Feds(should remind you of) Federalists Wanted Strong National Government Broad Interp. Of ConstitutionRepublicans Anti-Feds Stronger State governments Loose interpretation of the Constitution.
a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles ofConfederation and Daniel Shays’ Rebellionled to a call for a stronger centralgovernment.
Colonial government during and immediately after the American Revolution. ―Confederation‖– a loose agreement
Land Ordinance of 1785 – determined how land would be sold – 640 acres for no less than $640 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – when any territory had population of 5000 free male adults, it could choose an assembly and Congress would name a governing council – reach 60,000, apply to become a state – done with OH, IN, IL, MI, and WI
1 vote for each state, regardless of size Congress was powerless to regulate foreign and interstate commerce No executive or judicial branches Amended only with consent of ALL states 9/13 majority required to pass laws
Farmers arm themselves to prevent courts from opening and foreclosing on their land. Rebellion put down by military; 4 killed. Shays’ Rebellion showed weaknesses in government & need for change.
Congress in 1787 passed resolution endorsing convention ―for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation‖ 55 came, only 39 stayed to end, 36 signers – ave age 42 – Franklin oldest at 81 Sworn to secrecy Washington presiding officer, Madison secretary – Father of Constitution No Jefferson, Adams, or Hamilton
b. Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-Federalists and Federalists during the debateon ratification of the Constitution as put forthin The Federalist concerning form ofgovernment, factions, checks and balances, andthe power of the executive, including the rolesof Alexander Hamilton and James Madison.
Article VII said would be effective when approved by 9 states – submitted in 1787 Debate b/t Federalists who wanted Constitution and strong central govt and Anti- Federalists who didn’t
Anti-Feds saw no advantage for them in new Constitution and were afraid strong central govt would violate their rights
Aka The Federalist Papers – series of essays published b/t 1787 and 1788 – Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison Defended Constitution –
9th state to ratify was New Hampshire, in 1788, but needed VA and NY to be successful When Bill of Rights promised, VA came in, soon followed by New York – RI was last
Sept 13, 1788, NY City picked as capital Oct 10, 1788 Confederation Congress disbanded with Franklin saying, ―nothing is certain but death and taxes‖
c. Explain the key features of theConstitution, specifically the GreatCompromise, separation of powers, limitedgovernment, and the issue of slavery.
Unicameral legislature based on equal representation Congress have power to tax, regulate commerce, have plural executive with no veto and a supreme court
Presented by James Madison Separate branches Federal system Bicameral legislature – based on population – ◦ lower house based on popular vote – ◦ upper house elected by state legislatures
Great Compromise aka Connecticut Compromise (Roger Sherman) – ◦ lower house by population, ◦ upper by equality – each state gets 2, vote as individuals
3/5 Compromise – 3/5 slaves count for taxation and representation ◦ No slave trade after 20 years (1808) No discussion of women’s rights
Nat’l govt could: tax, regulate commerce, raise an army and navy, make laws binding to citizens States denied power to issue money, void contracts, make treaties or wage war, and levy tariffs
Preamble—Introduction Articles— Body Amendments 1-10 are known as the Bill of Rights, all ratified in 1791. ◦ Federalists had to agree to add these to the Constitution in order to have it ratified by all of the states.
There are 27 Amendments in total, each reflects changes in American society. ◦ See handout for a list of Amendments. Government is based on the idea of popular sovereignty.
The Legislative branch is first in the Constitution because it is closest to the American people. Requirements for the House of Reps: ◦ 25 years old ◦ U.S. citizen for 7 years ◦ Resident of the state in which you were elected Requirements for the Senate: ◦ 30 years old ◦ U.S. citizen for 9 years ◦ Resident of the state in which you were elected
Requirements to be President ◦ Natural Born citizen of the U.S. ◦ 35 years old ◦ Live in U.S. for 14 years Cabinet—President’s advisors (15 departments) 22nd Amendment limits to 2 terms; 10 years max
Supreme Court Justices serve for ―life or good behavior‖ Power to declare laws ―Constitutional or Unconstitutional‖ comes from Marbury v. Madison Case ◦ (we will talk about court cases later in the unit)
The writers of the Constitution knew that the limits of the powers and responsibilities of each branch were not always clear. To keep the branches equal in power, the writers developed a system of checks and balances
This system of checks and balances has several pros and cons: ◦ slows the process of making decisions and taking action. ◦ It gives American citizens time to learn about the issues and to give their opinions. ◦ It also gives the government time to think about the effects of any new law.
Explain the importance of thePresidencies of GeorgeWashington and John Adams;include the Whiskey Rebellion,non-intervention in Europe,and the development ofpolitical parties (AlexanderHamilton).
Temp president of Senate counted ballots and pronounced Washington unanimous choice of Electoral College for president Adams second-most votes so VP
Congress created executive departments: Dept of State=foreign affairs=Jefferson Dept of Treasury=financial affairs= Hamilton Attorney General=legal affairs=Edmund Randolph Made up Cabinet to advise president Chief Justice=John Jay
Federal and state govt in debt from war Hamilton said all debts were a national responsibility States with lower debts or who had paid debts didn’t want it – usually Southern Compromise – agree to plan and get national capital on Potomac—Washington, D.C.
Would issue bank notes (paper money) as a natl currency, expand capital But was this constitutional? Led to division between strict and broad constructionism – how closely do we follow the Constitution? Washington signed bill for a bank
Excise tax on alcoholic beverages National mint to provide money Govt encourage manufacturing So set up protective tariffs Believed even agricultural areas would benefit from increased manufacturing
Began retiring war debt Enhanced value of American currency Secured gov’t credit Attracted foreign capital Helped create prosperity in new nation at end of 1700s
Get two political parties: Feds: Hamilton, Washington, Adams Republicans: Madison and Jefferson – aka Democratic Republicans – Main issue was power of federal govt –
Brit and France at war beginning in 1793 – lasted until Waterloo in 1815 1778 Treaty of Alliance had US perpetual allies of France- but we didn’t want to – Washington issues neutrality proclamation on April 22, 1793 which declared US ―friendly and impartial toward the belligerent powers‖
Washington recognized France’s new govt and received ambassador Edmond Genet Genet outfitted privateers to capture British ships and conspired with others to attack Fla and LA b/c Spain opposed French Rev Cabinet decided unanimously that he had to go – hard to sympathize with French Hard with Britain too b/c they began to seize our ships in Caribbean
Jay was named special envoy to Britain w/ orders: ◦ Get British out of forts on our land ◦ Win payment for lost American ships ◦ Win payment for lost American slaves in 1783 ◦ Get commercial treaty which would allow us to trade in British West Indies
Got two: forts and damages for ships In return, Jay agreed to list of demands from the British Not a good treaty, but way to avoid war so Washington signed it
Tax on liquor had farmers mad Rebellion in W PA where they terrorized tax collectors and taxpayers – robbed mail, stopped courts, and threatened attack on Pittsburgh
1794 Washington ordered them dispersed called militia from VA, MD, PA and NJ – led by Gen. Henry Lee could catch only a few whom Washington pardoned mixed reaction: some said showed new gov’t’s ability to enforce law – others thought sign of heavy-handed federal govt
Spain claimed land up into GA, AL, and TN but couldn’t consolidate control Paid Indians to attack us US ambassador Thomas Pinckney got Spain to accept 31st parallel as boundary, allow US to use Miss River and New Orleans for free, and a promise to stop having Indians attack us Very popular
In Farewell Address Warned against sectionalism Warned against partisanship Warned against permanent alliances
Feds: John Adams and Thomas Pinckney Reps: Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr Not quite fully developed political parties, but this is essential breakdown Adams wins presidency, Jefferson has second most votes so he is vice president
France plundering our ships looking for contraband France broke diplomatic relations with US XYZ Affair: Adams sent Charles Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry to France – X, Y, Z approach them and say negotiations would begin after they pay the French $250,000 bribe – we said no
We were in undeclared naval war from 1798- 1800 Congress authorized capture of armed French ships, suspended commerce and renounced 1778 Treaty of Alliance Congress created Dept of Navy and increased number of ships French want peace so war stops
Feds and Reps called each other traitors 1797 Jefferson hired ―journalist‖ James Callender to write pamphlet showing Adams wanted monarchy with him as king Adams took higher road and asked Jefferson to join him in creating bipartisan administration but Jefferson declined
Naturalization Act incr # of years you had to live in US to be citizen from 5-14 Alien Act gave president power to deport ―dangerous‖ aliens Sedition Act made it illegal to conspire against government, including insurrection or rioting – also no ―false, scandalous and malicious‖ speech against govt Very anti-foreign
Purpose was to punish Reps – new immigrant/citizens tended to vote Rep All 10 convictions were Republicans To counter, Jefferson and Madison wrote KY and VA Resolutions ◦ Said Alien and Sedition Acts were violations of constitutional rights and said states could ―nullify‖ them if necess
Complaints against Feds: taxes to support an unnecessary army, Alien and Sedition Acts, fears about Adams and monarchism, anger at Hamilton’s economic program, suppression of Whiskey Rebellion Jay’s Treaty
Feds: John Adams and Charles Pinckney- Reps: Jefferson and Burr tied so went to House of Reps – Hamilton supported Jefferson Revolution of 1800 because party changed
Before leaving office, Federalists in Congress passed Judiciary Act of 1801 Created 16 circuit courts and increased numbers of other judge positions Adams named John Marshall chief justice of Supreme Court