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Cholera

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Cholera: The Killer

Published in: Science
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Cholera

  1. 1. OVERVIEW • Define cholera • Hystory • Vibrio cholerea • Physiology • Symptoms • Transmission • Vaccine • Treatment • Conclusion
  2. 2. Vibrio Cholerae What is cholera? • Cholera is an acute intestinal infection that occurs when a certain bacteria is ingested. • This disease is hard to diagnose.
  3. 3. HISTORY • Filippo Pacini discovered cholera in 1854. • He discovered and studied the bacteria with a microscope.
  4. 4. • Origins from India, cases reported in 1563 • About 8 pandemics are indicated in world: • 1817- 1823 : First Pandemic • 1829- 1850 : Second Pandemic • 1852- 1860 : Third Pandemic * Pacini • 1863- 1879 : Fourth Pandemic • 1881- 1896 : Fifth Pandemic *conclusively by Koch • 1899- 1923 : Sixth Pandemic • 1961 : Seventh Pandemic • 1992 : Eighth Pandemic • According to the WHO, 56,958 cases of cholera were reported in 2007.
  5. 5. Vibrio Cholerae Taxonomy • Reign: Bacteria • Phylum: Proteobacterea • Class: Gama Proteobacterea • Order: Vibreonales • Family: Vibrionacea • Genus: Vibreo • Species: Vibrio Cholerae
  6. 6. PHYSIOLOGY • Curved rods • Motile via polar flagellum • Facultative anaerobic • Toxigenic (AB) • No capsulated, no sporing • Growth stimulated by NaCl • pH (6 – 10) • Temperature (18 – 37)ºC
  7. 7. symptoms • Dehydration • Irritability • Drowsiness • Dry/shriveled skin • vascular collapse • An irregular heart beat The symptoms of cholera include :
  8. 8. profuse, watery diarrhea stomach pains leg cramps Mild fever Vomiting Sunken eyes and cheeks Having a dry mouth with extreme thirst Decreased urinary output symptoms
  9. 9. THE DEATH symptoms
  10. 10. Transmissions • Cholera is not a contagious disease: we can’t “catch” cholera. • Vibrio Cholerae is transmitted by:  Drinking contaminated water  Eating raw or undercooked foods ex: shellfish
  11. 11. Where is cholera most common? • Cholera is most common in low- income areas and in 3rd world countries. • Cholera is more prevalent in areas where a natural disaster has occurred.
  12. 12. What is the mortality incidence of cholera? • Untreated cases: Average- 50% Epidemics- 90% • Treated cases: Less than 1%
  13. 13. Vaccine for cholera • There is a vaccine for cholera, but it only gives you 25% to 50% immunity from the disease.
  14. 14. Oral rehydration salts • Up to 80% of cases can be treated through this. Intravenous fluids (Ringer lactate) • For severe cases. Antimicrobial Therapy • can diminish duration of diarrhea, reduce volume of rehydration fluids needed, and shorten duration of V. cholerae excretion. TREATMENT
  15. 15. PREVENTION • Basic health education and hygiene • Chemoprophylaxis • Provision of safe water and sanitation • The bacterium doesn’t like acid environment “block with acidic water and acid food… CONCLUSION

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