Soon after Roosevelt took office, some 150,000 Pennsylvania coal miners went on strike for higher wages, shorter hours, and recognition of their union. As winter neared, Roosevelt feared what might happen if the strike was not resolved, since Eastern cities depended upon Pennsylvania coal for heating. Roosevelt urged mine owners and the striking workers to accept arbitration, and though the workers accepted, the owners refused. Winter drew closer, and Roosevelt threatened to take over the mines if the owners didn’t agree to arbitration, marking the first time the federal government had intervened in a strike to protect the interests of the public. After a three-month investigation, the arbitrators decided to give the workers a shorter workday and higher pay but did not require the mining companies to recognize the union. Satisfied, Roosevelt pronounced the compromise a “square deal.”
Roosevelt believed big business was essential to the nation’s growth but also believed companies should behave responsibly. In 1901, when three tycoons joined their railroad companies together to eliminate competition, their company, the Northern Securities Company, dominated rail shipping from Chicago to the Northwest. The following year, Roosevelt directed the U.S. attorney general to sue the company for violating the Sherman Antitrust Act, and the Court ruled that the monopoly did, in fact, violate the act and must be dissolved.
Roosevelt ordered Secretary of Agriculture James Wilson to investigate packing house conditions, and his report of gruesome practices shocked Congress into action.
In the late 1800s natural resources were used at an alarming rate, and foresting, plowing, polluting, and overgrazing were common.
William Howard Taft was born in Cincinnati, Ohio on September 15, 1857. William Howard Taft was his predecessors most trusted advisor. Whenever a situation became too difficult for lesser men to handle, it was Taft who was sent to "sit on the lid." William Taft’s Vice President was James S. Sherman from 1909-1912. From 1912-1913 he did not have a Vice President. "Big Bill" was over 300 pounds and 6’2". Needing a big bathtub, he had a 7’ long 41" wide tub installed that could accommodate 4 normal-sized men. President Taft was the only ex-president to be a judge on the Supreme Court The heaviest president at 332 pounds, Taft struggled all his adult life with a weight problem. He got stuck in the White House bathtub and had to have an oversized version brought in for his use. William Howard Taft was the first president to own a car at the White House (he had the White House stables converted into a 4-car garage), to throw out the first ball to begin the professional baseball season, and the first president to be buried in the National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia. Arizona became a state on February 14, 1912. Making Taft the first President of 48 states. Taft liked milk so much that he brought his own cow to the White House. The cows name was Mooly Wolly. Mooly was replaced by another cow called Paulin. Paulin was the last cow to graze on the White House lawn. Taft had no military experience and there were no wars fought during his term. During his administration, the U.S. parcel post system began, and Congress approved the 16th Amendment, providing for the levying of an income tax.
Richard Ballinger- Remove several million acres of forest and mining from reserved list
Quiz Ch 17 S11. Journalists who expose corruption M2. Allows voters to remove elected official R3. Added to the Constitution that gave women the right tovote4. Settlement house H H5. Allows citizens to vote on an existing laws R6. Term for right to vote S7. Banning of sale and make of alcohol P8. Allows citizens to propose new laws I9. Added to the Constitution that gave voters power toelect senators10. Helped legislative prohibit child labor F K
• President William McKinleywas shot and killed in 1901,• Roosevelt’s rise to governor of NewYork upset the Republican politicalmachine.• To get rid of the progressiveRoosevelt, party bosses got himelected as vice president, a positionwith little power at that time.
Theodore Roosevelt• 26thPresident• At 42 years old he wasthe youngest presidentand an avid reformer.• Roosevelt saw the presidency as abully pulpit, or a platform topublicize important issues and seeksupport for his policies on reform.
Roosevelt’s Upbringing• Theodore Roosevelt was a sickly, shy youth whom doctors forbade to playsports or do strenuous activities.• In his teenage years, Roosevelt reinvented himself, taking up sports andbecoming vigorous, outgoing, and optimistic.• Roosevelt came from a prominent New York family and attended HarvardUniversity, but he grew to love the outdoors.• He spent time in northern Maine and in the rugged Badlands of NorthDakota, riding horses and hunting buffalo.• In 1884, when Roosevelt was 26, both his mother and his young wife diedunexpectedly.• Trying to forget his grief, he returned to his ranch in Dakota Territory, wherehe lived and worked with cowboys.• He returned to New York after two years and entered politics.
The Square Deal(Election 1904)• campaign sloganand theframework for hisentirepresidency.• Fair bargain
The Coal Strike of 1902• coal miners went on strikefor higher wages, shorterhours• cities depended coal forheating.• Roosevelt threatened totake over the mines• first time federalgovernment intervened toprotect interests of thepublic.• Owners give in.• Roosevelt pronouncedthe compromise a“square deal.”
Regulating the RailroadsThe Elkins Act• Prohibited railroadsfrom acceptingrebates (discountsfor large shippingrates)The Hepburn Act• set maximum railroadrates• ICC- regulaterailroads.
“Trust buster”– Roosevelt usedSherman AntitrustAct- made monopolyillegal• Order companies tobe broken up• “bust or break upother trusts”• Sued 44 companies,including StandardOilTrust- companythat has amonopoly
Meat Inspection Act• The novelist Upton Sinclairexposed unsanitaryconditions at meatpackingplants in his novel TheJungle.required federal government inspection of meat shipped acrossstate lines.
Food• Food producers used clever tricks topass off tainted foods:• Dairies churned fresh milk intospoiled butter.• Poultry sellers addedformaldehyde, which is used toembalm dead bodies, to oldeggs to hide their smell.Drugs• Some sold medicines that didn’twork.• Some marketed nonprescriptionmedicines containing narcotics.• Dr. James’ Soothing Syrup,intended to soothe babies’teething pain, containedheroin.• Gowan’s Pneumonia Curecontained the addictivepainkiller morphine.outlawed food and drugs containing harmful ingredients,and required that containers carry ingredient labels.Pure Food and Drug Act
Forest Homestead Act• natural resources were limited andthat government should regulateresources• created irrigation projects to make drylands productive.• Set aside 148 millionacres of forest reserves• 1.5 million acres forwater power sites• 80 million acres forminerals and waterresources• 50 wildlife sanctuariesand national parks.Conservation- wildernessarea to be preserve
The Main IdeaProgressive reforms continued during the Taft and Wilson presidencies,focusing on business, banking, and women’s suffrage.Reading Focus• How did Taft’s approach to progressivism split the Republican Party?• What was Wilson’s New Freedom reform plan?• How did women gain the right to vote in national elections?• How did progressivism affect African Americans?Taft and Wilson
Quiz Ch 17 S31. Who was the 26thpresident2. Prohibit railroads from giving rebates E A3. Policy pass to make companies properly label productPFDA4. journalist who exposed unsanitary condition on meatcompanies U S5. Policy that set aside national parks to conserve andpreserve F H A6. 26thpresident’s campaign of “fair bargain” S D7. 25thpresident8. Set maximum railroad rate H A9. Nickname of 26thpresident for breaking companiesapart10. policy to regulate railroads
Election 1908• Theodore decidednot to run for the 3rdtime.
William Howard Taft• 27thPresidentReceived little creditfor hisaccomplishment– Roosevelt busted44 trust in 71/2 year– Taft busted 90 in 4years
Conservation Controversyset aside more national parkthan Roosevelt– 1910 Sec of Interior-Richard Ballinger• Sold to businessesmillions of rich coal land– to bankers including JP Morgan(symbol of money)– Gifford Pinchot- chiefof Forest Service• Accused Ballinger trying toenrich corporations• Taft fired Pinchot for theattack on hisadministration