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POPULATION INTERACTION
What is population interaction ?
 Biological interactions are the effects thatthe organisms in
a community have on one an...
9 Types of interactions
1) Neutralism
2) Direct Interference
3) Resource type competition
4) Amensalism
5) Commensalism
6)...
CLASSIFICATION OF
INTERACTION
Negative interactions-
Neutralism
Directinterference
Competition for resource
Amensalism...
Positive interaction-
Commensalism
Proto co-operation
Mutualism
NEUTRALISM
 Neutralism describes the relationship between two species that
interact but do not affect each other.
 Neith...
DIRECT INTERFERENCE
 Competition, direct interference type is the type of interaction whereboth
populations actively inhi...
RESOURCE TYPE
COMPETITION
 Competition is an interaction between organisms or speciesin which
both the species areharmed....
AMENSALISM
 It is an antagonistic interspecific interaction in which onespecies is inhibited
while otherspecies is neithe...
COMMENSALISM
 Commensalism,isa classofrelationshipsbetweentwoorganismswhere
oneorganismbenefitsfromtheotherwithoutaffecti...
COMMENSALISM
PARASITISM
 Parasitism isa non-mutual symbiotic relationship
between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits a...
PREDATION
 Itisa negative,directfoodrelatedinterspecificinteractionbetweentwo
speciesofanimalsinwhichlarger speciescalled...
Examples for predation
Significanceof predation
 a)Localspeciesdiversityisdirectlyrelatedtotheefficiencywith
whichthepredatorspreventthemonopoli...
PROTO COOPERATION
 It is a positive inter specificinteraction in which both the
partners are mutually benefitted and incr...
Positive interspecific relation between crocodile bird and
crocodile
MUTUALISM
 Itisa positiveinterspecificinteractioninwhichmembers oftwodifferent
speciesfavourthegrowthandsurvivaleachother...
Termites play important ecological role as decomposers by increasing the turno
And degradation
Thank you
REFERENCES
WEBSITES-
 www.tutorvista.com/content/biology
 www.wikipedia.org
 http://www.physicalgeography.net/fun
damen...
Population interaction and their Types.
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Population interaction and their Types.

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What is Population interaction and 9 types of population interaction amongst Species including predation,protocooperation, mutualism, commensalism, ammensalism,parasitism,neutralism,and competition for resources.

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Population interaction and their Types.

  1. 1. POPULATION INTERACTION
  2. 2. What is population interaction ?  Biological interactions are the effects thatthe organisms in a community have on one another. In the natural world no organism exists in absolute isolation,and thus every organism must interact with the environment and other organisms.  Population of two species may interact in ways that correspond to combination of neutral, positive and negative  Three of these combinations (+, +) (-,-) (+, -) are subdivided resulting in NINE important interactions & relationships.
  3. 3. 9 Types of interactions 1) Neutralism 2) Direct Interference 3) Resource type competition 4) Amensalism 5) Commensalism 6) Parasitism 7) Predation 8) Protocooperation 9) Mutualism
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF INTERACTION Negative interactions- Neutralism Directinterference Competition for resource Amensalism Parasitism Predation
  5. 5. Positive interaction- Commensalism Proto co-operation Mutualism
  6. 6. NEUTRALISM  Neutralism describes the relationship between two species that interact but do not affect each other.  Neither of the population is affected by interaction with each other  Example : Rabbits, deer, frogs, live together in a grassland with no interaction between them.
  7. 7. DIRECT INTERFERENCE  Competition, direct interference type is the type of interaction whereboth populations actively inhibit each other  Occursdirectly between individuals via aggression etc.when the individuals interfere with foraging, survival, reproduction of others.  Example seen between the ant Novomessorcockerelliand red harvester ants, where the formerinterferes with the ability of the latter to forage by plugging the entrances to their colonies with small rocks.
  8. 8. RESOURCE TYPE COMPETITION  Competition is an interaction between organisms or speciesin which both the species areharmed.  Limited supply of at least one resource used by both can be a factor.  Competition among members of the same species is known asintraspecific competition While competition between individuals of different species is known as interspecific competition.
  9. 9. AMENSALISM  It is an antagonistic interspecific interaction in which onespecies is inhibited while otherspecies is neither benefitted norharmed.  It is also called antibiosis and the affected species is called amensal and the affecting species is called inhibitor.  Example:-Roots of certain plants produce allochemic substances which check the growth ofother plants to conserve resources, such as, Convolvulus arvensis, a weed inhibits the germination and growth of wheat.
  10. 10. COMMENSALISM  Commensalism,isa classofrelationshipsbetweentwoorganismswhere oneorganismbenefitsfromtheotherwithoutaffectingit.  Thecommensal(thespeciesthatbenefitsfromtheassociation)may obtain nutrients,shelter,support,or locomotionfromthehostspecies,whichis substantiallyunaffected.  Thecommensalrelationisoftenbetweena larger hostanda smaller commensal;thehostorganismisunmodified,whereasthecommensal speciesmay showgreat structuraladaptationconsonantwithitshabits, as intheremorasthatrideattachedtosharksandotherfishes(example).
  11. 11. COMMENSALISM
  12. 12. PARASITISM  Parasitism isa non-mutual symbiotic relationship between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.  Parasites canbe micro parasites, which are typically smaller, such asprotozoa, viruses, and bacteria Examplesof parasites include the plants mistletoe and cuscuta, and animalssuch ashookworms.  Parasites typically do not killtheir host, are generally much smaller than their host, and will often live in or on their host for an extended period.
  13. 13. PREDATION  Itisa negative,directfoodrelatedinterspecificinteractionbetweentwo speciesofanimalsinwhichlarger speciescalledpredatorattacks,kills andfeedsonthesmallerspeciescalledprey.  Predatorpopulationadverselyaffectthegrowthandsurvivalofsmaller preypopulationandthereforepredationisconsideredan antagonistic interaction.  Example:-PlantlikeNepenthes(pitcherplant),Drosera(sundew), Dionoeae(Venusflytrap)etc. feedoninsectstofulfiltheir nitrogen requirement.  Somepredators(suchas frog)actas preyforothers(snake)whichin turnare preytoa highercarnivores(eagle).
  14. 14. Examples for predation
  15. 15. Significanceof predation  a)Localspeciesdiversityisdirectlyrelatedtotheefficiencywith whichthepredatorspreventthemonopolizationofan environmentalarea byanyspecies.  b)Predationkeepsthepreypopulationundercheck,soas to maintainanecologicalbalance.Weak andlessefficientmembers in thepreypopulationare removed.  d)Mostimportantsignificanceisinthepracticalutilityofprey predatorrelationshiponbiologicalcontrolofweedsandpests.Many insectpestsare keptundercheckbyintroducingtheirpredatorinto thearea. Fore.g.,Opuntiawhichbecomea seriousproblemin Australiawas broughtundercontrolbyintroducingitsnatural herbivoreCactoblastis(cochinealinsects).
  16. 16. PROTO COOPERATION  It is a positive inter specificinteraction in which both the partners are mutually benefitted and increase the chanceof their survival.  However, the interaction is not obligatory for their survivalas both can live without this interaction.  Example:- Crocodile bird (Pluvianus aegyptius) enters the mouth of the crocodile and feed on parasiticleeches. By this the bird gets food and the crocodile gets rid of blood sucking parasites.
  17. 17. Positive interspecific relation between crocodile bird and crocodile
  18. 18. MUTUALISM  Itisa positiveinterspecificinteractioninwhichmembers oftwodifferent speciesfavourthegrowthandsurvivaleachotherandtheirassociation isobligatory.  Boththepartnersare benefittedbythisinteraction.  Mutualismisalsoreferredassymbiosisor symbioticinteractionandthe partnersare referred as symbionts.  Example:- Termites (white ants) are not capable of digesting wood, which they ingest asfood. A multi flagellate protozoan Trichonympha campanula, which lives in the intestine of white ant secretes cellulaseenzyme to digest the cellulose of wood. In return, the antprovides food and shelter to the protozoan.
  19. 19. Termites play important ecological role as decomposers by increasing the turno And degradation
  20. 20. Thank you
  21. 21. REFERENCES WEBSITES-  www.tutorvista.com/content/biology  www.wikipedia.org  http://www.physicalgeography.net/fun damentals BOOKS- Fundamentals of ecology Fifth Edition by Eugene P. Odum & Gary W. Barrett

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