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NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive
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NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive
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NAVMED P-5010, Manual of the Naval Preventive Medicine, Chapter 8

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This Power Point is part of an Enlisted Advancement Program training series for US Navy Corpsman rating provided by Naval Medical Center Portsmouth Virginia

Naval Medical Center Portsmouth is a military treatment facility serving active duty service members, their dependents and retirees in the Hampton Roads community of southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina.

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Transcript of "NAVMED P-5010, Manual of the Naval Preventive Medicine, Chapter 8"

  1. 1. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Entomology and Pest ControlEntomology and Pest Control A presentation by:A presentation by:
  2. 2. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine TopicsTopics Organization for Medical EntomologyOrganization for Medical Entomology ProgramsPrograms Pesticides and their ApplicationPesticides and their Application Vector Control: Shipboard and AshoreVector Control: Shipboard and Ashore
  3. 3. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Organization for MedicalOrganization for Medical Entomology ProgramsEntomology Programs Vector - organisms which transmit disease to man, actVector - organisms which transmit disease to man, act as intermediate hosts or reservoirs of disease, presentas intermediate hosts or reservoirs of disease, present problems of sanitary or hygienic significance, orproblems of sanitary or hygienic significance, or otherwise affect the health and efficiency of personnel.otherwise affect the health and efficiency of personnel. – Mosquitoes, biting flies, filth and flesh flies, lice, bedMosquitoes, biting flies, filth and flesh flies, lice, bed bugs, fleas, mites, ticks, rodents, bats,bugs, fleas, mites, ticks, rodents, bats, – Cockroaches, ants, wasps, spiders, scorpions, andCockroaches, ants, wasps, spiders, scorpions, and food infesting insects don’t normally carry disease butfood infesting insects don’t normally carry disease but can affect sanitation or morale.can affect sanitation or morale.
  4. 4. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Organization for MedicalOrganization for Medical Entomology ProgramsEntomology Programs Economic pests - organisms destructive toEconomic pests - organisms destructive to structures, stored products, grounds, andstructures, stored products, grounds, and other material properties.other material properties.
  5. 5. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Organization for MedicalOrganization for Medical Entomology ProgramsEntomology Programs Policies for pest controlPolicies for pest control – DoD Directive 4150.7 provides basicDoD Directive 4150.7 provides basic standards and policies governing the Navy’sstandards and policies governing the Navy’s pest control programs. Establishes minimumpest control programs. Establishes minimum levels of pest control.levels of pest control. – NAVMEDCOM Instruction 6250 seriesNAVMEDCOM Instruction 6250 series delegates the responsibility for supervisingdelegates the responsibility for supervising pest control operations afloat to the medicalpest control operations afloat to the medical department.department.
  6. 6. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Organization for MedicalOrganization for Medical Entomology ProgramsEntomology Programs Responsibilities of the MedicalResponsibilities of the Medical DepartmentDepartment – Inspections, recommendations,Inspections, recommendations, evaluations, etc ... They are responsibleevaluations, etc ... They are responsible for every aspect of vector control andfor every aspect of vector control and treatment.treatment.
  7. 7. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Pesticides and TheirPesticides and Their ApplicationApplication Definitions of Pesticides – A pesticide is any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest, or any substance or mixture of substances intended for use as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant. – Pesticides include: acaricides, avicides, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, molluscicides, nematocides, rodenticides, among others.
  8. 8. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Pesticides and TheirPesticides and Their ApplicationApplication Pesticides may be classified on the basis of use,Pesticides may be classified on the basis of use, life stage of the pest to be controlled, chemicallife stage of the pest to be controlled, chemical group, mode of entry, mode of action andgroup, mode of entry, mode of action and formulation.formulation. Pesticide type-by use:Pesticide type-by use: – Acaricide-a substance used to control mites,Acaricide-a substance used to control mites, scorpions, spiders, ticks and relatedscorpions, spiders, ticks and related organisms.organisms. – Fungicide—a substance used to control fungi.Fungicide—a substance used to control fungi. – Herbicide—a substance used to controlHerbicide—a substance used to control undesired vegetation.undesired vegetation.
  9. 9. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Pesticides and TheirPesticides and Their ApplicationApplication Pesticide type-by use:Pesticide type-by use: – Insecticide—a substance used to control insects,Insecticide—a substance used to control insects, sometimes used in a broader sense to include thesometimes used in a broader sense to include the control of arthropods other than insects. Classificationcontrol of arthropods other than insects. Classification of insecticides maybe subdivided on the basis of theof insecticides maybe subdivided on the basis of the life stage against which they are used:life stage against which they are used: Adulticide—used to control the adult stage of anAdulticide—used to control the adult stage of an insect.insect. Larvicide-used to control the larval stage of anLarvicide-used to control the larval stage of an insect.insect. Ovicide—used against the egg stage of an insect.Ovicide—used against the egg stage of an insect. – Molluscicide—used to control snails and otherMolluscicide—used to control snails and other mollusks.mollusks. – Rodenticide-used to control rodents.Rodenticide-used to control rodents.
  10. 10. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Pesticides and TheirPesticides and Their ApplicationApplication Pesticide type-by chemical group:Pesticide type-by chemical group: – Inorganic pesticides are compounds ofInorganic pesticides are compounds of mineral origin and mainly include arsenic,mineral origin and mainly include arsenic, copper, mercury, sulfur or zinc.copper, mercury, sulfur or zinc. – Chlorinated hydrocarbons are a group ofChlorinated hydrocarbons are a group of synthetic organic compounds with one orsynthetic organic compounds with one or more chlorine atoms. Chlordane, dieldrin, andmore chlorine atoms. Chlordane, dieldrin, and DDT are examples.DDT are examples. – Organophosphates are synthetic compoundsOrganophosphates are synthetic compounds containing phosphorous. Some of the morecontaining phosphorous. Some of the more common examples in this group are diazinon,common examples in this group are diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion.dichlorvos, and malathion.
  11. 11. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Pesticides and TheirPesticides and Their ApplicationApplication Pesticide type-by chemical group:Pesticide type-by chemical group: – Carbamates are synthetic compounds of saltsCarbamates are synthetic compounds of salts or esters of carbamic acid. Carbaryl andor esters of carbamic acid. Carbaryl and propoxur are examples.propoxur are examples. – Botanical are pesticides of plant origin.Botanical are pesticides of plant origin. Pyrethrums and rotenone are examples.Pyrethrums and rotenone are examples. Synthetic pyrethroids, such as resmethrin, areSynthetic pyrethroids, such as resmethrin, are similar in action to pyrethrum. D-phenothrin issimilar in action to pyrethrum. D-phenothrin is another example.another example.
  12. 12. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Pesticides and TheirPesticides and Their ApplicationApplication Pesticide type-by mode of entry:Pesticide type-by mode of entry: – Fumigants are chemicals that enter in theFumigants are chemicals that enter in the gaseous or vapor form via the respiratorygaseous or vapor form via the respiratory system and/or through body surfaces.system and/or through body surfaces. – Stomach poisons are materials which killStomach poisons are materials which kill following ingestion. Application may befollowing ingestion. Application may be directly to the pest’s natural food, mixed withdirectly to the pest’s natural food, mixed with baits, or sprinkled in runways so pests willbaits, or sprinkled in runways so pests will take the compound into the mouth whentake the compound into the mouth when cleaning contaminated appendages.cleaning contaminated appendages.
  13. 13. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Pesticides and TheirPesticides and Their ApplicationApplication Pesticide type-by mode of entry:Pesticide type-by mode of entry: – Contact poison enter through the insect’sContact poison enter through the insect’s body wall or respiratory centers and/or otherbody wall or respiratory centers and/or other tissues. They include residual surface spraystissues. They include residual surface sprays that kill pest coming in contact with the treatedthat kill pest coming in contact with the treated area and aerosols or space sprays that killarea and aerosols or space sprays that kill after contact with the body surface. Contactafter contact with the body surface. Contact poisons may also act as a stomach poison ifpoisons may also act as a stomach poison if ingested.ingested.
  14. 14. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Pesticides and TheirPesticides and Their ApplicationApplication Pesticide type—by mode of action:Pesticide type—by mode of action: – Biological—a pesticide formulation containingBiological—a pesticide formulation containing parasitic microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria,parasitic microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, nematodes, or their products thatfungi, protozoans, nematodes, or their products that control the pest.control the pest. – Desiccants are absorptive dusts which scratch,Desiccants are absorptive dusts which scratch, absorb, or abrade the waxy surface of theabsorb, or abrade the waxy surface of the exoskeleton causing death by dehydration. Silica gelsexoskeleton causing death by dehydration. Silica gels are examples.are examples. – Preservatives are normally poisonous substancesPreservatives are normally poisonous substances applied to materials such as wood to protect fromapplied to materials such as wood to protect from destructive pests.destructive pests. – Repellents are compounds which actively repel pestsRepellents are compounds which actively repel pests and, thus, deter attack.and, thus, deter attack.
  15. 15. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Pesticides and TheirPesticides and Their ApplicationApplication Pesticide type—by mode of action: – Chemosterilants are substances that chemically sterilize pests, thus, reducing reproductive potential. – Soil sterilants are normally thought of as a herbicide treatment to control unwanted vegetation in a given area for 6 months or more. – Systemics are compounds absorbed by and translocated throughout the host plant or animal to kill parasites sucking juice or body fluids, respectively. Herbicides may be systemic and kill the treated plant (root and aerial). – Growth regulators are synthetic hormone-like compounds that prevent normal growth of and/or maturity of the target plant or animal species.
  16. 16. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Flies – Relation to man. The importance of many fly species to man is their capability of transmitting human and zoonotic diseases which may seriously hamper military operations. In addition to the health aspect, virtually all fly species can be annoying pests of man.
  17. 17. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore FliesFlies – House flies are the most important andHouse flies are the most important and widely distributed insect of importance towidely distributed insect of importance to mankindmankind Capable of transmitting disease-producingCapable of transmitting disease-producing organisms via its vomitus and excrement,organisms via its vomitus and excrement, and on its contaminated feet, body hairsand on its contaminated feet, body hairs and mouthparts.and mouthparts. Can cause cholera, dysentery, and typhoidCan cause cholera, dysentery, and typhoid fever.fever.
  18. 18. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore FliesFlies – Blow fliesBlow flies Carry many of the same organisms as house flies, but theyCarry many of the same organisms as house flies, but they do not present the same public health problem since theydo not present the same public health problem since they rarely enter dwellings.rarely enter dwellings. Their larvae sometimes develop in wounds or natural bodyTheir larvae sometimes develop in wounds or natural body openings causing a condition known as myiasis.openings causing a condition known as myiasis. – Flesh fliesFlesh flies Distinguished from other domestic flies by the presence ofDistinguished from other domestic flies by the presence of three longitudinal black stripes on the thorax and athree longitudinal black stripes on the thorax and a checkered effect on the usually red-tipped abdomen.checkered effect on the usually red-tipped abdomen. They often are very abundant, but they do not ordinarily enterThey often are very abundant, but they do not ordinarily enter habitations. They do not appear to be of importance to manhabitations. They do not appear to be of importance to man from the standpoint of mechanical disease transmission.from the standpoint of mechanical disease transmission.
  19. 19. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore FliesFlies – Stable flyStable fly A blood-sucking fly and is suspected of transmitting anthraxA blood-sucking fly and is suspected of transmitting anthrax and tularemia.and tularemia. It is distinguished from other domestic flies by its piercingIt is distinguished from other domestic flies by its piercing proboscis which protrudes bayonetlike in front of the head.proboscis which protrudes bayonetlike in front of the head. – Sand fliesSand flies Transmit tropical and subtropical diseases: bacterialTransmit tropical and subtropical diseases: bacterial (bartonella), viral (sand fly or pappataci fever) and protozoal(bartonella), viral (sand fly or pappataci fever) and protozoal (Leishmania spp., kala-azar, oriental sore and American(Leishmania spp., kala-azar, oriental sore and American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis)mucocutaneous leishmaniasis) – Punkies, biting midgesPunkies, biting midges Minute blood-sucking flies which cause extreme annoyanceMinute blood-sucking flies which cause extreme annoyance to man in many parts of the world.to man in many parts of the world.
  20. 20. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore FliesFlies – Tsetse fliesTsetse flies Blood-sucking and of considerable importanceBlood-sucking and of considerable importance because they transmit the protozoanbecause they transmit the protozoan trypanosomes which cause human Africantrypanosomes which cause human African sleeping sickness.sleeping sickness. They fold their wings scissor-like above theThey fold their wings scissor-like above the abdomen when resting, the characteristic distal cellabdomen when resting, the characteristic distal cell (cleaver shaped) in the wing, and the prominent(cleaver shaped) in the wing, and the prominent biting mouthparts.biting mouthparts. – Black fliesBlack flies Small blood-sucking insects which are importantSmall blood-sucking insects which are important as pests in areas of running streamsas pests in areas of running streams Vectors of filarial parasites and the protozoanVectors of filarial parasites and the protozoan blood parasite.blood parasite.
  21. 21. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore FliesFlies – Horse and deer fliesHorse and deer flies Blood-sucking insect pests which attack both manBlood-sucking insect pests which attack both man and animals.and animals. Known to vector bacterial (anthrax and tularemia),Known to vector bacterial (anthrax and tularemia), protozoan (trypanosomes) and helminthic (Loa loa)protozoan (trypanosomes) and helminthic (Loa loa) infections to man and/or animals.infections to man and/or animals. They also transmit tularemia.They also transmit tularemia. – Eye gnatsEye gnats Nonbiting flies which are attracted to wounds, pus,Nonbiting flies which are attracted to wounds, pus, and secretions around the eyes and nose. Theyand secretions around the eyes and nose. They mechanically transmit the organism which causesmechanically transmit the organism which causes acute infectious conjunctivitis (pink eye).acute infectious conjunctivitis (pink eye).
  22. 22. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore MosquitoesMosquitoes – Mosquitoes rank first in importance among the insectsMosquitoes rank first in importance among the insects that transmit disease to man.that transmit disease to man. – The genera most frequently associated with diseaseThe genera most frequently associated with disease transmission are Aedes, Anopheles and Culextransmission are Aedes, Anopheles and Culex – Disease organisms vectored by mosquitoes to manDisease organisms vectored by mosquitoes to man include bacteria (tularemia), arboviruses (dengue,include bacteria (tularemia), arboviruses (dengue, encephalomyelitis (Eastern, Western, St. Louis,encephalomyelitis (Eastern, Western, St. Louis, Japanese B, and Russian Spring-Summer and yellowJapanese B, and Russian Spring-Summer and yellow fever), protozoa (malaria), and filarial nematodesfever), protozoa (malaria), and filarial nematodes (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia spp., and Dirofilaria(Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia spp., and Dirofilaria immitis).immitis).
  23. 23. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore LiceLice – The infestation of lice on a human host isThe infestation of lice on a human host is termed pediculosis.termed pediculosis. – Human lice are responsible for theHuman lice are responsible for the transmission of louse-borne typhus, trenchtransmission of louse-borne typhus, trench fever and louse-borne relapsing fever.fever and louse-borne relapsing fever. – Louse-borne typhus, a historical medicalLouse-borne typhus, a historical medical problem, is one of the few serious insectproblem, is one of the few serious insect transmitted diseases in which man serves astransmitted diseases in which man serves as the infection reservoir.the infection reservoir.
  24. 24. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Lice – Three species of lice infest man: the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitus, the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus and the crab louse, Pthirus pubis. – The body louse, P. h. humanus, and the head louse P. h. capitus are quite similar, differing principally in the part of the body normally occupied. The body louse is found upon the body, spending much of its time attached to the undergarments. The head louse is found upon the head and the neck, clinging to the hairs.
  25. 25. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Lice – The crab louse is primarily found upon hair in the pubic and anal regions, but on occasion may be found in the eyebrows and other areas of the body. – Crab lice are spread mainly by physical contact, but also maybe acquired from toilet seats or objects recently used by infested individuals.
  26. 26. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Bedbugs – Not known to vector human diseases, but are annoying and can seriously affect morale. – Approximately 6 mm (1/5 in) in length, flat, reddish- brown and wingless insects with sucking mouthparts. – Nocturnal movement and only feed on blood. – Their bite usually produces small, hard, white swellings (wheals). – Habitual hiding places of bedbugs, such as in the seams of mattresses, will often be obvious by the presence of dried black or brown excrement stains on surfaces where they congregate and rest. Their presence may also be indicated by blood stains on the bedding.
  27. 27. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore CockroachesCockroaches – The most common and persistentlyThe most common and persistently troublesome arthropod pest encounteredtroublesome arthropod pest encountered indoors. They areindoors. They are – Among the most adaptable insects known.Among the most adaptable insects known. – Never been demonstrated that cockroachesNever been demonstrated that cockroaches directly vector pathogenic organisms. Butdirectly vector pathogenic organisms. But significant circumstantial evidence indicatessignificant circumstantial evidence indicates that cockroaches maintain and disseminatethat cockroaches maintain and disseminate pathogens.pathogens.
  28. 28. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore CockroachesCockroaches – Considerations concerning cockroach infestations include theConsiderations concerning cockroach infestations include the following:following: They are considered an indication of substandard sanitationThey are considered an indication of substandard sanitation by most people.by most people. They often cause anxiety and repulsion and may lead toThey often cause anxiety and repulsion and may lead to entomophobia (fear of insects) which is of specialentomophobia (fear of insects) which is of special consideration in regard to hospital patients’ comfort andconsideration in regard to hospital patients’ comfort and recovery.recovery. Cockroaches habitually disgorge portions of partly digestedCockroaches habitually disgorge portions of partly digested food and defecate wherever they go. They also discharge afood and defecate wherever they go. They also discharge a nauseous secretion from oral and abdominal glands whichnauseous secretion from oral and abdominal glands which leaves a persistent and typical “cockroach odor” on allleaves a persistent and typical “cockroach odor” on all surfaces contacted.surfaces contacted. Cockroaches defile, contaminate or damage food, linens,Cockroaches defile, contaminate or damage food, linens, books, utensils and other supplies and equipment.books, utensils and other supplies and equipment.
  29. 29. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore CockroachesCockroaches – German cockroach is the most commonGerman cockroach is the most common indoor species, especially in and aroundindoor species, especially in and around food service spaces and facilities.food service spaces and facilities.
  30. 30. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Stored Products PestsStored Products Pests – Stored products pests include more than 100 differentStored products pests include more than 100 different species of insects, most of which are moths andspecies of insects, most of which are moths and beetles.beetles. – Infest a wide variety of subsistence supplies includingInfest a wide variety of subsistence supplies including cereals, flour, farina, grits, candy, pet food, and anycereals, flour, farina, grits, candy, pet food, and any other non-canned food plus various animal fiberother non-canned food plus various animal fiber items, e.g., blankets, uniforms and boots.items, e.g., blankets, uniforms and boots. – Stored product pests are usually either rodents orStored product pests are usually either rodents or insects. These stored products insects (SPI) includeinsects. These stored products insects (SPI) include the saw-toothed grain beetle, flour beetles,the saw-toothed grain beetle, flour beetles, warehouse beetle (Trogoderma), Indian Meal mothwarehouse beetle (Trogoderma), Indian Meal moth and many others.and many others.
  31. 31. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Stored Products PestsStored Products Pests – Render the product unfit for human consumption 1 toRender the product unfit for human consumption 1 to 7 insects per pound depending upon the species.7 insects per pound depending upon the species. Food items at highest risk include farina, grits, petFood items at highest risk include farina, grits, pet food, and any food that has been packed for atfood, and any food that has been packed for at least 6 months.least 6 months. Once a product is infested but still consumable,Once a product is infested but still consumable, freezing it for two weeks will kill most, if not all, offreezing it for two weeks will kill most, if not all, of the insects.the insects.
  32. 32. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore MitesMites – Based upon their habitats, mites of medicalBased upon their habitats, mites of medical importance may be classified into four groups:importance may be classified into four groups: Nest-inhabiting mites parasitic on birds andNest-inhabiting mites parasitic on birds and rodents, and which occasionally bite manrodents, and which occasionally bite man Mites parasitic on animals and whichMites parasitic on animals and which occasionally bite manoccasionally bite man Mites parasitic on manMites parasitic on man Food-infesting mites which occasionallyFood-infesting mites which occasionally bite manbite man
  33. 33. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Mites – Nest inhabiting mites. All of these mites live within the nests of birds and rodents and only bite man when deprived of their normal hosts. Medically, the house mouse mite is the most important member of this group, since it vectors rickettsial pox from mouse to man.
  34. 34. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Mites – Mites parasitic on birds and rodents. These mites are parasitic on rodents, birds and reptiles, and the larvae may occasionally bite man. The term “chigger” is applied to the larvae of certain species of this group. Many of these species cause dermatitis to man, and a few transmit scrub typhus (Tsutsugamushi disease), a severe and debilitating rickettsial disease of man endemic to some land areas of the Far East.
  35. 35. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Mites – Mites parasitic on man. This group includes the well known scabies or itch mite. The scabies mite is transmitted through close body contact and may appear wherever social conditions cause excessive crowding of people. This mite burrows in the horny layer of the dermis, causing an intense itching, especially at night, and occasionally erythema. Control consists of treating infested individuals with a 1.O% gamma isomer of BHC (Lindane) and heat sterilization of clothing and bedding.
  36. 36. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore MitesMites – Food-infesting mites. Many species of mites infest dryFood-infesting mites. Many species of mites infest dry foods (e.g. bread, cheese, cereals and smokedfoods (e.g. bread, cheese, cereals and smoked meats). Some of them can also cause a contactmeats). Some of them can also cause a contact dermatitis to workers handling infested materials.dermatitis to workers handling infested materials. These mites also have been associated withThese mites also have been associated with respiratory complications (e.g. asthma exacerbationrespiratory complications (e.g. asthma exacerbation or bronchial inflammation) when they or their by-or bronchial inflammation) when they or their by- product antigens are inhaled. There are also reportsproduct antigens are inhaled. There are also reports of urinary tract infestations that cause irritation,of urinary tract infestations that cause irritation, urethral stricture, and a predisposition to secondaryurethral stricture, and a predisposition to secondary infection. Ingestion of mite infested food may lead toinfection. Ingestion of mite infested food may lead to gastrointestinal disturbances.gastrointestinal disturbances.
  37. 37. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore TicksTicks – Annoying pests because of their bite and their abilityAnnoying pests because of their bite and their ability to precipitate tick paralysis, but their greatestto precipitate tick paralysis, but their greatest importance is related to the diseases they are knownimportance is related to the diseases they are known to transmit to man and animals.to transmit to man and animals. – Some of the organisms causing disease includeSome of the organisms causing disease include bacteria (tularemia, Q fever and endemic relapsingbacteria (tularemia, Q fever and endemic relapsing fever), rickettsia (Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lymefever), rickettsia (Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease and tick borne typhus), viruses (Colorado tickdisease and tick borne typhus), viruses (Colorado tick fever, Russian Spring-Summer encephalomyelitis andfever, Russian Spring-Summer encephalomyelitis and Louping ill) and protozoa (babesiosis andLouping ill) and protozoa (babesiosis and anaplasmosis).anaplasmosis).
  38. 38. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Ticks – The best method for removing attached ticks is to grasp them with forceps and pull them slow and steady. Do not twist! – Care should be taken not to crush the tick or to break off the embedded mouthparts which could be a source of infection. – The wound should be treated with an antiseptic. – Where hair is not involved, the use of tape is an effective means for removing tick larvae and nymphs from the skin.
  39. 39. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore FleasFleas – Fleas have been implicated in the transmission ofFleas have been implicated in the transmission of diseases.diseases. – The oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, is of greatThe oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, is of great importance in the transmission of the plague bacillusimportance in the transmission of the plague bacillus which alone is sufficient to rank fleas among the morewhich alone is sufficient to rank fleas among the more important insect vectors.important insect vectors. – Other genera of fleas transmit endemic or murineOther genera of fleas transmit endemic or murine typhus and may act as the intermediate hosts fortyphus and may act as the intermediate hosts for some parasitic worms.some parasitic worms. – Gravid females of the “chigoe” or burrowing flea,Gravid females of the “chigoe” or burrowing flea, Tunga penetrans, penetrate the skin to complete theirTunga penetrans, penetrate the skin to complete their development, causing ulcerating lesions on the feet ofdevelopment, causing ulcerating lesions on the feet of man and of animals.man and of animals.
  40. 40. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Reduviid BugsReduviid Bugs – Reduviid or cone-nose bugs of several genera,Reduviid or cone-nose bugs of several genera, Panstrongylus, Rhodnius and Triatoma, are importantPanstrongylus, Rhodnius and Triatoma, are important to man as vectors of the protozoan parasite,to man as vectors of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas’ disease orTrypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas’ disease or American Trypanosomiasis.American Trypanosomiasis. – The infected insect bites man, defecates duringThe infected insect bites man, defecates during feeding or soon afterward, and the infected feces isfeeding or soon afterward, and the infected feces is introduced into the bite by scratching or rubbing.introduced into the bite by scratching or rubbing. – Infection can also take place through contamination ofInfection can also take place through contamination of the conjunctival, mucous membranes, wounds orthe conjunctival, mucous membranes, wounds or scratches.scratches.
  41. 41. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore RodentsRodents – Rodents such as rats, mice and ground squirrels mayRodents such as rats, mice and ground squirrels may serve as reservoirs for plague, endemic typhus,serve as reservoirs for plague, endemic typhus, tularemia and other debilitating diseases.tularemia and other debilitating diseases. – The problem of contamination of supplies and directThe problem of contamination of supplies and direct property damage by rodents may also be considered.property damage by rodents may also be considered. – The semi-wild forms, which live in the jungles, forestsThe semi-wild forms, which live in the jungles, forests and wastelands, have little or no contact with manand wastelands, have little or no contact with man and are relatively unimportant in rodent control.and are relatively unimportant in rodent control. However, military operations and occupation mayHowever, military operations and occupation may change this situation.change this situation.
  42. 42. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore RodentsRodents – The most important rodents from the medical and economicalThe most important rodents from the medical and economical viewpoint are:viewpoint are: Norway rat. The Norway, brown or gray rat, RattusNorway rat. The Norway, brown or gray rat, Rattus norvegicus, is a comparatively large animal, weighingnorvegicus, is a comparatively large animal, weighing approximately 280-480 gm (10–17 oz), with a tail that doesapproximately 280-480 gm (10–17 oz), with a tail that does not exceed the combined length of head and body. This rat isnot exceed the combined length of head and body. This rat is present wherever human activity creates suitable harboragespresent wherever human activity creates suitable harborages and there is an adequate food supply. It prefers to burrow forand there is an adequate food supply. It prefers to burrow for nesting and is mainly found in basements, embankments, onnesting and is mainly found in basements, embankments, on lower floors of buildings, in drains and sewer lines and in thelower floors of buildings, in drains and sewer lines and in the holds and decks of ships. Preferred foods include meat, fishholds and decks of ships. Preferred foods include meat, fish or flesh mixed with a diet of grains, vegetables and fruit. Inor flesh mixed with a diet of grains, vegetables and fruit. In the absence of these, any foodstuffs may be eaten.the absence of these, any foodstuffs may be eaten.
  43. 43. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore RodentsRodents – The most important rodents from the medical and economicalThe most important rodents from the medical and economical viewpoint are:viewpoint are: Roof rat. The gray bellied, Alexandria or roof rat, RattusRoof rat. The gray bellied, Alexandria or roof rat, Rattus rattus alexandrines, is a good climber and may be foundrattus alexandrines, is a good climber and may be found living in trees, vines, building lofts, overhead wiring andliving in trees, vines, building lofts, overhead wiring and upper decks of ships. The body is generally elongated, theupper decks of ships. The body is generally elongated, the ears are long and the tail exceeds the combined length of theears are long and the tail exceeds the combined length of the head and body. There are many color and body typehead and body. There are many color and body type variations. The black or ship rat, Rattus rattus rattus, avariations. The black or ship rat, Rattus rattus rattus, a subspecies variant of the roof rat, R. r. alexandrines, is ansubspecies variant of the roof rat, R. r. alexandrines, is an excellent climber and is frequently found on ships. These ratsexcellent climber and is frequently found on ships. These rats prefer seeds, cereals, vegetables, fruit and grass, but mayprefer seeds, cereals, vegetables, fruit and grass, but may subsist on leather goods, chocolate and even weakersubsist on leather goods, chocolate and even weaker members of its own kind.members of its own kind.
  44. 44. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore RodentsRodents – The most important rodents from the medical andThe most important rodents from the medical and economical viewpoint are:economical viewpoint are: House mouse. The house mouse, Mus musculus,House mouse. The house mouse, Mus musculus, is commonly associated with man and may causeis commonly associated with man and may cause serious damage to foodstuffs and other valuableserious damage to foodstuffs and other valuable materials.materials. Various species of field mice may on occasionVarious species of field mice may on occasion enter habitations in search of food and shelter, butenter habitations in search of food and shelter, but they do not present a major problem.they do not present a major problem.
  45. 45. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Rodents – Control and prevention of rodents ashore. Rodent control programs should include elimination of food and shelter, rodent proofing of structures, and use of single dose anticoagulant bait stations, glue boards and snap traps. Preferred trap baits vary with the area and species of rodent involved, and include bacon rind, nuts, fresh coconut, peanut butter, raw vegetables, and bread or oatmeal dipped in bacon grease. – Utilization of rat guards. Rat guards should be a minimum of 36 in diameter and mounted at least 6 feet from the closest point on shore or 2ft from ship.
  46. 46. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Common Venomous ArthropodsCommon Venomous Arthropods – Clinical manifestations associated withClinical manifestations associated with envenomization include anaphylactic shock,envenomization include anaphylactic shock, hemolysis, necrosis, paralysis, cardiopulmonaryhemolysis, necrosis, paralysis, cardiopulmonary dysfunction, allergenic asthma, and antigen induceddysfunction, allergenic asthma, and antigen induced dermatologic manifestations.dermatologic manifestations. – Venoms produced by arthropods are mixtures of fourVenoms produced by arthropods are mixtures of four toxic types: Vesicating (blister beetles), neurotoxictoxic types: Vesicating (blister beetles), neurotoxic (black widow spiders), cytolytic (brown recluse(black widow spiders), cytolytic (brown recluse spider), and hemolytic (horse flies).spider), and hemolytic (horse flies).
  47. 47. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Common Venomous ArthropodsCommon Venomous Arthropods – Venomous arthropods of importanceVenomous arthropods of importance Centipedes are fast moving, dorsoventrally flat, elongateCentipedes are fast moving, dorsoventrally flat, elongate arthropods having one pair of legs per body segment.arthropods having one pair of legs per body segment. – All centipedes contain venom producing glands that areAll centipedes contain venom producing glands that are connected by tubes to claws, that are modifiedconnected by tubes to claws, that are modified appendages on the first body segment.appendages on the first body segment. – The potential for these arthropods to inflict injury on manThe potential for these arthropods to inflict injury on man is contingent on the size of the claw and its ability tois contingent on the size of the claw and its ability to penetrate the skin. Injected venom causes apenetrate the skin. Injected venom causes a considerable amount of pain, but rarely death.considerable amount of pain, but rarely death. – When death occurs, it is believed to be a result of anWhen death occurs, it is believed to be a result of an anaphylactic reaction. The wound should be disinfectedanaphylactic reaction. The wound should be disinfected and a medical officer consulted.and a medical officer consulted.
  48. 48. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Common Venomous ArthropodsCommon Venomous Arthropods – Millipedes are slow moving, rounded, elongatedMillipedes are slow moving, rounded, elongated arthropods with two pairs of legs per body segment.arthropods with two pairs of legs per body segment. Many millipedes exude a vesicating fluid and mayMany millipedes exude a vesicating fluid and may cause injury to persons handling them.cause injury to persons handling them. Some are capable of squirting vesicating venomSome are capable of squirting vesicating venom some distance and may cause severe injury to thesome distance and may cause severe injury to the eyes as well as the skin.eyes as well as the skin.
  49. 49. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Common Venomous ArthropodsCommon Venomous Arthropods – Scorpions are venomous arachnids that rarely sting man, andScorpions are venomous arachnids that rarely sting man, and then, only when provoked.then, only when provoked. Few species are deadly, all stings should be consideredFew species are deadly, all stings should be considered dangerous because of the hemolytic and neurotoxic venomdangerous because of the hemolytic and neurotoxic venom properties.properties. The signs and symptoms associated with these stings varyThe signs and symptoms associated with these stings vary with species and may include tachypnea, tachycardia,with species and may include tachypnea, tachycardia, nausea, glycosuria, epigastric pain and tenderness,nausea, glycosuria, epigastric pain and tenderness, excessive salivation, slurred speech, tissue discoloration andexcessive salivation, slurred speech, tissue discoloration and necrosis.necrosis. The ground scorpions have a predominantly hemolytic toxinThe ground scorpions have a predominantly hemolytic toxin which is generally associated with swelling and except in thewhich is generally associated with swelling and except in the young, old or debilitated, death is uncommon.young, old or debilitated, death is uncommon. The venom of bark scorpions has a neurotoxin that does notThe venom of bark scorpions has a neurotoxin that does not cause swelling and is often associated with death.cause swelling and is often associated with death.
  50. 50. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Common Venomous ArthropodsCommon Venomous Arthropods – Spiders are venomous arachnids and in most cases areSpiders are venomous arachnids and in most cases are considered to be beneficial because they feed on otherconsidered to be beneficial because they feed on other arthropods.arthropods. Bites of black or brown widow spiders (Latrodectus mactansBites of black or brown widow spiders (Latrodectus mactans and Latrodectus geometricus respectively), and the brownand Latrodectus geometricus respectively), and the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa, are serious and ofrecluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa, are serious and of considerable medical importance.considerable medical importance. The venom of the Latrodectus spp. Is strongly neurotoxic,The venom of the Latrodectus spp. Is strongly neurotoxic, causing severe symptoms of extreme pain, abdominalcausing severe symptoms of extreme pain, abdominal cramping, profuse perspiration, respiratory duress, andcramping, profuse perspiration, respiratory duress, and speech inhibition. Only 5% of untreated cases are fatal.speech inhibition. Only 5% of untreated cases are fatal. The venom of L. reclusa is strongly hemolytic and vesicating,The venom of L. reclusa is strongly hemolytic and vesicating, causing progressive tissue necrosis.causing progressive tissue necrosis.
  51. 51. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore – Blister beetle.Blister beetle. When these beetles are touched, they exude aWhen these beetles are touched, they exude a drop of vesicating fluid through the membranes ofdrop of vesicating fluid through the membranes of the appendage joints.the appendage joints. The active ingredient of this fluid is cantharidin.The active ingredient of this fluid is cantharidin. Upon dermal contact, this fluid causes formation ofUpon dermal contact, this fluid causes formation of serious blisters which eventually break, theserious blisters which eventually break, the released fluids causing satellite blisters.released fluids causing satellite blisters. Bacterial secondary infection is common.Bacterial secondary infection is common. Medical attention for affected individuals isMedical attention for affected individuals is considered important.considered important.
  52. 52. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore – Hymenopterous insects. Member species of bees, wasps, yellowHymenopterous insects. Member species of bees, wasps, yellow jackets, hornets and ants are high in number and are the mostjackets, hornets and ants are high in number and are the most common sources of serious envenomization.common sources of serious envenomization. Although the composition of hymenopteran venoms vary,Although the composition of hymenopteran venoms vary, most of them have a predominantly hemolytic factormost of them have a predominantly hemolytic factor associated with a smaller fraction of neurotoxin.associated with a smaller fraction of neurotoxin. Reactions between individuals exposed to a specific venomReactions between individuals exposed to a specific venom may vary considerably. A bee sting may cause no effect or itmay vary considerably. A bee sting may cause no effect or it may precipitate death.may precipitate death. A serious manifestation of hymenopteran hypersensitivity isA serious manifestation of hymenopteran hypersensitivity is anaphylactic shock occasionally accompanied byanaphylactic shock occasionally accompanied by regurgitation, encopresis, enuresis, rapid decrease in bloodregurgitation, encopresis, enuresis, rapid decrease in blood pressure, atypically slow pulse, prostration, debilitation andpressure, atypically slow pulse, prostration, debilitation and possibly death.possibly death.
  53. 53. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Treatment of Envenomization.Treatment of Envenomization. – If little or no swelling or discoloration occur at the siteIf little or no swelling or discoloration occur at the site of envenomization, the venom is probably neurotoxic.of envenomization, the venom is probably neurotoxic. Apply ice to the site or, if possible immerse theApply ice to the site or, if possible immerse the affected part of the body in ice water.affected part of the body in ice water. Neurotoxic envenomization is treated with specificNeurotoxic envenomization is treated with specific antivenoms or with intravenously injectedantivenoms or with intravenously injected gluconate, epinephrine or adrenaline.gluconate, epinephrine or adrenaline. – Cytolytic envenomization often requires prolongedCytolytic envenomization often requires prolonged symptomatic treatment.symptomatic treatment. – Hemorrhagic envenomization, when severe, is treatedHemorrhagic envenomization, when severe, is treated with vitamin K.with vitamin K.
  54. 54. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Vector Control: ShipboardVector Control: Shipboard and Ashoreand Ashore Treatment of Envenomization.Treatment of Envenomization. – Urtication is treated by washing the skin with aUrtication is treated by washing the skin with a bactericidal soap and a course cloth to remove anybactericidal soap and a course cloth to remove any remaining hairs. Administer antihistamines.remaining hairs. Administer antihistamines. – Vesicating envenomization is treated by draining theVesicating envenomization is treated by draining the blisters with a sterile hypodermic needle, followed byblisters with a sterile hypodermic needle, followed by application of magnesium sulfate compresses, andapplication of magnesium sulfate compresses, and careful disinfection of the blisters to preventcareful disinfection of the blisters to prevent secondary infection.secondary infection. – Anaphylactic shock is treated by use of a tourniquetAnaphylactic shock is treated by use of a tourniquet and subcutaneous injections of epinephrine. Allergicand subcutaneous injections of epinephrine. Allergic reactions are treated symptomatically withreactions are treated symptomatically with antihistaminic, adrenergic, spasmolytic andantihistaminic, adrenergic, spasmolytic and anticholinergic drugs.anticholinergic drugs.
  55. 55. NAVMED P-5010 Manual of PreventiveNAVMED P-5010 Manual of Preventive MedicineMedicine Any questions?Any questions?
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