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# Brickwork wikipedia

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### Brickwork wikipedia

2. 2. Six positions Orientation of a brick A brick is given a classification based on how it is laid, and how the exposed face is oriented relative to the face of the finished wall. Stretcher: A brick laid with its long narrow side exposed.[8] Header: A brick laid flat with its width at the face of the wall, or parallel to the face of the wall.[8] Soldier: A brick laid vertically with the long narrow side of the brick exposed.[9] Sailor: A brick laid vertically with the broad face of the brick exposed.[10] Rowlock: A brick laid on the long narrow side with the short end of the brick exposed.[11] Shiner: A brick laid on the long narrow side with the broad face of the brick exposed.[12] Cut of a brick The practice of laying uncut full-sized bricks wherever possible gives brickwork its maximum possible strength. In the diagrams below, uncut full-sized bricks are coloured as follows: Stretchers: A brick laid with its long, narrow side exposed. Header: A brick laid with its short side exposed. Occasionally though a brick must be cut to fit a given space, or to be the right shape for fulfilling some particular purpose such as generating an offset, or lap at the beginning of a course.[13] In the diagrams below, the most commonly used cuts for generating offsets are coloured as follows: Three-quarter bat - stretching: A brick cut to three-quarters of its length, and laid with its long, narrow side exposed. Three-quarter bat - heading: A brick cut to three-quarters of its length, and laid with its short side exposed. Half bat: A brick cut in half across its width. Queen closer: A brick cut in half down its length.[14] Less frequently used cuts are all coloured as follows: Quarter bat: A brick cut to a quarter of its length. Three-quarter queen closer: A queen closer cut to three-quarters of its length. King closer: A brick with one corner cut away, leaving one header face at half its standard width.[15] Bonding in brickwork A nearly universal rule allowing for brickwork to be stable under even modest loads is that perpends should not vertically align in any two successive courses. If this rule is observed, then the force acting on any brick is distributed across a wider area in the next successive course.[16] A second practice particularly observed in older examples of brickwork is that of building brickwork thicker than the width of any of its individual bricks. In these cases, a number of the component bricks are tied together into the depth of the wall. If — for example — a wall describing an east-west line is under construction, then bricks oriented to point north-south may be built into the width of the wall, their length spanning two widths of brick and tying the brickwork on the transverse plane. Historically, this was the dominant method for consolidating the transverse strength of walls. Brickwork observing either or both of these two conventions is described as being laid in one or another bond.[17][18] Wall ties The advent during the mid nineteenth century of the cavity wall saw the development of another method of strengthening brickwork — the wall tie. A cavity wall comprises two totally discrete walls — each one of which is called a leaf.[19][20] A cavity separates the two leaves so that there is no masonry connection between them at all.[21] Typically the main loads taken by the foundations are carried there by the inner leaf, and the major functions of the external leaf are to protect the whole from weather, and to provide a fitting aesthetic finish. Although the two leaves may not share the structural load, their transverse rigidity still needs to be guaranteed, and must come from some source other than interlocking bricks. The device used to satisfy this need is the insertion at regular intervals of wall ties into the cavity wall’s mortar beds.[22][23]