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Mutualism and Neutralism

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Mutualism and Neutralism

  1. 1. Think About It … Why would a symbiotic relationship be beneficial to an organism? Let’s explore some symbiotic relationships … By: Kristine Ann B. de Jesus Ecology of interactions
  2. 2. I. Terms and concepts A. Symbiosis B. Mutualism C. Degree of dependence: Obligate vs. facultative D. Types of Mutualism E. What is a Niche F. Co-Evolution G. Neutralism H. Commensalism I. Ammensalism
  3. 3. Biological interactions are the effects organisms in a community have on one another. An organism's interactions with its environment are fundamental to the survival of that organism and the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole
  4. 4.  In ecology, it can involve individuals of the same species or individuals of different species. Species may interact once in a generation (pollination) or live completely within another (endosymbiosis).  Effects range from consumption of another individual (predation, herbivory, or cannibalism), to mutual benefit (mutualism).  Interactions need not be direct; individuals may affect each other indirectly through intermediaries such as shared resources or common enemies.
  5. 5.  Sym: From the greek/latin meaning “with”  Bio: from the greek/latin meaning “to live” or “living”  Symbiosis: A relationship where two organisms live together where at least one of the organisms benefits from the relationship.
  6. 6. Symbiosis: “sym” = together, “biosis”= living; close physical association (e.g., host and internal symbiont). Could be beneficial or parasitic. Symbiosis is the close interaction between different species of animals. Interactions vary from one creature living on another to one creature living inside another.
  7. 7. The fundamental mystery of mutualism is why one species has apparently evolved to help another… “for such could not have been produced through natural selection” – Charles Darwin The answer, of course, is that each species “helps the other” only for the sake of benefits that it itself accrues. Most mutualisms probably evolved from originally parasitic interactions
  8. 8.  Mutualism is an interspecific interaction between two species that benefits both members.  Populations of each species grow, survive and/or reproduce at a higher rate in the presence of the other species.  Mutualisms are widespread in nature, and occur among many different types of organisms.
  9. 9.  Mutualistic Symbiosis is a type of mutualism in which individuals interact physically, or even live within the body of the other mutualist. Frequently, the relationship is essential for the survival of at least one member.  Example: Lichens are a fungal-algal symbiosis (that frequently includes a third member, a cyanobacterium.) The mass of fungal hyphae provides a protected habitat for the algae, and takes up water and nutrients for the algae. In return, the algae (and cynaobacteria) provide carbohydrates as a source of energy for the fungus.
  10. 10. Bees fly from flower to flower gathering nectar, which they make into food, benefiting the bees. When they land in a flower, the bees get some pollen on their hairy bodies, and when they land in the next flower, some of the pollen from the first one rubs off, pollinating the plant. The bee and the flower
  11. 11. Spider crabs live in shallow areas of the ocean floor, and greenish-brown algae lives on the crabs' backs, making the crabs blend in with their environment, and unnoticeable to predators. The algae gets a good place to live, and the crab gets camouflage. The spider crab and the algae.
  12. 12. A certain kind of bacteria lives in the intestines of humans and many other animals. The human cannot digest all of the food that it eats. The bacteria eat the food that the human cannot digest and partially digest it, allowing the human to finish the job. The bacteria and the human
  13. 13.  Black-eyed Susan gets pollinated by Green lacewing.  Both benefit…lacewing gets food (nectar) and Black-eyed Susan gets pollinated.
  14. 14.  Racoon and Poison Ivy › The raccoon eats the berries of the poison ivy and disperses the seeds as it poops. › Both benefit.
  15. 15.  Mushroom and fly › Fly lands on and eats mushroom. Some of the spores will adhere to the fly. › When the fly dies, (of natural causes) the spores will be on new ground and will allow the mushroom to grow in a new area.
  16. 16.  Obligate: at least one species could not grow and reproduce without the other -The species involved are in close proximity and interdependent with one another in a way that one cannot survive without the other.  Facultative: Mutualisms are not essential for the survival of either species. Individuals of each species engage in mutualism when the other species is present. - both organisms do better with their mutualist, but can survive and reproduce without it.
  17. 17. 1. Facultative mutualisms: Each species gains a benefit from the presence of the other, but each can still survive without the other. “Generalist” mutualisms. 2. Obligate mutualisms: Each species can only live in the presence of the other. “Exclusive” mutualisms
  18. 18. Termites and their Flagellates Neither organism can survive without the other
  19. 19. The plant provides food for the ant, as well as shelter. In return, the ants defend the plant from other herbivores, or organisms that eat plants, as well as remove other plants from the vicinity of their plant so it can grow better.
  20. 20.  Acacia ants live in acacia trees.  The tree provides big hollow thorns as a home for the ants.
  21. 21.  The tree also provides food for the ants in yellow swellings on the leaves (red oval).
  22. 22.  The ants defend the tree against herbivores, both large and small.  They attack insects and large grazing herbivores.
  23. 23. Resource-resource mutualism -A relationship where one resource is traded for another. corals and the symbiotic algae The algae get inorganic nutrients from the corals, and the corals get sugars that are by-products of photosynthesis from the algae. When a coral 'bleaches' it is actually kicking out the zooxanthellae that live in it, so all you see is the coral's skeleton, which is white.
  24. 24. Service-resource mutualism This relationship occurs between two organisms where one gets a resource, and the other gets a service. The honeybee gets pollen from the flower (the resource), and the flower gets its pollen spread to other areas (the service) honeybees and flowers
  25. 25.  Flowering plants and pollinators. (both facultative and obligate)  Parasitoid wasps and polydna viruses. (obligate)  Ants and aphids. (facultative)  Termites and endosymbiotic protozoa. (obligate)  Humans and domestic animals. (mostly facultative, some obligate)
  26. 26. Lichens (fungus and Algae) Lichens, little non-descript patches of stuff you see growing on rocks and tree bark. This is a symbiosis, consisting of a fungus and an alga. The fungus provides a protective home for the algae, and gathers mineral nutrients from rainwater and from dissolving the rock underneath. The alga gathers energy from the sun.
  27. 27.  Lichen is really two organisms: algae and fungus. The fungus needs food but cannot make it. The algae makes food but needs some way to keep moist. The fungus forms a crust around the algae which holds in moisture. Both organisms benefit.
  28. 28. The otters help the kelp by eating the sea urchins which endanger it. The kelp provides and anchor for the otters while they sleep. Otters and Kelp
  29. 29.  The cleaner fish eats parasites and food bits out of the inside of this moray eel. It gets a meal and is protected from predators by the fierce eel.
  30. 30.  Each type of Yucca plant can only be pollinated by a specific kind of Yucca moth.  That moth can only live on that kind of Yucca.
  31. 31.  Mutualisms are pervasive 1. Pollination mutualisms 2. Dispersal mutualisms 3. Protection mutualisms 4. Nutrient acquisition mutualisms
  32. 32. Pollination mutualisms Hawkmoth •Plants get ovules fertilized •Animals get pollen or nectar as food Angraecum arachnites (Madagascan orchid)
  33. 33. Pollination mutualisms
  34. 34. Pollination mutualisms Marcgravia evenia has leaves that act like satellite dishes.
  35. 35. A) Because there are so many different species, they are able to pollinate a greater variety of flowering plants. B) Because they have short life cycles, short generation times, and many offspring. C) Because they have small brains and therefore cannot learn to recognize many different plant species. D) Because they can move quickly from plant to plant and therefore can remember the last species visited.
  36. 36. •Plant gets its seeds dispersed •Animal gets food Seed dispersal mutualisms Epomophorous wahlbergi Whalberg's Epauletted Fruit Bat
  37. 37. Virola surinamensis (Wild nutmeg) ramphastos swainsonii (Toucan) Seed dispersal mutualisms
  38. 38. Pseudomyrmex ferruginea Acacia cornigera (Swollen Thorn Acacia) •Plants provide ants with nectar and other resources. •Ants protect plants from herbivores. Protection mutualisms
  39. 39. Protection mutualisms: lycaenid butterflies  Butterfly larvae produce ‘honeydew’ that the ants eat. The ants protect larvae from predation. Plebejus acmon
  40. 40. Protection mutualisms: Heliconius butterflies • Both species are distasteful to avian predators (Mullerian mimicry) • Predators learn to avoid color patterns more rapidly when color patterns are prevalent • Mimicry decreases the likelihood of predation for each species in this mutualism! •Strong convergence of color pattern within populations
  41. 41. Nutrient acquisition mutualisms Rhizobium nodules (Bacteria) •The plant (legumes) supplies energy to the bacteria from photosynthesis •The bacteria ‘fix’ nitrogen for the plant (convert atmospheric N2 gas to ammonium (NH4+) in the nodules •Economically very important
  42. 42.  Niche The limits, for all important environmental features, within which individuals of a species can survive, grow and reproduce.  Ecological niche The 'occupation' or 'profession' of an organism or species. Eg › Herbivore/carnivore/omnivore? › Where it lives? › Adaptations? › Life history? › Feeding behaviour/times
  43. 43. Co-evolution occurs when two species interact so strongly with one another that they are dominant evolutionary forces on one another. Examples: - Obligate, specialist mutualisms - Specialist predator/prey interactions (the term was first coined in describing the “evolutionary arms race” between plant chemical defenses and insect herbivores that evolve resistance to those defenses).
  44. 44. The flower produces nectar that provides the perfect nutrition for the bird, and exists in colors that the bird sees best. Meanwhile the bird's beak is perfectly shaped to drink from the flowers. The flower provides food for the bird, and the bird, by drinking from several different flowers spread pollen between flowers.
  45. 45.  Not all coevolution is the result of, or results in symbiosis.  Coevolution can also occur in a predator -prey relationship. Think of it as a sort of arms race, as the predator and prey each evolve new advantages to either pounce, or keep from being pounced. garter snake, and the rough skinned newt Predator- Prey relationship that has caused co-evolution. The newt has evolved an potent toxin in the skin, while the snake (which eats the newt) has developed a resistance to this poison.
  46. 46.  Neutralism the most common type of interspecific interaction. Neither population affects the other. Any interactions that do occur are indirect or incidental.  Example: the tarantulas living in a desert and the cacti living in a desert
  47. 47. -A type of interspecific interaction, which is the interaction between species. These interactions may have effects on the species' populations. In neutralism, interactions are incidental or indirect and are said to not have an effect on either population. Neutralism occurs when two populations interact without having an effect on the evolutionary fitness of each other. cacti and tarantulas living in the desert.
  48. 48. Type of Interaction Sign Effects Mutualism +/+ both species benefit from interaction Obligate Mutualism +/+ obligatory; both populations benefit Commensalism +/0 one species benefits, one unaffected Neutralism 0/0 populations do not affect one another Amensalism 0/- One species is disadvantaged/one species unaffected
  49. 49. Directions: Tell whether the relationship is Mutualism, Commensalism Amensalism or Neutralism Barnacles create home sites by attaching themselves to whales. This relationship neither harms nor benefits the whales. Yucca flowers are pollinated by yucca moths. The moths lay their eggs in the flowers where the larvae hatch and eat some of the developing seeds. Both species benefit. Remoras attach themselves to a shark’s body. They then travel with the shark and feed on the leftover food scraps from the shark’s meals. The relationship neither harms nor benefits the shark. Oxpeckers feed on the ticks found on a rhinoceros. The oxpeckers get a meal and the rhinoceros is helped by the removal of the ticks.
  50. 50. The stork uses it saw-like bill to cut up the dead animals it eats. As a result, the dead animal carcass is accessible to some bees for food and egg laying. The relationship neither harms nor benefits the stork. Hermit crabs live in shells made and then abandoned by snails. This relationship neither helps nor harms the snails. Wrasse fish feed on the parasites found on the black sea bass’s body. The wrasse fish get a meal and the black sea bass is helped by the removal of the parasites. A sparrow will build its nest under the nest of an osprey. The smaller birds get protection because other predators will not mess with the osprey. The osprey are not helped nor harmed by the sparrow.
  51. 51. Ostriches and gazelles feed next to each other. They both watch for predators and alert each other to danger. Because their visual abilities are different, they can identify threats that the other animal would not see as readily. Honey guide birds alert and direct badgers to bee hives. The badgers then expose the hives and feed on the honey first. Next the honey guide birds eat. Both species benefit. A cuckoo may lay its eggs in a warbler’s nest. The cuckoo’s young will knock the warbler’s eggs out of a nest and the warbler will raise the cuckoo’s young. As bison walk through grass, insects become active and are seen and eaten by cowbirds. The relationship neither harms nor benefits the bison.
  52. 52. Orchids grow inside a bromeliad plant. The orchid obtains water and nutrients from the bromeliad, but does not help or harm it.

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