Chapter 21-1 and Chapter 22 Species Interactions Community Ecology Food Webs
Predation <ul><li>Predator-captures, kills and consumes another individual </li></ul><ul><li>Prey-is captured and consumed...
Predators, Prey and Natural Selection <ul><li>A predator’s survival depends on its ability to capture food, but a prey’s s...
Mimicry <ul><li>Deception is important in antipredator defenses. </li></ul><ul><li>In a defense called mimicry, a harmless...
Mimicry Monarch Viceroy
 
 
 
 
 
 
Plant-Herbivore Interactions <ul><li>Animals that eat plants are called herbivores. </li></ul><ul><li>Through natural sele...
 
Plant-Herbivore Interactions <ul><li>Plants have also evolved a range of chemical defenses. </li></ul><ul><li>They synthes...
Secondary Compounds
Purple Coneflower or Echincaea. Immune system Willow Tree aspirin
stop
Parasitism <ul><li>Parasitism- a species interaction that resembles predation in that one individual is harmed while the o...
Ectoparasites
Endoparasites
Competition <ul><li>Competition results from niche overlap. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition is the use of the same limited r...
Mutualism and Commensalism <ul><li>Mutualism- a cooperative relationship in which both partners benefit </li></ul><ul><li>...
Mutualism and Commensalism <ul><li>Commensalism- a relationship between organisms in which one organism benefits and one o...
Mutualism
Commensalism These are mainly commensalism but could change to mutualism if the situation changes.
Essential Questions <ul><li>Explain how predators differ from parasites.  Give an example of each kind of organism. </li><...
Stop Magic School Bus
Producers <ul><li>Producer-makes its own food, autotroph </li></ul><ul><li>Chemosynthesis-produce carbohydrates from inorg...
Producers <ul><li>Most producers are photosynthetic, so they use solar energy to power the production of food. </li></ul><...
Consumers <ul><li>Consumers-heterotrophs, must eat other organisms to obtain energy </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores-animals t...
Consumers <ul><li>Detritivore-consumers that feed on dead or dying organisms and waste products </li></ul><ul><li>Decompos...
What Am I? zebra consumer producer decomposer lion grass mushroom deer
Energy Flow <ul><li>Trophic level-the organisms’ position in the sequence of energy transfers </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever o...
 
 
 
Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>Food chain-single pathway of feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem that ...
 
Essential Questions <ul><li>Why are autotrophs essential components of an ecosystem? </li></ul><ul><li>What role do decomp...
Commensalism
Mutualism
commensalism
Parasitism
Predation
Parasitism
mutualism
mutualism
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Chapter 21 and 22

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Chapter 21 and 22

  1. 1. Chapter 21-1 and Chapter 22 Species Interactions Community Ecology Food Webs
  2. 2. Predation <ul><li>Predator-captures, kills and consumes another individual </li></ul><ul><li>Prey-is captured and consumed for food </li></ul>
  3. 3. Predators, Prey and Natural Selection <ul><li>A predator’s survival depends on its ability to capture food, but a prey’s survival depends on its ability to avoid being captured. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mimicry <ul><li>Deception is important in antipredator defenses. </li></ul><ul><li>In a defense called mimicry, a harmless species resembles a poisonous or distasteful species. </li></ul><ul><li>The harmless mimic is protected because it is often mistaken to be its dangerous look-alike </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mimicry Monarch Viceroy
  6. 12. Plant-Herbivore Interactions <ul><li>Animals that eat plants are called herbivores. </li></ul><ul><li>Through natural selection, plants have evolved adaptations that protect them from being eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical defenses, such as sharp thorns, spines, sticky hairs, and tough leaves, can make a plant more difficult to eat. </li></ul>
  7. 14. Plant-Herbivore Interactions <ul><li>Plants have also evolved a range of chemical defenses. </li></ul><ul><li>They synthesize chemicals from products of their metabolism, called secondary compounds, that are poisonous, irritating, or bad tasting. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are the tobacco plant and poison ivy and poison oak. </li></ul><ul><li>Many medicines are derived from secondary compounds. </li></ul>
  8. 15. Secondary Compounds
  9. 16. Purple Coneflower or Echincaea. Immune system Willow Tree aspirin
  10. 17. stop
  11. 18. Parasitism <ul><li>Parasitism- a species interaction that resembles predation in that one individual is harmed while the other benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Parasite- feeds on another individual, harming it </li></ul><ul><li>Host-fed upon by another organism </li></ul><ul><li>Ectoparasites-external, ticks, fleas, lice </li></ul><ul><li>Endoparasites-internal, worms, protists </li></ul>
  12. 19. Ectoparasites
  13. 20. Endoparasites
  14. 21. Competition <ul><li>Competition results from niche overlap. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition is the use of the same limited resource by two or more species. </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive exclusion is when one species is eliminated from a community due to competition. </li></ul><ul><li>One species uses a resource more efficiently and has a reproductive advantage over the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition is the most intense between similar species using the same resources. </li></ul>
  15. 22. Mutualism and Commensalism <ul><li>Mutualism- a cooperative relationship in which both partners benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Some mutualistic relationships are so close that neither partner could live without the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollination is a major mutualistic relationship that benefits the world. </li></ul>
  16. 23. Mutualism and Commensalism <ul><li>Commensalism- a relationship between organisms in which one organism benefits and one organism is unaffected. </li></ul><ul><li>One example is birds eating insects and lizards that are flushed out by buffalo. </li></ul><ul><li>The buffalo is not harmed and does not benefit but the birds clearly benefit from the buffalo. </li></ul>
  17. 24. Mutualism
  18. 25. Commensalism These are mainly commensalism but could change to mutualism if the situation changes.
  19. 26. Essential Questions <ul><li>Explain how predators differ from parasites. Give an example of each kind of organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Some harmless flies resemble bees and wasps. What is this mechanism called? Evaluate its importance as a defense mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe two chemical defenses of plants. </li></ul><ul><li>What is symbiosis? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the 4 kinds of symbiosis? </li></ul>
  20. 27. Stop Magic School Bus
  21. 28. Producers <ul><li>Producer-makes its own food, autotroph </li></ul><ul><li>Chemosynthesis-produce carbohydrates from inorganic molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs, which include plants and some kind of protists and bacteria, manufacture their own food. </li></ul><ul><li>Because autotrophs capture energy and use it to make organic molecules, they are called producers. </li></ul>
  22. 29. Producers <ul><li>Most producers are photosynthetic, so they use solar energy to power the production of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Some autotrophic bacteria do not use sunlight as an energy source. </li></ul><ul><li>These bacteria carry out chemosynthesis, which means they produce carbohydrates by using energy from inorganic (non-living) molecules. </li></ul>
  23. 30. Consumers <ul><li>Consumers-heterotrophs, must eat other organisms to obtain energy </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores-animals that eat producers, plant eaters or bacteria eater </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores-animals that eat other consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Omnivores-animals that eat both producers and consumers </li></ul>
  24. 31. Consumers <ul><li>Detritivore-consumers that feed on dead or dying organisms and waste products </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers-break down complex molecules in dead tissues and wastes into simpler molecules </li></ul>
  25. 32. What Am I? zebra consumer producer decomposer lion grass mushroom deer
  26. 33. Energy Flow <ul><li>Trophic level-the organisms’ position in the sequence of energy transfers </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever one organism eats another, molecules are metabolized and energy is transferred </li></ul><ul><li>One way to follow the pattern of energy is to group organisms in an ecosystem based on how they obtain energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Producers are always on the first trophic level. </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores are on the second level and carnivores on the third…etc. </li></ul>
  27. 37. Food Chains and Food Webs <ul><li>Food chain-single pathway of feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem that results in energy transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Food web-interrelated food chains that connect together </li></ul><ul><li>The bottom of energy diagrams is always the biggest. </li></ul><ul><li>There are always more producers than consumers. </li></ul>
  28. 39. Essential Questions <ul><li>Why are autotrophs essential components of an ecosystem? </li></ul><ul><li>What role do decomposers play in an ecosystem? Why is this role important? </li></ul><ul><li>How does a food chain differ from a food web? </li></ul><ul><li>What would happen if you removed any organism from a food web or chain? Be specific! </li></ul>
  29. 40. Commensalism
  30. 41. Mutualism
  31. 42. commensalism
  32. 43. Parasitism
  33. 44. Predation
  34. 45. Parasitism
  35. 46. mutualism
  36. 47. mutualism

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