Unit 2 honors


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Unit 2 honors

  1. 1. Unit 2 Honors Creating the United States
  2. 2. 1. Colonial America
  3. 3. A. Salutary Neglect <ul><li>Economic benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies run themselves (and pay for it) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little time or money required of England. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonial Charters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint-Stock – Business owned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal – controlled by crown. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary – Controlled by person or group. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. B. Colonial Examples <ul><li>Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 yr + white men who paid taxes could vote. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representatives had 1 year terms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicameral legislature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many rights given by proprietor (William Penn) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virginia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally Jamestown Colony. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint-stock charter by Virginia Company. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First elected legislature – House of Burgess. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plymouth Bay Colony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originally headed to Virginia, but blown off course. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mayflower Compact signed establishing a right of the majority to rule. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Bay Colony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Headquarter in Boston. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many locally elected officials. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes paid to church. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually joined with Plymouth. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 2. Declaration of Independence
  7. 7. A. Cause for Break <ul><li>French and Indian War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1754-1763 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French/Indians and British (Americans) attempt to take Ohio River Valley. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British Prime Minister William Pitt takes out loans and heavily taxes English to win war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British win. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proclamation of 1763 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace with Natives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR Valley is placed under military control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans – no moving west. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Who won the war? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British - our military. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans- our militia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British want Americans to shoulder burden of debt. </li></ul><ul><li>PM George Greenville = new taxes & laws to help the Americans take care of the military & debt. </li></ul>A. Cause for Break
  9. 9. <ul><li>vi. Sugar Act 1764 – 1 st enforced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smugglers tried in Admiralty Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO JURY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quartering Act 65’– colonists provide food & housing for troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp Act 65’ – paper products must be stamped (costs $). </li></ul>A. Cause for Break
  10. 10. B. Break Occurs <ul><li>Stamp Act Congress 65’ – delegates wrote protest to London. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Englishman’s rights crushed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No taxation without representation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boycotts of British products. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax collectors tarred and feathered. </li></ul><ul><li>66’ Parliament repeals Stamp Act </li></ul><ul><li>Declaratory Act – We can do what ever we want. </li></ul><ul><li>Townshend Act – tax on lead, tea, paint, etc 67’. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Boston Massacre – 11 American casualties when troops fire on crowd. </li></ul><ul><li>Tea Party – Patriots disguised as Indians throw tea over board. </li></ul><ul><li>Committees of Correspondence – Patriotic writings between colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Sons of Liberty had organized boycotts. </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive Acts – passed in anger to Boston. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed port at Boston. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates most self-government of MA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quebec Act – gives Ohio to the French-Canadians! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>xii. First Continental Congress – Cont. boycotts, asks colonists to arm, sends Declaration of Resolves to plead Englishman’s rights. </li></ul>B. Break Occurs
  12. 12. C. Violence Occurs <ul><li>April, 1775 – Battles of Lexington and Concord. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Continental Congress Meets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olive Branch Petition by John Dickinson asks for peace from king. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King George III wants rebellion crushed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declaration of Independence is written by Thomas Jefferson. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspired by Enlightenment – John Locke’s ideas of basic rights (life, liberty, property). </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. III. Articles of Confederation <ul><ul><li>A. Alliance of States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created in 1777 and adopted by the Continental Congress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established a national government in 1781. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative branch only. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No executive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State courts only </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States sent as many delegates as they wanted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States only received one vote </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 4. State Constitution <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most states adopted a list of duties of the government </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most states also adopted a “bill of rights.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. B. Trouble with the Articles <ul><ul><ul><li>1. Economic hardships faced the nation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>America had $50 million debt. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continued to print worthless money. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many failed to pay back money owed to wealthy. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy complained average citizens had too much power. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 2. Nationalists Arise <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to restrain unpredictable behavior of states. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feared lack of national courts and economic policy. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed concerns in newspapers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Included: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>George Washington </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>James Madison </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander Hamilton </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benjamin Franklin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feared America’s culture of challenging authority. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European and Roman Republics had failed. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed America should be a world model. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 3. Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One vote for each states, no matter what size </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress cannot collect taxes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress was powerless to regulate foreign and interstate commerce. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No separate executive branch to enforce law. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No national court to interpret law. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amendment only possible with unanimous approval. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9/13 majorities needed to pass laws. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Firm league of friendship.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 4. Annapolis Convention - 1786 <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only five states sent delegates. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed on meeting the next year. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. C. Shays’ Rebellion <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel Shays the war veteran, led a revolt over unpaid bills and taxes. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rebellion put down. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prominent Americans saw need for order. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Origins of the Constitution <ul><li>The English Heritage: The Power of Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Locke’s influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consent of the governed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The “Conservative” Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restored rights the colonists felt they had lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a major change of lifestyles </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. IV. Constitution of the United States of America
  22. 22. A. Constitutional Convention <ul><ul><ul><li>May – September 1787 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings kept secretive amongst the hot and humid summer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>55 delegates. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Familiar with Western philosophy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly wealthy planters & merchants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most were college graduates with some political experience </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many were coastal residents from the larger cities, not the rural areas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. c. James Madison <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Father of Constitution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studied government a year before meeting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed people were selfish creatures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government would help control lust for power. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>James Madison
  24. 24. 4. Debate would ensue throughout convention <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Amend Articles of Confederation vs. start from scratch </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists wanted new, central government </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-federalists wanted Articles with strong state governments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists dominated and Articles were dropped. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. b. Big vs. Small States <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virginia Plan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executive and judicial branch would exist. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>legislature proportional to population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Jersey Plan – every state gets and equal vote. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. iii. Great Compromise <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower House – House of Representatives by population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper House – Senate by states </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. c. Slaves to be counted or not? <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners want slaves to be counted so representation to House would be greater </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northerners opposed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three-Fifths Compromise </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3/5 counted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves - no rights </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Agenda in Philadelphia <ul><li>The Equality Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equality and Representation of the States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Jersey Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virginia Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connecticut Compromise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Equality </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Philadelphia Convention, continued <ul><li>Philosophy into Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects of Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of Government </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Agenda in Philadelphia
  31. 31. The Agenda in Philadelphia <ul><li>The Economic Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States had tariffs on products from other states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper money was basically worthless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress couldn’t raise money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions taken: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powers of Congress to be strengthened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powers of states to be limited </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. The Agenda in Philadelphia
  33. 33. The Agenda in Philadelphia <ul><li>The Individual Rights Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some were written into the Constitution: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writ of habeas corpus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No bills of attainder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No ex post facto laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religious qualifications for holding office prohibited </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strict rules of evidence for conviction of treason </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right to trial by jury in criminal cases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some were not specified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of speech / expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rights of the accused </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. The Constitutional Basis of Federalism <ul><li>The Division of Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supremacy Clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws of Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Constitutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Laws </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. The Constitutional Basis of Federalism <ul><li>Establishing National Supremacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implied Powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commerce Powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Struggle for Racial Equality </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. The Constitutional Basis of Federalism <ul><li>States’ Obligations to Each Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full Faith and Credit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extradition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privileges and Immunities </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. The Madisonian Model <ul><li>The Constitution and the Electoral Process: The Original Plan (Figure 2.2) </li></ul>
  38. 38. The Madisonian Model Figure 2.3
  39. 39. Ratifying the Constitution
  40. 40. B. Ratification <ul><ul><ul><li>Nine of thirteen states needed to ratify. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founding Fathers Split </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Federalist paper written to persuade New Yorkers to ratify. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-federalists – opposed the Constitution, favored states. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passed all 13 states after Bill of Rights is promised. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Patrick Henry
  41. 41. C. Federalists Convince the States <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Articles were weak. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists had a plan. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists were well organized. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>George Washington, national hero, backed the Constitution. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Constitutional Change Figure 2.4
  43. 43. D. Bill of Rights <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Added to appease the Anti-Federalists that freedoms would be protected. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists believed government was “by the people,” so the people had nothing to fear. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete, yet debatable set of rules. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. i. Freedom of expression <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Press </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Petition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Freedom of Religion <ul><li>The Establishment Clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Free Exercise Clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibits government from interfering with the practice of religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some religious practices may conflict with other rights, and then be denied or punished </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Freedom of Expression <ul><li>Prior Restraint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition: A government preventing material from being published. Censorship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be permissible during wartime. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be punished after something is published. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Freedom of Expression <ul><li>Free Speech and Public Order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited if it presents a “clear and present danger” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permissible to advocate the violent overthrow of government in abstract, but not to incite anyone to imminent lawless action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited if on private property, like a shopping center </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Freedom of Expression <ul><li>Free Press and Fair Trials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The public has a right to know what happens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The press’ own information may not be protected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shield laws </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Freedom of Expression <ul><li>Obscenity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No clear definition on what constitutes obscenity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miller v. California stated that materials were obscene if the work: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>appeals “to a prurient interest in sex” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>showed “patently offensive” sexual conduct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lacks “serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local areas make their own decisions on obscenity </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Freedom of Expression <ul><li>Libel and Slander </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Libel: The publication of false or malicious statements that damage someone’s reputation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slander: The same thing, only spoken instead of printed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different standards for private individuals and public (politicians, celebrities) individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to prove </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Freedom of Expression <ul><li>Symbolic Speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition: Nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally protected along with verbal speech. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Freedom of Expression <ul><li>Commercial Speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition: Communication in the form of advertising. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally the most restricted and regulated form of speech (FTC). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulation of the Public Airwaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast stations must follow FCC rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable / satellite has blurred the lines. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Freedom of Expression <ul><li>Freedom of Assembly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to Assemble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generally permissible, but must meet reasonable local standards. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance between freedom to assemble and order in society. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to Associate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to join groups / associations without government interference. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Militia and right to bear arms* </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No quartering of soldiers during peace. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search and seizure – warrants required. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Defendants’ Rights <ul><li>Searches and Seizures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probable Cause: The situation occurring when the police have reason to believe that a person should be arrested. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unreasonable searches and seizures: Evidence is obtained in a haphazard or random manner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusionary Rule: The rule that evidence, no matter how incriminating, cannot be introduced into trial if it was not constitutionally obtained. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>iv. Cannot testify against oneself, no double jeopardy, natural rights cannot be taken without due process of law, property cannot be taken without payment. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Defendants’ Rights <ul><li>Self-Incrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition: The situation occurring when an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in court. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fifth Amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miranda warnings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrapments may be overturned </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speedy & public trial, accused, right to examine and provide witnesses, right to counsel. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trial by jury. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No excessive fines, bail, or cruel and unusual punishment. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Defendants’ Rights <ul><li>The Right to Counsel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The state must provide lawyers in most criminal cases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sixth Amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plea bargaining: An actual bargain between the prosecution and defense. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Juries generally consist of 12 people, but unanimity is not always needed to convict. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Defendants’ Rights <ul><li>Cruel and Unusual Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Eighth Amendment forbids cruel and unusual punishment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Death Penalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Varies from state to state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be mandatory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rights not in the Constitution are allowed. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Powers not in the Constitution are for the states. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 62. The Constitutional Basis of Federalism