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  1. Assignment
  2. Cast Iron and Commercial Steel Pipe • Cast iron pipe was frequently used uncoated, although later coatings and linings reduced corrosion and improved hydraulics. In cast iron pipe, the graphite forms flakes during the casting process, when examined under a microscope. • Little cast iron pipe is currently manufactured, since ductile iron pipe is widely accepted as a superior product. Many public utilities, municipalities, and private industries still have functional cast iron pipe in service to this day. • If your building or office is experiencing pipe or drain problems, it is worthwhile to consider commercial pipe lining. Commercial pipe lining is a type of pipe lining that does not require digging trenches or excavations.
  3. Fittings Assumptions • For desired setup, multiple fittings such as elbow and tees are included in order to have desired flows to respective buildings from roof storage tanks. • Pressure loss due these fittings have been successfully included in friction factor calculation with data available from literature. • A bend of 180 in normal pipping systems gives us a pressure drop of 0.15 bar.
  4. Pipe Elbow The Elbow is used more than any other pipe fittings. It provides flexibility to change the pipe direction. Elbow mainly available in two standard types 90° and 45°. However, it Can be cut to any other degree. Elbows are available in two radius types, Short radius (1D) and Long Radius (1.5D).
  5. Long radius elbow In a long radius elbow, the center-line radius is 1.5 times the nominal size of the pipe or you can say 1.5 times the diameter of the pipe. Normally long radius elbows are used in piping as pressure loss is less as compared to short radius elbow. It required more space than a short radius elbow.
  6. Reducing Elbow The 90 reducing elbow is designed to change direction as well as reduce the size of the pipe within a piping system. The reducing elbow eliminates one pipe fitting and reduces the welding by more than one- third. Also, the gradual reduction in diameter throughout the arc of the reducing elbow provides lower resistance to flow and reduces the effect of stream turbulence and potential internal erosion. These features prevent sizeable pressure drops in the line.
  7. Pipe Tee A pipe tee is used for distributing or collecting the fluid from the run pipe. It is a short piece of pipe with a 90-degree branch at the center. There are two types of Tee used in piping, Equal / Straight Tee, and Reducing / Unequal Tee.
  8. Wye Tee / Lateral It is a type of Tee that has the branch at a 45° angle, or an angle other than 90°. Wye tee allows one pipe to be joined to another at a 45° angle. This type of tee reduces friction and turbulence that could hamper the flow. Wye tee is also known as a lateral.
  9. Piping Union Unions are used as an alternative to flanges connection in low-pressure small bore piping where the dismantling of the pipe is required more often. Unions can be a threaded end or socket weld ends. There are three pieces in a union, a nut, a female end, and a male end. When the female and male ends are joined, the nuts provide the necessary pressure to seal the joint.
  10. Pipe Nipple The nipple is a short stub of a pipe that has a male pipe thread at each end or at one end. It used for connecting two other fittings. Nipples are used for connecting pipe, hoses, and valves. Pipe nipples are used in low-pressure piping.
  11. Suitable Pump • For the given task of pumping the said fluid to the desired point a centrifugal pump is chosen as it is best available option for developing desired pressure to the desired at height with minimum losses. • A centrifugal pump has low maintenance cost than the positive displacement pump. • Pump characteristics can be changed by changing the design of impellor with desired operating speed.
  12. Amount of Fittings: First of all the valve at the suction of the pump is applied then at the discharge of pump a valve. Then for the discharge of fluid into the roof storage tank two elbows and two non-return valves are used. Then five tees are used for the supply of each building. Valves: 2 Non return valve: 2 Elbows:2 Tees:5
  13. Materials Selection& Length Assumption • For the given task we are required to complete it with two different materials. The materials selected for our calculation are cast iron and commercial steel pipe due to its easy availability and regular usage. • The length of pipe assumed for calculation is 120 meter with three meters apart for each building as provided.
  14. Pressure and Head Loss • The pump pressure, head loss, velocity head, friction factor, relative roughness, frictional losses in pipe and its impact on developed head are calculated with three different flow rates for each pipe diameter for two different materials have been conducted with help of literature. • The force required to fix the supply pipe has been calculated through the usage of assumed density from which required potential energy is calculated with cylindrical tank volume.
  15. Relative Roughness The relative roughness of a pipe is its roughness divided by its internal diameter or e/D, and this value is used in the calculation of the pipe friction factor, which is then used in the Darcy-Weis Bach equation to calculate the friction loss in a pipe for a flowing fluid. The shear velocity V* is defined as: V * = τ o / ρ . Darcy friction factor is a function of the Reynolds number VDH/v and relative roughness ks/DH, where ks is the equivalent roughness height and DH is the hydraulic diameter
  16. Equations Used Reynolds Number=- density*velocity*diameter/ viscosity Fluid Velocity= Flow rate/Cross sectional area Relative Roughness= Roughness/ Pipe Diameter Velocity Head= Square of velocity/gravity Head Loss= Velocity head* miscellaneous losses Pressure= Density*Head Loss* gravity Friction Loss=8*friction factor*(Pipe Length/Internal Diamterr)*Density*square of velocity/2 Total Pressure= Pressure+ Friction Losses in pipe Volume= 2*pi*radius*height*2 Mass= Density*volume Energy= mass*gravity*height
  17. Pressure drop in pipe line
  18. Chart for friction factor
  19. Miscellaneous Losses