Purpose of Pipe FittingsPurpose of Pipe Fittings
Plumbing fittings have differentPlumbing fittings have different
shapes which allow rigid straightshapes which allow rigid straight
pipe to change both direction andpipe to change both direction and
Used to change the angle orUsed to change the angle or
direction of the pipe run.direction of the pipe run.
The most common elbows come inThe most common elbows come in
90 degree and 45 degree turns.90 degree and 45 degree turns.
– The sweep of the fitting describes howThe sweep of the fitting describes how
fast a transition or change in directionfast a transition or change in direction
is made.is made.
Street ElbowsStreet Elbows
One end of the fitting has maleOne end of the fitting has male
threads and the other end hasthreads and the other end has
female threads.female threads.
– Street elbows are common inStreet elbows are common in
galvanized steel and copper pipe.galvanized steel and copper pipe.
– They are convenient because they doThey are convenient because they do
away with the need for a nipple andaway with the need for a nipple and
work well in tight quarters.work well in tight quarters.
Tee or T-fittingsTee or T-fittings
Allow for branch lines.Allow for branch lines.
They are shaped like the letter T.They are shaped like the letter T.
DWV tees are known as waste orDWV tees are known as waste or
sanitary Ts.sanitary Ts.
– In these fittings the intersection isIn these fittings the intersection is
slightly curved in order to avoid clogs.slightly curved in order to avoid clogs.
Gradual bends are best for smoothGradual bends are best for smooth
flow of waste.flow of waste.
Used to join two straight pieces ofUsed to join two straight pieces of
pipe of the same diameter.pipe of the same diameter.
Used to join pipe of differentUsed to join pipe of different
– Galvanized steel reducers are called bellGalvanized steel reducers are called bell
reducers because they look like a bell.reducers because they look like a bell.
– All reducers make a gradual transitionAll reducers make a gradual transition
between different diameters of pipe andbetween different diameters of pipe and
therefore they take up considerabletherefore they take up considerable
Used to make the diameter of a pipeUsed to make the diameter of a pipe
fitting smaller.fitting smaller.
They differ from reducers in that theyThey differ from reducers in that they
make abrupt changes in diameter andmake abrupt changes in diameter and
take very little space.take very little space.
– Two examples of galvanized steel bushingsTwo examples of galvanized steel bushings
face bushings, which take the least amount offace bushings, which take the least amount of
space, andspace, and
hex bushings which can be tightened with anhex bushings which can be tightened with an
adjustable wrench.adjustable wrench.
Used to join pieces of pipe whereUsed to join pieces of pipe where
pipes cannot be turned or when apipes cannot be turned or when a
piece of equipment may have to bepiece of equipment may have to be
removed for maintenance orremoved for maintenance or
Adaptor fittingsAdaptor fittings
are used to change the end of a non-are used to change the end of a non-
threaded pipe to male or female threadsthreaded pipe to male or female threads
as needed.as needed.
Adaptors are commonly used in copperAdaptors are commonly used in copper
and plastic plumbing jobs.and plastic plumbing jobs.
– For example adaptors are used to convertFor example adaptors are used to convert
from a PVC glue connection to a threadedfrom a PVC glue connection to a threaded
connection orconnection or
– from a copper soldered connection to afrom a copper soldered connection to a
threaded connection.threaded connection.
Male adapters and female adapters areMale adapters and female adapters are
both common.both common.
Used to close the end of a dead endUsed to close the end of a dead end
Close an opening on a pipefittingClose an opening on a pipefitting
normally used for inspection andnormally used for inspection and
Short lengths (under 12") of pipeShort lengths (under 12") of pipe
threaded at both ends.threaded at both ends.
Pronounced like the letter YPronounced like the letter Y
Used primarily to gain inside accessUsed primarily to gain inside access
to DWV systems.to DWV systems.
Devices that control the flow of liquidDevices that control the flow of liquid
or gas through or from a pipe.or gas through or from a pipe.
– Types of plumbing valves are:Types of plumbing valves are:
compression valves,compression valves,
ball valves,ball valves,
sleeve-cartridge valves,sleeve-cartridge valves,
ceramic disc valvesceramic disc valves
and moreand more
PVC FittingsPVC Fittings
PVC fitting come in a wide variety of configurations.PVC fitting come in a wide variety of configurations.
They many be glued (S) or threaded (T) or both.They many be glued (S) or threaded (T) or both.
Glued fittings are referred to as “slip” fittings.Glued fittings are referred to as “slip” fittings.
– When specifying a PVC fitting the size and type ofWhen specifying a PVC fitting the size and type of
connection are specified. Some examples are:connection are specified. Some examples are:
– ¾” x ½” ST Ell – A reducing ell with a ¾” slip x ½” thread¾” x ½” ST Ell – A reducing ell with a ¾” slip x ½” thread
– ¾” x ¾” x ½” SST Tee – A reducing tee with a threaded¾” x ¾” x ½” SST Tee – A reducing tee with a threaded
– ¾” x ½” SS Bushing = A bushing with slip connections.¾” x ½” SS Bushing = A bushing with slip connections.
Copper Tubing FittingsCopper Tubing Fittings
Copper tubing use compressionCopper tubing use compression
Fittings are available to adapt fromFittings are available to adapt from
compression to IPS and fromcompression to IPS and from
compression to soldered fittings.compression to soldered fittings.
Common fittings include couplings,Common fittings include couplings,
ells, and tees.ells, and tees.
Valves and Hose BibsValves and Hose Bibs
Valves are used to control the flow ofValves are used to control the flow of
water or other fluids in a plumbingwater or other fluids in a plumbing
Common types of valves include theCommon types of valves include the
– A gate valve is a valve situated between theA gate valve is a valve situated between the
point of connection and the rest of thepoint of connection and the rest of the
plumbing system.plumbing system.
– It usually remains wide open, but can be shutIt usually remains wide open, but can be shut
down in case repairs or additions have to bedown in case repairs or additions have to be
made to the system.made to the system.
– A gate valve is not designed to be openedA gate valve is not designed to be opened
and closed on a regular basis.and closed on a regular basis.
A check valve allows the fluid in theA check valve allows the fluid in the
pipe to flow in one direction only.pipe to flow in one direction only.
– Check valves are used in water wellsCheck valves are used in water wells
to prevent the backflow of water.to prevent the backflow of water.
– There are two basic types: swing orThere are two basic types: swing or
flapper and lift check valves. Bothflapper and lift check valves. Both
work automatically.work automatically.
Direction of Flow
A globe valve is a valve used whenA globe valve is a valve used when
frequent adjustment of the flow ratefrequent adjustment of the flow rate
is necessary.is necessary.
– It is a compression-type valve with aIt is a compression-type valve with a
disk or washer that is compressed into adisk or washer that is compressed into a
seat to form a tight seal. Repair is madeseat to form a tight seal. Repair is made
by replacing the stem washer or disk.by replacing the stem washer or disk.
A hose bib is a threaded exteriorA hose bib is a threaded exterior
faucet that allows for the attachmentfaucet that allows for the attachment
of a garden hose or appliance hose.of a garden hose or appliance hose.