Living organism cannot live in isolation and they do interact invarious ways to form biological. Interspecific interaction are those interactions of population oftwo different species. Such interaction are of the following types:-• Beneficial to both as in mutualism.• Beneficial to one and harmful to the other as in parasitism andpredation.• Beneficial to one and neutral to the other as incommensalism.• Detrimental to both as in competition.• Detrimental to one and neutral to the other as inAmensalism.
Classification of InteractionMutualismPredationParasitismCommensalismCompetitionAmensalismNote :- Explanation are given below.
Topic :- MutualismIt is defined as the interspecific interaction in which both the interactingspecies are benefitted.Examples are as follow:-1. Lichen :- an intimate mutualistic relationship between afungus and alga or a cyano bacterium.2. Mycorrhizae :- The mutualistic association between fungi and theroots of higher plants where fungus helps in nutrientsabsorption and the plant in contrary to it provide food for thefungus.
3. Ophrys employs sexual deceit to get its flower pollinated .I. one petal of the orchid flower resembles the female of a beespecies in size, colour and markings.ii. The male be perceive it as female and Pseudocopulates withit and the pollen grain become dusted on its body.iii. The bee when attracted by another flower of the speciesrepeats the processMycorrhizaeOphrys OphrysMycorrhizae
Topic : PredationIt is the interspecific interaction, where one animal kills and consume theother weaker animals.Important role in the ecosystem :-1. They acts as ‘conduits’ for energy transfer to higher tropical region.2. They keep the prey population under control, which otherwise can reach veryhigh population density and cause imbalance in the ecosystem.3. They help in maintaining species diversity in a community by reducing theintensity of competition among the competing prey species.Examples ;-Monarch butterfly, Calotropis, Bougainvillea.Bougainvillea :- Thorns (Bougainvillea) and spines (Acacia, Cactusetc.) are the most common morphological means of defence. Plant produce and store certain chemicals which function in one or more of thefollowing ways.i. They may even directly kill them e.g. Calotropis produces a highlypoisonous glycoside, that is cardiac poison.ii. Nicotine, strychnine, opium, quinine, etc are the chemicals producedby plants for their defence against herbivores.
Topic :- ParasitismParasitism is the interspecific interaction, where one of the speciesdepends on the other species for food and shelter.Types of Parasitism :-1. Ectoparasites are those parasites which depend on the external surfaceof the host.e.g. Head-lice on humans, Ticks on dogs, Cuscuta on hedge plants.2. Endoparasites are those which take shelter within the body of host inthe organs like intestine, liver, blood cell etc.e.g. Tapeworm, Liverfluke, Plasmodium.3. Blood parasitism refers to the phenomenon in which one bird specieslays its eggs in the nest of another bird species.e.g. Cuckoo birds lays eggs in the nest of crows.EctoparasitesEndoparasitesBrood Parasitism
Topic :- CommensalismCommensalism is defined as the interspecific interaction where onespecies is benefitted while the other species is neither benefitted norharmed.Examples :-1. Orchids grow as epiphytes on mango or other fruit trees. Orchids are benefitted by getting a shelter, while trees is neitherbenefitted nor harmed.2. Barnacles growing on the whale and sucker fisher are attached to sharkgets shelter and food (benefited to move to where food is available). Whileboth the large fishes remains neutral.3. The cattle egrets always forage near to where the cattle are growing.* As the cattle animals stir up, the insects are flushed outfrom the vegetation.* The egrets are benefitted by this as otherwise it might bedifficult for the birds to detect and catch the insects.4. The clown fish living among sea anemone get protection form their `predator that stay away from the stinging tentacle of the sea anemone
Topic :- CompetitionCompetition is the type of interaction either among individuals of the samespecies or between individuals/populations of different species.I. Completely unrelated species can also compete for the same source.e.g. In certain shallow lakes of South America, the visitingflamingoes and the native fishes compete for the samezooplanktons as their food.II. Resources need not be limiting for competition to occur, the feedingefficiency of one species might be reduced due to the interfering andinhibitory presence of the other species.e.g. Abingdon tortoise in Galapagos island become extinct withina decade after goats were introduced into the island.
Topic :- AmensalismInteraction between two different species, in which one species is harmedand the other is neither benefitted nor harmed. Inhibition is mostly achieved by secreting antibiotics substance :-A. Penicilium inhibits growth of various bacteria by secreting penicillinB. Streptomycin is secreted by Streptomyces gresius which checksgrowth of various other bacteria.C. Barley, sorghum, sunflower etc. don’t allow weeds to grow near themby secreting allochemics from roots. Hence, called smoother crops. Animal ammensalism also occurs when a large animal by mistake steps ona smaller animal /plant killing it without getting any benefit from the act. Self-ammensalism is seen in wild variety of Grevillea robusta that inhibitsgrowth of its own seedlings through an allochemic secreted by its roots.
SUMMARYThe following table shows the population interactions:Name of Interaction Species A Species B1. Mutualism + +2. Predation + -3. Parasitism + -4. Commensalism + 05. Competition - -6. Amensalism - 0