The Social Development Theory- Lev Vygotsky


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  • Split the children into groups of four. Vygotsky believed that children can learn from teachers and peers, and either a teacher or peer can fill the role of the "More Knowledgeable Other." Put more intelligent children with less intelligent ones to ensure that there is a "More Knowledgeable Other" figure within the group.
  • Hand out a worksheet with an explanation of a grammatical concept or a topic. For example, a lesson on synonyms and antonyms should be accompanied by a worksheet explaining both concepts and offering examples of each.
  • Assign each child in the group one of the following roles: "Summarizer," "Questioner," "Clarifier" or "Predictor." Explain to the children that they each have a special job. The "Summarizer" summarizes the worksheet's content. The "Questioner" identifies any areas that aren't quite clear. The "Clarifier" tries to address the issues raised by the questioner, and the "Predictor" tries to determine what information is likely to come next.
  • Ask the children to take notes as they read the worksheet to help them fulfill their roles more efficiently. Encourage the children to start a discussion after they've read the worksheet and made any notes or highlighted any points relevant to their role. Tell the "Summarizer" to explain the lesson first; then ask the "Questioner" to raise any issues, the "Clarifier" to try to answer them, and the "Predictor" to speculate as to what is still to be taught. The fixed roles help foster a discussion about the subject matter. This utilizes the "Zone of Proximal Development" --- the difference between what children can learn alone and what they can learn with guidance of a more knowledgeable peer.
  • Walk around the groups in the classroom to determine if there were any questions raised by the "Questioner" that the "Clarifier" couldn't answer. Guide the children toward the correct answer to the problem. For example, if the children couldn't work out why "scent" and "fragrance" are synonyms, ask them about each word to ensure understanding of the words' meanings. Then ask the "Summarizer" to review what a synonym is.
  • Vygotsky believed that children learn more efficiently in a social setting, rather than an instructional one. Help them find the answer instead of giving it to them.
  • Rotate the group members' roles in the next portion of the lesson. It's important that children learn to fill all of the roles, so they eventually learn to fill the role of "More Knowledgeable Other" within their groups.
  • The Social Development Theory- Lev Vygotsky

    1. 1. Explanation of Grammatical Concepts: Today’s lesson is on “Synonyms”.Synonyms are words with identical or similar meanings. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, and the state of being a synonym is called synonymy.The word comes from Ancient Greek syn (σύν) ("with") and onoma (ὄνομα) ("name"). The words car and automobile are synonyms. Similarly, if we talk about a long time or an extended time, long and extended become synonyms.Examples:verb:"buy" and "purchase"Adjective: "big" and "large"Adverb: "quickly" and "speedily"Preposition: "on" and "upon”