INTEGRATION AND
CONTROL
• The nervous and endocrine systems interact to control most of
the body functions
• The nervous s...
The Nervous
System
Integration and Control
• The nervous system control most of the
body functions
• This exerts rapid controls via nerve
imp...
• The nervous system allows reaction to a
stimulus.
−A stimulus is a change in the
environment that elicit a response
• Ex...
The Nervous System
5
THREE (3) FUNCTIONS OF NERVOUS SYSTEM
3. Generates Motor Output
- motor output is the
conduction of signals from
the integ...
7
Basic structure of a nerve cell
• Neuron/Nerve cell - The functional unit of the
nervous system
• Cell body – integrates...
Types of neurons
8
Sensory neuron – transmit signals/nerve impulses from the afferent or sensory organs of the
brain (sens...
NERVE SIGNALS AND THEIR TRANSMISSION
• Membrane Potential – potential energy
exists as an electrical charge difference
acr...
• Action potential - a change in membrane voltage that transmits a nerve
signal along an axon.
• It is caused by the openi...
1. When this region of the axon
(blue) has its Na+ channels open,
Na+ rushes inward, and an
action potential is generated
...
12
Chemical synapse
- The communication
point between two
neurons, or between a
neuron and a muscle or
gland
Nervous system of representative
organisms
14
Comparative functional anatomy of nervous system in invertebrates
Protozoa
- Protozoans lack specialized nervous
system to...
Comparative functional anatomy of nervous system in invertebrates
Porifera
-Poriferans or the sponges are the
only multice...
Comparative functional anatomy of nervous system in invertebrates
Cnidaria
-Contains a diffuse nerve net.
-Sensory neurons...
Echinodermata
-Echinoderms show ganglia along the
radial nerves.
-They include the cell bodies of
almost all motor neurons...
Comparative functional anatomy of nervous system in invertebrates
Platyhelminthes
- Bilateral symmetry and cephalization h...
Nematoda
- At the anterior end cerebral ganglion is present
composed of dense circular nerve ring surrounding the
pharynx....
Annelida
- Nervous system is segmented.
- Pair of cerebral ganglia (supra-pharyngeal)
situated above and in front the phar...
Mollusca
-Shows great range of nervous systems.
-Typical nervous system of Mollusks is
composed of three pairs of ganglia ...
Arthropoda
-Similar to annelid nervous system
but more advanced in structure.
-Central nervous system is present.
-Supra-o...
• Peripheral
Nerves
WHAT PARTS DO YOU
KNOW THAT ARE IN
THE NERVOUS
SYSTEM?
•Brain
• Spinal Cord
Vertebrate Nervous System
Stages in the processing of information by
Nervous System
25
Divisions of the Nervous System
26
27
28
Divisions of the nervous system
A. Central nervous system
A. Includes the brain and spinal cord
• Seat of complex brain...
• The brain controls
everything in the
body
• The human brain is
about 1.3kg of jelly-
like tissue made up
of ca. 100B neu...
1) Dura matter- outermost
membrane, the toughest and
the thickest
2) Arachnoid-middle membrane
below the dura matter
3) Pi...
Surface Anatomy
• Gyri (plural of gyrus)
• Elevated ridges
• Entire surface
• Grooves separate gyri
• A sulcus is a shallo...
The brain has three main parts…
1) Cerebrum
2) Cerebellum
3) Brain Stem
4) Diencephalon
32
Parts of Brain
• Cerebrum - also called the
telencephalon, is the largest
portion of the brain in humans
• performs sophis...
35
Cerebellum
- receives sensory input
from the eyes, ears, joints,
and muscles about the
present position of body
parts, and...
• The Brain Stem
connects the brain
to the spinal cord
• The nerves in the
brain stem control
your heartbeat,
breathing, a...
•Hypothalamus – located below the
thalamus. The main visceral control
center of the body and is vitally
important to overa...
• Thalamus - specializes in
sense reception
• Epithalamus – the most dorsal
portion of the diencephalon and
forms the roof...
Simplified Function of the Brain…
•Back of brain: perception
•Top of brain: movement
•Front of brain: thinking
Spinal cord
http://www.apparelyzed.com/spinalcord.html
• The spinal cord is
the part of the
nervous system
that connects t...
• Responsible for providing sensory
(afferent) information to the central
nervous system
• Carries motor (efferent) comman...
The peripheral nervous system is
composed of the nerves and the sense
organs.
Ear Eye
Skin
Nerves
Tongue
43
Receptors and Sense Organs
• Aristotle classified five
senses, continued to
be regarded as the
classical senses,
although ...
Cranial Nerves
46
Oh, Oh, Oh, To Touch And Feel Virgin Girl's
Vagina Ahhhh Heaven
Spinal Nerves
47
Somatic nervous system is
the part of the peripheral
nervous system associated
with the voluntary control of
body movement...
AutonomicNervousSystem
49
Parasympathetic Division
- Peaceful, Housekeeping Division
- in control most of the time
- “rest and digest” or “feed and ...
• An automatic reaction without thinking
happens quickly in less than a second.
Reflex arc (Withdrawal)
51
The Endocrine System
Endocrine System
• “internal” glands of secretion
that release a hormone into the
bloodstream, right within the
gland itse...
Activity of a Hormone-Secreting Cell
ENDOCRINOLOGY
ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Functions:
-Regulation of metabolism & nutrient supply
- reproduction and sexual differenti...
Chemically, the hormones are of 3 types
57
•Derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine
 e.g. Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine...
Hypothalamus makes
hormones that control the
pituitary gland. In addition, it
makes hormones that are stored
in the pituit...
Hypothalamus
• The main control
center of the
endocrine system
• makes hormones that
control the pituitary
gland.
• In add...
Pituitary Gland
• pea-sized gland
consisting of two
distinct parts: a
posterior lobe and an
anterior lobe, both
situated i...
Pineal Gland
• a pea-sized mass of
tissue near the center
of the brain
• releases melatonin,
which is involved in
rhythmic...
Thyroid Gland
• located in the neck
just under your
larynx (voice box)
• produces thyroxine,
which regulates
metabolism.
Thymus
• lies under the
breastbone in
humans
• releases
thymosin during
childhood that
stimulates T cell
devt
Parathyroid Gland
• These four glands
release parathyroid
hormone, which
regulate the level of
calcium in the
blood
Adrenal Gland
• one sitting on top of
each kidney
• release epinephrine
and norepinephrine
that help body deal
with stress.
Pancreas
• The pancreas
produces insulin
and glucagon,
which regulate the
level of glucose in
the blood
Testes
• produce testosterone
responsible for sperm
production and the
development of male
secondary sex
characteristics
Ovaries
• produces estrogen
and progesterone.
• Estrogen is necessary
for development of
secondary sex
characteristics and...
Concept Map
69
Hypothalamus and Pituitary gland
• Hypothalamus – in vertebrates,
this is part of the brain and helps
regulate the interna...
Actions of Insulin and Glucagon
71
Liver converts
glucose to
glycogen
The Menstrual Cycle
72
Principal Endocrine Glands & Hormones in the body
Endocrine
gland
Hormones released Target
Tissues/Organs
Function(s) of H...
Anterior
pituitary
Luteinizing
hormone (LH)
Gonads Egg and sperm
production and sex
hormones
Prolactin (PRL) Mammary
gland...
Para-
thyroid
Parathyroid
(PTH)
Bones, kidneys,
intestine
Raises calcium in
blood
Adrenal
cortex
Glucocorticoids
(cortisol...
Pancreas Insulin Liver, muscles,
adipose tissues
Lowers blood glucose
level; promotes
formation of glycogen
Glucagon Liver...
Endocrine Diseases and Disorders
Disease Effects of deficiency/excess
Diabetes mellitus
(Type I)
is characterized by destr...
Endocrine Diseases and Disorders
Hypocalcaemia when the blood levels of calcium are low
Hypoparathyroidism
insufficient se...
Hyperthyroidism
Grave’s disease
Gigantism
Pituitary dwarfism
Nervous system
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Bio 102: Fundamentals in Animal Biology. The Nervous System.

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Nervous system

  1. 1. INTEGRATION AND CONTROL • The nervous and endocrine systems interact to control most of the body functions • The nervous system exerts rapid controls via nerve impulses; the endocrine system’s effects are mediated by hormones and are more prolonged. • Both systems are communication systems that receive and deliver messages throughout the body.
  2. 2. The Nervous System
  3. 3. Integration and Control • The nervous system control most of the body functions • This exerts rapid controls via nerve impulses • are communication systems that receive and deliver messages throughout the body. • The nervous system allows reaction to a stimulus 3
  4. 4. • The nervous system allows reaction to a stimulus. −A stimulus is a change in the environment that elicit a response • Example: A hot stove • The reactions are automatic. −no need to think about the reactions • Example: If a bug flies by the eye, automatically the eye will blink 4
  5. 5. The Nervous System 5
  6. 6. THREE (3) FUNCTIONS OF NERVOUS SYSTEM 3. Generates Motor Output - motor output is the conduction of signals from the integration center, to the effector cells, the muscle cells or gland cells that actually carry out the body´s responses to the stimuli 2. Performs Integration - processes and interprets sensory input and decides what should be done at each moment 1. Receives Sensory Input - uses millions of sensory receptors (present in skin and other organs )to monitor changes occurring both inside and outside of the body Sensory input Motor output Integration 6
  7. 7. 7 Basic structure of a nerve cell • Neuron/Nerve cell - The functional unit of the nervous system • Cell body – integrates the message • Dendrites - are highly branched extensions that receive signals from other neurons and convey this information toward the cell body • Axon - typically a much longer extension that transmits signals to other cells • The myelin sheath, resembles a chain of oblong beads, wraps around the axon • Gaps between Schwann cells are called nodes of Ranvier • A typical axon has hundreds or thousands of these branches, each with a synaptic terminal at the very end. • The junction between a synaptic terminal and another cell is called a synapse.
  8. 8. Types of neurons 8 Sensory neuron – transmit signals/nerve impulses from the afferent or sensory organs of the brain (sense) - Sensory (afferent) neurons take nerve impulses from sensory receptors to the CNS Motor neuron - take nerve impulses from the CNS to muscles or glands Interneurons - Occur entirely within the CNS. convey nerve impulses between various parts of the CNS. some take messages from one side of the spinal cord to the other or from the brain to the cord, and vice versa
  9. 9. NERVE SIGNALS AND THEIR TRANSMISSION • Membrane Potential – potential energy exists as an electrical charge difference across the neuron’s plasma membrane • The potential of a neuron that is not being stimulated is its resting potential • A resting membrane has many open potassium (K+) channels but only a few open sodium (Na+) channels, allowing much more potassium than sodium to diffuse across the membrane. • Therefore, Na+ is more concentrated outside the neuron than inside. • Sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) pumps – membrane proteins that help maintain resting potential Nerve function depends on charge differences across neuron membranes
  10. 10. • Action potential - a change in membrane voltage that transmits a nerve signal along an axon. • It is caused by the opening and closing of channel proteins with gates that open at a particular voltage or membrane potential A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential
  11. 11. 1. When this region of the axon (blue) has its Na+ channels open, Na+ rushes inward, and an action potential is generated 2. Soon, the K+ channels in that same region open, allowing K+ to diffuse out of the axon; at this time, its Na+ channels are closed and inactivated at that point on the axon 3. A short time later, we would see no signs of an action potential at this (far-left) spot because the axon membrane here has restored itself and returned to its resting potential Propagation of the action potential along an axon
  12. 12. 12 Chemical synapse - The communication point between two neurons, or between a neuron and a muscle or gland
  13. 13. Nervous system of representative organisms 14
  14. 14. Comparative functional anatomy of nervous system in invertebrates Protozoa - Protozoans lack specialized nervous system to respond to the environment. -Single cell function as both the receptor and the effector. -Contain an eyespot that act as a light sensitive receptor.
  15. 15. Comparative functional anatomy of nervous system in invertebrates Porifera -Poriferans or the sponges are the only multicellular animals without a nervous system. They do not show any neurons or sensory cells. -Although they lack a nervous system they are sensitive to pressure and touch that helps in their locomotion.
  16. 16. Comparative functional anatomy of nervous system in invertebrates Cnidaria -Contains a diffuse nerve net. -Sensory neurons, intermediate neurons and motor neurons are present -These neurons are connected together by synapses. -Synapses carry impulses to both directions within the nerve net. Hydra sp. Nerve net is present. Contain multipolar neurons.
  17. 17. Echinodermata -Echinoderms show ganglia along the radial nerves. -They include the cell bodies of almost all motor neurons and intermediate neurons. -A central nerve ring surrounds the gut connecting the radial nerves. -Some shows Ocelli to sense light. - Sensory neurons lie within the ectoderm, and send axons to the radial nerves. Comparative functional anatomy of nervous system in invertebrates
  18. 18. Comparative functional anatomy of nervous system in invertebrates Platyhelminthes - Bilateral symmetry and cephalization have led to the nervous system. - Shows the primitive arrangement of the central nervous system. - Nervous system resembles a ladder. - Two long nerves are connected to the cerebral ganglia located in the head region. - Short, smaller nerves are connected to the nerve cord. - Auricles can be found at the sides of the head. - These contain sensory receptors. - Eyespots are also present. Turbellaria (Planarians) Cestoda (Tapeworms)
  19. 19. Nematoda - At the anterior end cerebral ganglion is present composed of dense circular nerve ring surrounding the pharynx. - Arising from the nerve ring four nerves run along the length of the body as one dorsal, one ventral and two lateral nerves. - Each nerve is located within a cord of connective tissue lying beneath the cuticle and between muscle cells. - Dorsal nerve trunk is motor, lateral trunks are sensory and ventral nerve function as both. Comparative functional anatomy of nervous system in invertebrates
  20. 20. Annelida - Nervous system is segmented. - Pair of cerebral ganglia (supra-pharyngeal) situated above and in front the pharynx. - Two lateral nerves (circum or pharyngeal connectives) form a ring around the pharynx connecting the ganglia. - A pair of mid ventrally placed nerves that connected to the anterior nerve ring, run throughout the length of the body. These nerves have a ganglion in each of the body segment from which nerves are given out to various organs. - Most annelids have giant axons. - Some annelids have ocelli or simple eyes. Comparative functional anatomy of nervous system in invertebrates
  21. 21. Mollusca -Shows great range of nervous systems. -Typical nervous system of Mollusks is composed of three pairs of ganglia connected with one another by bundles of nerve fibers but distributed in a characteristically scattered manner. - One pair of ganglia above the oesophagus is called as "supra-oesophageal" or "cerebral" ganglion. - A pair of ganglia below the oesophagus is called as "infra-oesophageal" or "pedal" ganglion. - The other pair of ganglia is called as "branchial" or "parieto-splanchnic" ganglion. - In higher Molluscs, the cerebral and pedal ganglia are fused forming an oesophageal ring. - Several ganglia are present that are connected with long nerves. Comparative functional anatomy of nervous system in invertebrates
  22. 22. Arthropoda -Similar to annelid nervous system but more advanced in structure. -Central nervous system is present. -Supra-oesophageal or cerebral ganglion is located in the head segment. This serves as the brain. -Most arthropods show well developed sensory organs such as compound eyes and antennae. -Compound eyes contain ‘Ommatidia’ that samples a small part of the visual field. Comparative functional anatomy of nervous system in invertebrates
  23. 23. • Peripheral Nerves WHAT PARTS DO YOU KNOW THAT ARE IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM? •Brain • Spinal Cord Vertebrate Nervous System
  24. 24. Stages in the processing of information by Nervous System 25
  25. 25. Divisions of the Nervous System 26
  26. 26. 27
  27. 27. 28 Divisions of the nervous system A. Central nervous system A. Includes the brain and spinal cord • Seat of complex brain functions such as memory, intelligence, learning and emotion (love, hate, fear, anger, elation and sadness) • Receives and interprets the countless signals that are sent to it from other parts of the body and from the external environment
  28. 28. • The brain controls everything in the body • The human brain is about 1.3kg of jelly- like tissue made up of ca. 100B neurons • divided into three parts and is protected by the skull or cranium 29
  29. 29. 1) Dura matter- outermost membrane, the toughest and the thickest 2) Arachnoid-middle membrane below the dura matter 3) Pia matter-the innermost membrane consisting mainly of small blood vessels following the surface of the brain supported by cerebrospinal fluid 4) Basic nuclei – important centers for planning, learning movement sequences Protection of the brain 5) Cerebral cortex - sensory information is analyzed, motor commands are issued & language is generated
  30. 30. Surface Anatomy • Gyri (plural of gyrus) • Elevated ridges • Entire surface • Grooves separate gyri • A sulcus is a shallow groove (plural, sulci) • Deeper grooves are fissures
  31. 31. The brain has three main parts… 1) Cerebrum 2) Cerebellum 3) Brain Stem 4) Diencephalon 32
  32. 32. Parts of Brain • Cerebrum - also called the telencephalon, is the largest portion of the brain in humans • performs sophisticated integration; plays major role in memory, learning, speech, emotions; formulates complex behavioral responses • Divided into four lobes
  33. 33. 35
  34. 34. Cerebellum - receives sensory input from the eyes, ears, joints, and muscles about the present position of body parts, and it also receives motor output from the cerebral cortex about where these parts should be located. - After integrating this information, the cerebellum sends motor impulses by way of the brain stem to the skeletal muscles.
  35. 35. • The Brain Stem connects the brain to the spinal cord • The nerves in the brain stem control your heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure 37
  36. 36. •Hypothalamus – located below the thalamus. The main visceral control center of the body and is vitally important to overall body homeostasis i.e. autonomic control center, center for emotional response, body temperature regulation, Regulation of food intake, water balance and thirst, sleep-wake cycles and control of endocrine system functioning Diencephalon central core of the forebrain and surrounded by the cerebral hemispheres 38
  37. 37. • Thalamus - specializes in sense reception • Epithalamus – the most dorsal portion of the diencephalon and forms the roof of the third ventricle Extending from its posterior border and visible externally is the pineal gland. – The pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin (a sleep- inducing signal and antioxidant; and, along with hypothalamic nuclei, helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle. 39
  38. 38. Simplified Function of the Brain… •Back of brain: perception •Top of brain: movement •Front of brain: thinking
  39. 39. Spinal cord http://www.apparelyzed.com/spinalcord.html • The spinal cord is the part of the nervous system that connects the brain to the rest of the nervous system. • The spinal cord sends messages to the brain.
  40. 40. • Responsible for providing sensory (afferent) information to the central nervous system • Carries motor (efferent) commands out to the body’s tissues • Includes all neural tissue outside of the central nervous system −Somatic nervous system −Autonomic nervous system B. Peripheral nervous system 42
  41. 41. The peripheral nervous system is composed of the nerves and the sense organs. Ear Eye Skin Nerves Tongue 43
  42. 42. Receptors and Sense Organs • Aristotle classified five senses, continued to be regarded as the classical senses, although scientists have determined the existence of as many as 15 additional senses 44
  43. 43. Cranial Nerves 46 Oh, Oh, Oh, To Touch And Feel Virgin Girl's Vagina Ahhhh Heaven
  44. 44. Spinal Nerves 47
  45. 45. Somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles. - consists of efferent nerves responsible for stimulating muscle contraction, including all the non- sensory neurons connected with skeletal muscles and skin.
  46. 46. AutonomicNervousSystem 49
  47. 47. Parasympathetic Division - Peaceful, Housekeeping Division - in control most of the time - “rest and digest” or “feed and breed” system - activities that occurs when the body is at rest, especially after eating, including sexual arousal, salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion and defecation - it functions with actions that do not require immediate reaction Sympathetic Division - Stressful, Action Division - usually speeds up actions like heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate - “fight or flight” system - the sympathetic division typically functions in actions requiring quick responses - preparing the body for intense, energy-consuming activities, such as fighting, fleeing, or competing in a strenuous game
  48. 48. • An automatic reaction without thinking happens quickly in less than a second. Reflex arc (Withdrawal) 51
  49. 49. The Endocrine System
  50. 50. Endocrine System • “internal” glands of secretion that release a hormone into the bloodstream, right within the gland itself • influences the metabolic activity by means of hormones (Gk. Hormon = to excite), which are chemical messengers released into the blood to be transported throughout the body • is instrumental in regulating metabolism, growth and development, reproduction and complex behaviors including parts of our mood, courtship and migration. • is the slow message system of your body
  51. 51. Activity of a Hormone-Secreting Cell
  52. 52. ENDOCRINOLOGY ENDOCRINE GLANDS Functions: -Regulation of metabolism & nutrient supply - reproduction and sexual differentiation - development and growth - maintenance of the internal environment HORMONES -Lacks the ducts - discrete organs for production and secretion of chemical substances
  53. 53. Chemically, the hormones are of 3 types 57 •Derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine  e.g. Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3), Epinephrine and Norepinephrine •Proteins or peptides  e.g. Oxytocin, Luteinizing hormone (LH), Prolactin, Growth hormone (GH), Insulin, Glucagon •Steroid hormones  are synthesized from cholesterol e.g. Estrogen Progesterone, Androgens, Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids
  54. 54. Hypothalamus makes hormones that control the pituitary gland. In addition, it makes hormones that are stored in the pituitary gland. Pineal gland releases melatonin, which is involved in rhythmic activities, such as daily sleep-wake cycles. Thyroid produces thyroxine, which regulates metabolism. Adrenal glands release epinephrine and norepinephrine that help body deal with stress. Pituitary gland produces hormones that regulate many of the other endocrine glands. Parathyroid glands These four glands release parathyroid hormone, which regulate the level of calcium in the blood. Thymus releases thymosin during childhood that stimulates T cell devt Testis produce testosterone responsible for sperm production and the development of male secondary sex characteristics Ovary produces estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is necessary for development of secondary sex characteristics and eggs. Progesterone prepares the uterus for a fertilized egg. Pancreas The pancreas produces insulin and glucagon, which regulate the level of glucose in the blood. 58
  55. 55. Hypothalamus • The main control center of the endocrine system • makes hormones that control the pituitary gland. • In addition, it makes hormones that are stored in the pituitary gland
  56. 56. Pituitary Gland • pea-sized gland consisting of two distinct parts: a posterior lobe and an anterior lobe, both situated in a pocket of skull bone just under the hypothalamus • produces hormones that regulate many of the other endocrine glands
  57. 57. Pineal Gland • a pea-sized mass of tissue near the center of the brain • releases melatonin, which is involved in rhythmic activities, such as daily sleep- wake cycles
  58. 58. Thyroid Gland • located in the neck just under your larynx (voice box) • produces thyroxine, which regulates metabolism.
  59. 59. Thymus • lies under the breastbone in humans • releases thymosin during childhood that stimulates T cell devt
  60. 60. Parathyroid Gland • These four glands release parathyroid hormone, which regulate the level of calcium in the blood
  61. 61. Adrenal Gland • one sitting on top of each kidney • release epinephrine and norepinephrine that help body deal with stress.
  62. 62. Pancreas • The pancreas produces insulin and glucagon, which regulate the level of glucose in the blood
  63. 63. Testes • produce testosterone responsible for sperm production and the development of male secondary sex characteristics
  64. 64. Ovaries • produces estrogen and progesterone. • Estrogen is necessary for development of secondary sex characteristics and eggs. • Progesterone prepares the uterus for a fertilized egg.
  65. 65. Concept Map 69
  66. 66. Hypothalamus and Pituitary gland • Hypothalamus – in vertebrates, this is part of the brain and helps regulate the internal environment of the body; for example in the control of heart rate, body temperature and water balance. This also controls the glandular secretions of the pituitary gland • Pituitary gland- this is a small gland that lies just inferior to the hypothalamus; this consist of the anterior and posterior pituitary both produce hormones. It is also called the “master gland” because many of its hormones regulate the other endocrine function
  67. 67. Actions of Insulin and Glucagon 71 Liver converts glucose to glycogen
  68. 68. The Menstrual Cycle 72
  69. 69. Principal Endocrine Glands & Hormones in the body Endocrine gland Hormones released Target Tissues/Organs Function(s) of Hormone Hypotha- lamus Hypothalamic- realeasing and releasing inhibiting Anterior pituitary Regulate anterior pituitary hormones Posterior pituitary Antidiuretic (ADH) Oxytoxin Kidney Uterus, mammary gland Stimulates water reabsoprtion by kidneys Stimulates uterine muscle contraction, release of milk by mammary glands Anterior pituitary Thyroid-stimulating (TSH) Adrenocortico-trophic (ACTH) Gonadotrophic (follicle stimulating,FSH) Thyroid Adrenal Cortex Gonads Stimulates thyroid hormone Synthesis adrenal cortex Egg and sperm production and sex hormones
  70. 70. Anterior pituitary Luteinizing hormone (LH) Gonads Egg and sperm production and sex hormones Prolactin (PRL) Mammary glands Milk production Growth (GH) Soft tissues, bones Cell division, protein synthesis and bone growth Melanocyte stimulating (MSH) Melanocytes in skin Unknown function in humans Regulates skin color in lower vertebrate Thyroid Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), Calcitonin All tissues Bones,kidneys, intestine Increase Lowers blood calcium level Thymus Thymosin Stimulates T cell development Endocrine gland Hormones released Target Tissues/Organs Function(s) of Hormone
  71. 71. Para- thyroid Parathyroid (PTH) Bones, kidneys, intestine Raises calcium in blood Adrenal cortex Glucocorticoids (cortisol) All tissues Raise blood glucose level; stimulate breakdown of protein Mineralcorticoids (cortisol) All tissues Reabsorb sodium and excrete potassium Sex hormones Gonads, skins, muscles, bones Stimulate reproductive organs Adrenal medulla Epinephrine and nonepinephrine Cardiac and other muscles Emergency situations; raise blood glucose level Endocrine gland Hormones released Target Tissues/Organs Function(s) of Hormone
  72. 72. Pancreas Insulin Liver, muscles, adipose tissues Lowers blood glucose level; promotes formation of glycogen Glucagon Liver, muscles, adipose tissues Raises blood glucose level Testes Androgens (testosterone) Gonads, skins, muscles, bones Stimulates secondary male sex characteristics Ovaries Estrogens and progesterone Gonads, skins, muscles, bones Stimulates female sex characteristics Pineal gland Melatonin Brain Circadian and circannal rhythms; possibly involved in maturation of sex organs Endocrine gland Hormones released Target Tissues/ Organs Function(s) of Hormone
  73. 73. Endocrine Diseases and Disorders Disease Effects of deficiency/excess Diabetes mellitus (Type I) is characterized by destruction of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans and a complete lack of insulin. Diabetes mellitus (Type II) insulin is produced but cannot exert its effects because of a deficiency of insulin receptors on cell membranes Diabetes insipidus Deficiency of vasopressin, one of the antidiuretic hormones (ADH) thus, abnormal increase in urine output Hyperthyroidism Underactive thyroid gland, cause myxedema and cretinism, known as congenital hypothyrodism. Characterized by enlargement of the thyroid gland, most often called thyroid goiter Grave’s disease an autoimmune disease in which specific antibodies are produced , producing an excessive amount of thyroid hormones
  74. 74. Endocrine Diseases and Disorders Hypocalcaemia when the blood levels of calcium are low Hypoparathyroidism insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormones which leads to increased nerve excitability Addison’s disease Decreased function of the adrenal cortex result to weakness, fatigue, abdominal pains, nausea, dehydration, fever and hyperpigmentation (tanning withought sun exposure) are among the symptoms Cushing’s Syndrome Excessive secretion of glucocorticoids; corticosteroid produced by the adrenal glands Hypoglycemia the clinical syndrome that results from low blood sugar Acromegaly and gigantism Both are caused by a pituitary tumor that stimulates production of excessive growth hormone, causing abnormal growth in particular parts of the body Pituitary dwarfism Growth hormone deficiency in children results in slowed long bone growth
  75. 75. Hyperthyroidism Grave’s disease Gigantism Pituitary dwarfism

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