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  1. 1. The Progressive Era<br />1890s-1920s<br />
  2. 2. 7.01: Explain the conditions that led to the rise of Progressivism. <br />7.02: Analyze how different groups of Americans made economic and political gains in the Progressive Period. <br />7.03: Evaluate the effects of racial segregation on different regions and segments of the Unites States' society.<br />7.04: Examine the impact of technological changes on economic, social, and cultural life in the United States.<br />
  3. 3. What you will learn:<br /><ul><li>Who were Progressives?
  4. 4. What were their goals?
  5. 5. Who were some famous Progressives? What causes did they advance?
  6. 6. Who benefited from progressivism? Who saw it as a threat?</li></li></ul><li>Who were Progressives?<br />Populists: farmers/workers, in South and West, lower/working class<br />Progressives: middle class, educated, urban, women, old Social Gospel<br />Progressivism = Populism that had “shaved its whiskers, washed its shirt, put on a derby, and moved up into the middle class.” <br />
  7. 7. Progressives were:<br />Women: the “cult of domesticity” is challenged by middle class, educated women; new role for women in the public sphere.<br />
  8. 8. Progressives were Muckrakers:<br /><ul><li>Ida M. Tarbell, The History of the Standard Oil Company (1904)
  9. 9. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle(1906)</li></li></ul><li>What did Progressives believe?<br />Government should be more active to cure social problems.<br />
  10. 10. Three Basic Goalsof the Progressives<br />Restore control of gov’t to the people<br />Correct the injustices of industrialization<br />Restore greater economic opportunity to all Americans (spread the wealth)<br />
  11. 11. Four Basic Types of Progressive Reform:<br />Social (keyword: “Democracy”)<br />Economic (“Monopoly”)<br />Moral (“Purity”)<br />Structural/Political (“Efficiency”)<br />
  12. 12. Social Progressivism: <br /><ul><li>Urban problems (JacobRiis, How the OtherHalf Lives, 1890)
  13. 13. Social Gospel
  14. 14. Settlement House(Jane Addams, HullHouse, Chicago)
  15. 15. Salvation Army(Galveston Hurricane, 1900; San FranciscoEarthquake, 1906)</li></li></ul><li>Economic Progressivism: <br />Panic of 1893: some people questioned capitalist, some “radicals” embraced Socialism (Eugene V. Debs)<br />+<br />Big Business: History of the Standard Oil Co. Ida Tarbell<br />=<br />Anti-trust movement (various legislation during T. Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilsonadmins.)<br />
  16. 16. Moral Progressivism: <br /><ul><li>“Americanization” of Immigrants and Kindergarten for immigrant children
  17. 17. Prohibition (Women’s Christian Temperance Movement)
  18. 18. Expand women’s role in public
  19. 19. Women’s suffrage</li></li></ul><li>Susan B. Anthony<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22. 1920: The Nineteenth Amendment<br />
  23. 23. Structural/Political Progressivism: <br />Scientific Management: applying science to make the workplace more efficient; tasks become easier, workers become more productive, production increases<br />Fredrick W. Taylor, Principals of Sci. Management, 1911<br />Ford Motor Co.: Assembly line, 8 hr work day, $5/day <br />
  24. 24. Structural/Political Progressivism: <br />Fighting city corruption:eliminate Gilded Age political bosses, kickbacks, voting corruption (ex.: “Boss” Tweed)<br />City manager/commissioner > city councils, (experts over political favors)<br />Hazen Pingree(Detroit, MI) & Tom Johnson (Cleveland, OH)= Progressive mayors “gas and water socialism” (public ownership of utilities) <br />
  25. 25. Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities (1904)<br />
  26. 26. Structural/Political Progressivism: <br />Fighting State Corruption: regulate railroads, mines, mills, business<br />Gov. Robert La Follette, WI: RR regulation, direct candidate primary system, limited campaign expenditures and lobbying activities, end child/’;lk labor <br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Structural/Political Progressivism: <br />Ending Child Labor: Keating-Owen Act (1916) prohibited transportation of goods made by children across state lines; declared unconstitutional in 1920 but most states regulate child labor and dramatic national drop by 1920<br />Shorter working hours:Muller v. Oregon (1908, women, 10 hr); Bunting v. Oregon (1917, men, 10 hr); worker’s comp/benefits <br /> <br />
  29. 29. Structural/Political Progressivism: <br />Louis Brandeis (Supreme<br />Court 1916-1939, “A Robin<br />Hood of the Law”<br />worker’s comp/benefits <br /> <br />
  30. 30. Structural/Political Progressivism: <br />Elections <br />Secret (Australian) Ballot<br />Initiative/Referendum: citizens vote on laws<br />Recall: fire public officials <br />
  31. 31. Goals in Summary:<br />End "white slavery“<br />Prohibition<br />Immigration restriction <br />“Americanization” of immigrants<br />Anti-trust legislation <br />Rate regulation of private utilities <br /><ul><li>Government ownership of utilities
  32. 32. Women's suffrage
  33. 33. End child labor
  34. 34. Destruction of urban political machines
  35. 35. “Taylorism”
  36. 36. Political reform</li></li></ul><li>What did you learn?<br /><ul><li>Who were Progressives?
  37. 37. What were their goals?
  38. 38. Who were some famous Progressives? What causes did they advance?
  39. 39. Who benefited from progressivism? Who saw it as a threat?</li>