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Early years of the United States

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  • 1. The Founding of America The Great Experiment
  • 2. 1776, big year for America
    • A resolution makes it through Congress declaring independence leaving the questions of where to go and what kind of government to set up.
  • 3.
    • Congress seeks alliances and look to France.
    • France doesn’t want to be on the side that loses so they are waiting to see which way the wind blows.
    • The American idea of government is radical and those watching viewed it as a form that was not possible to work.
  • 4.
    • Establishing a new government, the Articles are adopted.
    • The Articles of Confederation establish a relationship of convenience between states.
  • 5. There are two sides to the government debate.
    • The Federalists push for a strong federal central government.
    • The Nationalist fear chaos and breakdown of social order and are afraid of government becoming too strong.
    • The Articles were the compromise.
  • 6.
    • For sovereignty to work it is necessary to have the power to fight and pay for it.
    • The Articles established government and got the ball rolling on independence, but the executive committee style government had no power to force the states to contribute funds for support.
    • It would require unanimous action to pass. Maryland is the holdout until 1781.
  • 7.
    • The French, in 1781, decide to join the effort for American independence
    • This got the attention of England and drew their attention to other areas.
    • England wanted to keep colonial possessions and Spain wanted Gibraltar back (now there’s a problem that won’t go away), and lands in the West.
    • The US just wanted to be recognized as independent.
  • 8.
    • The basic issue of the new government, $$$. Finance.
    • There was also the question of what to do with the army after the war.
      • Maintain? Discharge?
  • 9.
    • The US was faced with how to finance the war. The solution of choice was to create debt, two forms of domestic and one foreign. The American Congress creates wealth the easy way, they print it…over $200 million, resulting in massive inflation with no specie to back it up. The obvious means of fixing this problem of debt, borrow money. Bonds, certificates…consider it an IOU as the army passes through they took what they needed and left a certificate in return, not really a golden ticket for those who lost goods. Congress was also able to borrow money abroad with France, Spain, and Holland.
  • 10. SIDE NOTE
  • 11.
    • sometimes referred to as the father of the national debt
    • he was a native of the British West Indies
    • some doubted his loyalty to the American cause, or the republican experiment
    • his area of expertise…econ/finance
  • 12. Ideas of Hamilton
    • “ He sought to transform the American people into free, opulent, and law-abiding citizens, through the instrumentality of a limited republican government, on the basis of consent, and in the face of powerful vested interests in the status quo”
    • considered a social revolution
    • strive for money to define value and standing and be the universal measure
    • reward industriousness
    • believed free government preferable to monarchy because it excited people more…”interested passions of the community” leading to “public spirit and public confidence”
  • 13. Goals of Hamilton
    • correct economic failings of the Articles of Confederation by shaping fiscal policies to favor wealthier groups
    • He hoped these groups would lend the gov’t money and support which would in turn lead to a thriving new gov’t, increased land owner wealth, and create a trickle down effect
    • He encouraged the fed gov’t to fund the nat’l debt and assume the debts of the states in hopes that it would tie the states to the fed gov’t, therefore gaining support of the rich who would have a compelling interest in nat’l success.
  • 14.
    • He believed debt would be a cohesive element for wealthy society and the nat’l gov’t.
    • Operating money for the gov’t was to come from customs duties (tariff) which was dependent upon foreign trade.
    • He was a proponent of industrialism and hoped the industrial revolution would hit America, which was still predominantly agricultural.
  • 15. What else is Hamilton known for?
    • National bank (modeled after bank of England)
    • Hamilton proposed a private institution w/ the nat’l gov’t as major stockholder.
    • Jefferson went into a tizzy here b/c he did not feel a nat’l bank was authorized by the constitution.
      • Jefferson was a supporter of strict interpretation.
      • Hamilton was more like a teenager, meaning, if you dont say I cant do it then that means I can. Hamilton believed what the Constitution did not directly forbid, it allowed.
        • (loose interpretation, using “necessary and proper” clause.)
  • 16. Comparison
    • Alexander Hamilton
    • Thomas Jefferson
  • 17. Hamilton
    • Federalist
    • Treasury Secretary
    • Had agreement of Washington with regard to broaden economy and strengthen national government for purpose of national growth.
    • Concerned with development of material resources to make nation self-sufficient
    • Tended to favor Great Britain in foreign affairs
    • Pressed for larger regular army as a means of expanding the power of national government (justified by need to deal with Indians)
    • Implied powers proponent
    • Believed corruption of government is what makes it work
    • Commercial, not agrarian
    • Pushed the Alien and Sedition Acts
    • During Era of Good Feelings his ideas take hold (develop military, internal improvement, charter national bank)
  • 18. Jefferson
    • Jeffersonian
    • Secretary of State
    • Cautious about enhancing power of federal government
    • Favored yeomen farmer
    • Sympathized with French
    • Policies continued that of Washington with westward expansion (Irony is the Louisiana Purchase. Jefferson was dedicated to strict interpretation of Presidential powers but seized the opportunity to double the size of the US with purchase of LA.)
    • Explicit powers, strict interpretation of Constitution
    • Agrarian
    • Jeffersonian Republicanism: self-sufficiency. If everyone is independent they are likely to behave in a manner that will sustain the republic.
  • 19. The Winner
    • Alexander Hamilton, father of the national debt. America develops a national bank, develops on credit, establishes a standing army, US still allies with Britain, and continues on the path of governmental corruption.
  • 20.
    • Ultimately Hamilton was more convincing and Washington allowed the bank. The US was eventually extended credit by the Netherlands and the credit debt begins. Although some consider Hamilton successful, others believed his fiscal policies created an infringement on states rights. Opposition begins to develop and political parties are in the works.
  • 21. Back to “The Great Experiment”
    • Now the question was what to do with this debt during the war. Remember, Hamilton thought debt was a good unifying element for the country. Nothing like collectors knocking on the door to strengthen the household right? In this case, consider the collectors family because they have a compelling interest in seeing the new government work.
  • 22.
    • The other issue at hand…the guys with guns wanted to be paid for their service…the army was not happy with the situation.
  • 23. Robert Morris
    • Robert Morris will step in with a solution. He is a nationalist wanting order, and to establish order and sound government there must be income.
    • He proposes a duty (1781) on imported goods and gets it through Congress, with Rhode Island holding out.
  • 24. Hamilton pushes for more
    • Excise tax on whiskey
      • Sales tax
      • Small frontier farmers produced most of the nation’s whiskey
      • They were very angry over the tax and attacked collectors
      • Whiskey Rebellion
  • 25. A SHOW OF FORCE
    • To show that the federal government could enforce law in the frontier federal troops were sent to put down the rebellion.
  • 26. Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation US Response
  • 27. Early foreign policy problems…
    • 1789- French overthrew their monarchy
    • French went to war against Britain
    • US had a treaty with France, but still a young nation that is learning to walk on its own.
      • Democratic-Republicans want to honor treaty and support France
      • Federalists want to back the British (trade issue)
  • 28. Washington decided the nation should remain neutral
  • 29. Edmond Genet
    • Angered Washington by coming to America as a French diplomat and seeking American support for the French cause.
    • Genet’s actions did not support American neutrality and did not follow diplomatic protocol
  • 30. Spain
    • US and Spain worked to negotiate an agreement over lands west of the Appalachian Mountains.
    • US wanted to secure land claims west of the Appalachians and secure shipping rights on the Mississippi River.
  • 31. Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) aka The Treaty of San Lorenzo
    • Negotiated by US Ambassador Thomas Pickney
    • Spain gave up its claims to land east of the Mississippi River. (excluding Florida)
    • Spain recognized the northern boundary of Florida and southern boundary of the US as the 31 st Parallel
    • Spain also agreed to open the Mississippi River to American traffic and allow use of the port at New Orleans.
  • 32. Native Americans Resist White Settlers
    • How did US expansion affect Native Americans?
  • 33.
    • With westward expansion, even before Pinckney’s treaty, settlers were encroaching on Native American lands.
    • A major area of settlement was the Northwest Territory (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin.)
  • 34. Battle of Fallen Timbers
    • 1790- Little Turtle (Chieftain of the Miami Tribe) defeated American troops as they fought for control of what would become Ohio.
    • 1794 American General Anthony Wayne defeated the Miami Confederacy which led to the end of the Native American resistance in Ohio
  • 35. Jay Treaty
    • Trouble in westward settlement was not only from the natives there it was also from the British who maintained forts in the area.
    • Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, John Jay, was sent to negotiate with England.
  • 36. Jay’s instructions: (213)
    • Convince British to evacuate their forts in the west
    • Pay for African American slaves who had left with their army after the Revolution
    • End impressment
    • Open the British West Indies trade to American ships
    • Compensate recent shipping losses in the Caribbean
  • 37. Jay Treaty
    • The British agreed to give up their forts in the Northwest Territory, payments for confiscated ships in the Caribbean, and the opening of trade in the British West Indies to American vessels (with restrictions)
    • Jay agreed that American shippers would not export from the US certain tropical products and that Americans would repay British creditors for prerevolutionary debts.
  • 38. Jay Treaty did not solve the problem of British harassment.
  • 39. Washington bids farewell.
    • Condemned political parties
    • Warned of entangling alliances
    • Established precedent of Presidents serving only two terms
      • Broken by FDR in 20 th Century
  • 40. John Adams Second President
  • 41. John Adams
    • Attorney from Massachusetts
    • Served as diplomat to France during the American Revolution
    • Washington’s Vice President
    • Federalist
  • 42. Election of 1796
    • Jefferson
    • Democratic-Republican
    • Came in 2 nd
    • Vice President to Adams
    • Adams
    • Federalist
    • Won majority of electoral votes
    • President
  • 43. XYZ Affair
    • United States delegation
    • Charles Pinckney
    • John Marshall
    • Elbridge Gerry
    • French X, Y, Z individuals
    • Jean Conrad Hottinguer
    • Pierre Bellamy
    • Lucien Hauteval
  • 44. XYZ Affair
    • French angered by the American Treaty with England (Jay’s Treaty)
    • Adams sent diplomats to France in hopes of avoiding war
    • French foreign ministers refused to meet with the US
    • Three individuals (X, Y, Z) met with the United States officials and told Americans they could meet with the French if they paid $250, 000
      • Americans refused to pay the bribe
      • Resulted in the spread of anti-French sentiment across the country.
  • 45. Quasi-War
    • Americans fought French in the Caribbean
    • No declaration of war
      • Adams built up the military, and a full scale war seemed at hand
  • 46.
    • Some Americans were insulted and called for war
    • Adams chose diplomacy and sent new negotiators to France, led by William Murray
        • Treaty of Mortefontaine (1800)
          • Terminated the alliance that had existed and settled hostilities
          • Being at war with England, the French did not want to bother with the United States, nor have them join the British
  • 47.
      • Some praised Adams for his handling of the XYZ Affair, but he also had his critics
      • Led to the view of Republicans as a threat to the nation and a distrust of immigrants because of their activity within the Republican party.
  • 48. Alien and Sedition Acts 1798
    • President could expel any foreigner determined to be a threat to the nation
    • Foreigners could be deported or jailed by President during wartime
    • Residency for citizenship was increased from 5 to 14 years
  • 49. Alien and Sedition Acts 1798
    • Limited Free Speech
      • Illegal to speak out against the President or Government
        • Aimed at war critics, such as newspapers
        • Violation of First Amendment
  • 50. Alien and Sedition Acts: Impact
    • Federalists
    • Viewed war at home was inevitable and could break out at any time
    • Jeffersonians
    • It reinforced their distrust of a strong central government and was proof that individual liberties would suffer if the national government was allowed to retain considerable power.
  • 51. Alien and Sedition Acts 1798
    • Madison and Jefferson wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
      • Argued the laws were void because they were unconstitutional and insisted that states had the right to refuse to follow them.
      • Idea: the principle of nullification
        • If the government oversteps its bounds then the states can refuse to follow