Works Done in Residential Buildings
P.S.G.V.P.Mandal’s D. N. Patel College Of
Prof. S. I. Chopda
WHAT IS PLUMBING ?
• The art and science of creating and maintaining sanitary conditions in
The art and science of installing, repairing and servicing of pipes, fixtures and
appurtenances necessary for bringing in water supply, distributing it within
and removing the liquid and water-borne wastes.
It includes fresh water pipes; fixtures and fixture traps; soil and waste pipes;
vent pipes; building drain and building sewer; storm drainage pipes, their
devices, appurtenances and connections to all within or adjacent to the
• The word Plumbing is originated from the Latin word PLUMBUM for Lead
as pipes were made for lead. But now a days pipes are lead free, as lead is
not good for health.
• "Plumbing" often denotes the supply and waste system of an individual
building, distinguishing it from water supply and sewage systems that serve
a group of buildings.
OBJECTIVES OF PLUMBING
Before an engineer is set out to design the plumbing services of any
project, it is necessary that he has well defined aims and objectives
in order to install an efficient and economical plumbing system.
•Plumbing is an important part of any type of building, as it may be
residential, commercial, industry etc.
•To provide the fresh water for drinking, cooking, washing utensils.
•Plumbing also plays an important role in the removal of waterborne
•Adequate pressure of water should be received for water storage
tanks for bathing, flushing system.
•While plumbing in residential building minimum number of fixtures
should be used.
•All sanitary drainage system should be connected to the nearest
public sewer system.
•The drainage system should be so designed as to guard against
fouling, deposit of solids and clogging.
The Basic Plumbing Components of any building:
1.Water supply distributing pipes
2.Fixture and fixture traps
3.Soil, waste and vent pipes
4.Storm water drainage
PLUMBING WORK DETAIL
After the one hand plaster for plumbing work the wall of buildings
cut by means of grinder. The fresh water pipes from water tank are
made concealed in walls. The drainage pipes are done in open.
Where plumbing work is done :-
1.In Kitchen :- For Cooking, Washing utensils, Drinking water.
In kitchen there are two points from pipe. In one point water coming
from the overhead water tank & and in second point water from
municipality or from bore well done.
2.In Bathroom :- For Bathing
In bathroom there are 4 points of pipe. Three points are in triangle
shape where water taps are fitted and in one point overhead shower is
3.In Toilets :- For flushing, for drainage.
In toilets there are around 3 points, one for flushing, one for taking
water. If there is an European sheet for flushing FLUSH TANK is used,
Push Shower, Zet Spary connection is done from that point.
For Ventilation purpose of system vent pipe is used.
PLUMBING WORK DETAIL
The Middle Class Peoples make the plumbing system very
economical. They do the nominal plumbing work which can fulfill
their needs of plumbing.
But the Higher Class People makes there bathroom very lavishe.
They include the Bath tub, Shower panel, Steamer, Jacuzzi etc.
For the Shower Panel installed in bathroom the special Pressure
Pump is used for water pressure. If pressure pump is not installed
then shower panel cannot work. In our area peoples don’t use this
system, as it is costly and the main reason for not using this is
HARD WATER which is present in bore wells.
• Smooth joints
• Avoid noise transmission
• Avoid formation of air locks
• Avoid unsightly arrangement
• Economy in labour and materials
• No piping under wastewater pipes
• Gradual size and direction changes
• Maximum pressure of water should be obtained from pipes
• Good adhesive should be used for joining the pipes
• No back-flow towards the source of supply
• Wholesome water supply for drinking and culinary purposes
• The level of W.C. should not be less than the bathroom level, if is less
then water from bathroom will come in W.C. and will kill the bacteria and
no gases will form and the sludge will settle down there only.
• No cross-connection between pure and contaminated water pipes
• Sufficient strength of pipes underground or under traffic loads or frost
• Insulating pipe should be used for supplying hot water from solar heater.
POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED
WHY INSPECTION CHAMBER ?
All underground drainage systems must have access points, to
enable the drains to be inspected on a regular basis and to be
cleaned in the event of a blockage. The most common form of
access is an inspection chamber, often still referred to as a
manhole. In times gone by, manholes were actually large, bricked
up chambers that had iron steps built into the wall, enabling a
person to physically climb down into the drainage system. The main
difference between one of these old manholes and a plastic
inspection chamber is that inspection chambers do not permit
physical entrance into the drains.
When should you use one?
You should use an inspection chamber whenever a branch pipe
joins a main drainage. By these chamber we can inspect the
drainage line and can know where there is blockage in drainage
•The inspection chamber
made of concrete are known as
•The use of these chamber is
very less due to its construction
•As the inner surface is rough
the deposition of waste gets
•Increasing of these chamber
is very tough job.
•The position of these can not
be changed once fixed.
WHY INSPECTION CHAMBER ?
• These type of inspection
chambers are used now a
• These are very economical
then concrete chamber.
• These are light weighted
chamber. The inner surface of
these chambers are smooth,
deposition doesn’t takes
• The position of these
chambers can be easily
changed, when required.
• Height of these chambers can
be easily increased as per
WHY INSPECTION CHAMBER ?
• The durability of a plumbing system is dependent on the quality of its
component parts and the assembly skills of those who install it. No
plumbing system, however well designed, can be expected to operate safely
or hygienically if the products or materials used are unsatisfactory. The
inverse is also true if the best-quality products or materials are used but are
installed incorrectly, the system will be a failure.
• There are two families of materials available for water pipework systems:
metallic and non-metallic materials. Of these the most commonly used
materials for drinking-water supply piping are,
• Galvanized Iron Pipe & fitting (G.I.)
• Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC)
• Chlorinated PolyVinyl Chloride (CPVC)
• Soil Waste and Rain Water (SWR)
• Poly Propylene Random (PPR)
• Bendable Multi-Layer Composite Pipe
• Foamcore Pipes
MATERIAL AVAILABLE IN
• The tank placed at the top of a residential building for supplying
and storing water coming from bore well or municipality is
• There are two types of overhead water tank used by peoples for
1.Cement and Brick Water tank
2.Ready-made Water tank
OVERHEAD WATER TANK
•These tanks can be made in
any architectural shape.
•The construction cost of
these tank is very high.
•Chemicals should be added
or applied to these tank for water
•The place of these tank
cannot be changed.
•Cracks are formed in these
•Load on slab gets increased
due to water pressure in tank.
CEMENT & BRICK OVERHEAD TANK
READY-MADE WATER TANK
•The installation of these tank
is very easy.
•Position of these tank can be
•These are light in weight.
•Repairing of these tank is
•It is very economical.
•The load of water is not much
on slab as in construction water
• These solar water heater is of
• The temperature of water in
solar does not exceed after a
• If height of water tank is not
greater than of solar special
tank of required capacity
should be provided.
• Due to hard water special
solar for hard water should be
• Insulating tank is fitted in solar
by which there is no loss of
temperature of water.
SOLAR WATER HEATER
•Now a days, special type of
pipe is available in market which
is used for L.P.G. gas fitting in
•These is a composite pipe
consisting of two type of layer.
•Composite Piping System is
manufactured from high grade
Virgin Polyethylene and
•The Polymer is effectively
bonded in the inside and outside
of the Aluminum core by melt
adhesive. This Aluminum Core
is 100% leak proof for both
liquids and gases making it an
ideal pipe for transporting gases
L.P.G GAS PIPE & FITTING