for  now  will  step  you   through  a  few  of  the  features  of  the  program.  We  all  know  how  live-­‐demo  scenarios   oSen  go  and  given  that  this  program  is  processor  intensive.     Here  you  can  see  a  screenshot  of  what  the  interface  looks  like.  There  are  four  sample   files  loaded  into  the  system,  a  3D  model  created  from  a  NextEngine  scanner,  a  CAT   scan  of  a  panel  painBng,  a  Hyper-­‐spectral  image,  and  another  view  of  the  CT  scan.     The  rogram  is  Mac/PC  based  –  though  admiaedly  it  performs  best  on  a  PC.   5  
  6. 6. Here  you  can  see  the  various  menu  opBons  available.  In  the  top  menu  you  can  have   the  opBon  to  open  a  2D  or  3D  file  directory.     Open   The  two  leSmost  icons  allow  easy  access  to  the  dialog  box  for  opening  files.  The  first   opens  2D  and  3D  images,  and  the  second  opens  CT  imaging  data.   Render   The  following  five  icons  are  only  usable  when  working  with  3D  meshes.   •  Lightbulb:  Toggles  the  direcBonal  light.   •  Points:  Displays  the  mesh  as  a  series  of  points  or  verBces.   •  Wireframe:  Displays  the  mesh  in  wireframe  mode.   •  Surface:  Displays  the  surface  polygons  on  the  mesh.   •  Texture:  Toggles  the  texture  display.   View   These  two  icons  alter  what  you  see  in  the  image  panel  when  displaying  an  image.   •  Spiral:  Toggles  the  use  of  interpolaBon  on  the  picture  or  texture.   •  Info:  Toggles  the  display  of  computer,  image,  and  perspecBve  informaBon  in  the     6  
  7. 7. CT  Image  Control   This  toolbox  is  only  acBve  when  working  with  CT  scanning  data.  You  can  use  it  to   navigate  through  a  series  of  2D  image  slices  or  to  select  display  opBons  when   working  with  3D  models.     2D  Image  Stack  Control   These  opBons  are  only  accessible  when  the  “2D  Rendering”  mode  is  selected.  From   here,  you  can  see  the  current  slice  that  is  displayed  in  the  image  panel,  as  well  as  the   total  number  of  slices  available  to  scroll  through.  You  can  also  change  the  view  in  the   image  panel  to  a  front,  side,  or  top  perspecBve  and  flip  the  image  upside  down.   Perhaps  most  importantly,  you  can  navigate  through  the  full  range  of  slices  by   dragging  the  slider  at  the  boaom  from  beginning  to  end  and  back  again.  If  your  image   has  many  slices  and  the  slider  is  not  precise  enough  to  navigate  to  your  desired  slice,   you  can  also  move  more  slowly  through  the  slices  with  the  leS  and  right  arrow  keys.   7  
  8. 8. Spectrum   The  Spectrum  toolbox  is  most  useful  when  working  with  hyperspectral  images  and   textures;  it  can  be  used  for  standard  RGB  images,  but  will  only  contain  three   meaningful  data  points—the  red,  green  and  blue  reflectance  values.  The  toolbox  has   no  effect  when  working  with  3D  meshes  with  no  texture  or  medical  imaging  data  in   grayscale.   To  use  the  Spectrum  toolbox,  simply  right-­‐click  on  a  given  pixel  or  cell  to  display  a   graph  of  the  available  wavelengths  ploaed  against  the  normalized  reflectance  values.   The  ultraviolet  spectrum  consists  of  those  wavelengths  to  the  leS  of  the  violet  line  on   the  graph,  while  the  infrared  spectrum  appears  to  the  right  of  the  red  line.     8  
  9. 9. To  view  movie  navigate  to:  hap://www.youtube.com/watch?v=txlwwlSRIQw     9  
  10. 10. The  source  code  and  supporBng  documentaBon  is  posted  on  Sourceforge     At  the  recent  VAST  conference  a  collaboraBve  paper  was  wriaen  on  the  project     There  has  been  limited  demonstraBon  of  the  product  to  the  audience  it  was  IniBally   desBned  for.  At  last  years  MCN  it  was  shown  to  a  few  people  aaending  (hence  the   interest  and  request  to  present  our  findings  this  year).  It  was  going  to  be  presented   at  IS&T  however  a  conflict  of  interest  in  reporBng  on  the  same  findings  as  announced   at  the  VAST  conference  required  us  to  pull  out  at  the  last  minute.   10  
  11. 11. Currently  the  program  is  being  further  developed  with  new  CS  programmers  and   there  is  focus  on  a  new  imaging  project  underway  to  study  medieval  manuscripts  and   the  pigments  used.  Through  that  project,  addiBonal  tools/features  are  being  added.   These  new  tools,  while  potenBally  useful  to  the  iniBal  parBcipants,  are  more  aimed  at   the  needs  of  the  2nd  phase  supporters  of  the  project  than  further  establishing  the   core  needs  of  the  original  group.     Unfortunately  the  iniBal  partners  of  the  project  are  not  using  the  program  as   intended  the  new  direcBon  of  the  program  is  more  in  support  of  a  previously   unknown  need,       11  
  12. 12. WHAT  NEXT??    Projects  take  Bme  and  money  to  complete,  but  we  don’t  always  plan   into  project  Bme  for  usability  tesBng,  or  promoBon  of  products.  It  is  an  important   step  to  factor  in.   Gewng  this  into  more  test-­‐users  hands,  ideally  conservators  who  have  the  need,  but   can  also  provide  valuable  feedback  and  suggest  further  development.     While  we  are  starBng  to  see  some  level  of  conservators  and  imaging  scienBst  express   interest  in  the  program,  sharing  this  program  through  conservaBon  circles,  such  as   AIC,  would   be  the  next  logical  step  and/or  finding  partners  outside  of  Yale  to  work  with  on  the   collaboraBve  development  of  such  programs.     Ideally  trying  to  work  closer  with  another  group  interested  in,  or  working  towards   similar  ends  would  be  logical.     More  so  in  recent  years,  Yale  is  keen  to  openly  share  informaBon,  resources  and  is   looking  for  wider  collaboraBon.  But  we  as  a  community  need  to  find  beaer  ways  in   which  to  bring  awareness  of  such  programs.     12  

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