Ventilation in Humans <ul><li>to understand the mechanism of ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>to understand vital capacity an...
Ventilation <ul><li>Ventilation  is the process of breathing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiration  or inhalation – air moves...
The mechanism of ventilation Your lungs contain elastic tissue – they have no muscle.  So how are you able to breathe in a...
The intercostal muscles
The mechanism of Inspiration (inhalation) <ul><li>Describe the mechanisms involved in inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Contra...
The role of pleural membranes <ul><li>Around each lung and lining  </li></ul><ul><li>the thorax are the pleural  </li></ul...
The mechanism of Expiration (exhalation) <ul><li>Describe the mechanisms involved in expiration </li></ul><ul><li>The diap...
Question <ul><li>In the lungs oxygen passes from the alveoli to the blood. Describe and explain the features that make thi...
Lung capacities <ul><li>The total capacity of the human lungs is about 5dm 3  - ranging from 3.5dm 3  to 6.0dm 3  - depend...
What is a spirometer? <ul><li>A  spirometer   is used to measure and record volumes of inspired and expired air. The graph...
The different types of lung capacities <ul><li>the maximum volume of air that can be exchanged between maximum inspiration...
Measuring your tidal volume and vital capacity (TV = the amount of air that is inhaled and exhaled in a normal breath)   (...
Describe what this spirogram shows…
Work out the missing… a b c d f e
Which factors affect lung volume? people living at low altitudes people living at high altitudes non-athletes professional...
Working out lung capacities Find spirograms from  different types of people
Effects of exercise on ventilation NAS p14
Questions <ul><li>2. During hyperventilation, breathing is very rapid with deep inhalations and exhalations. How would a g...
Simple respirometers <ul><li>Q16. NAS p114: </li></ul><ul><li>What is a simple respirometer? </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram – l...
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Lesson 5 Mechanisms Of Ventilation

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Lesson 5 Mechanisms Of Ventilation

  1. 1. Ventilation in Humans <ul><li>to understand the mechanism of ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>to understand vital capacity and tidal volume </li></ul>Aims
  2. 2. Ventilation <ul><li>Ventilation is the process of breathing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiration or inhalation – air moves into the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expiration or exhalation – air forced out of the lungs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The movement of air in and out of the lung is a result of differences in pressure, which is brought about by the changes in the volume of the thorax. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if air is to enter the lungs the pressure inside them must be lower that the atmospheric pressure. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The mechanism of ventilation Your lungs contain elastic tissue – they have no muscle. So how are you able to breathe in an out?
  4. 4. The intercostal muscles
  5. 5. The mechanism of Inspiration (inhalation) <ul><li>Describe the mechanisms involved in inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Contraction of the external intercostal muscles moves the rib cage upwards and outwards. The diameter of the thorax increases. </li></ul><ul><li>The diaphragm (a sheet of muscle) flattens when it contracts. So increases the length of the thorax cavity. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, the volume of the thorax increases which results in pressure in the lungs decreasing below atmospheric pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the atmospheric pressure is greater, air rushes in to inflate the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>The alveoli elastic tissue is stretched. </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch receptors on the outside surface of the lungs prevent their over inflation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The role of pleural membranes <ul><li>Around each lung and lining </li></ul><ul><li>the thorax are the pleural </li></ul><ul><li>membranes. Between them </li></ul><ul><li>there is a cavity containing </li></ul><ul><li>pleural fluid. These are very </li></ul><ul><li>important to the mechanisms of </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiration. </li></ul><ul><li>They link the outer wall of the lungs to the inner wall of the thorax – so any expansion of the thorax results in expansion of the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>The pleural fluid lubricates and prevents friction movements between the lungs and inner walls thorax walls. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The mechanism of Expiration (exhalation) <ul><li>Describe the mechanisms involved in expiration </li></ul><ul><li>The diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax. The internal intercostal muscles contract. So the rib cage moves downwards and inwards. The diameter and length of the thorax decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, the volume of the thorax decreases which results in an increase in pressure in the lungs compared to atmospheric pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Air leaves the lungs – which deflate. </li></ul><ul><li>The elastic fibres between the alveoli recoil and the alveoli return to their natural shape. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Question <ul><li>In the lungs oxygen passes from the alveoli to the blood. Describe and explain the features that make this process rapid and efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>The graph shows the pressure changes in the lungs during the period of one breath (inspiration and expiration) in a person at rest. Use your knowledge of breathing to explain the changes in pressure during inspiration and expiration. The letters on the graph are there to help you to refer to different parts of the curve </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lung capacities <ul><li>The total capacity of the human lungs is about 5dm 3 - ranging from 3.5dm 3 to 6.0dm 3 - depending on the age and level of fitness of the individual. </li></ul>What do you think this graph shows?
  10. 10. What is a spirometer? <ul><li>A spirometer is used to measure and record volumes of inspired and expired air. The graph produced is called a spirogram . </li></ul>
  11. 11. The different types of lung capacities <ul><li>the maximum volume of air that can be exchanged between maximum inspiration and maximum expiration </li></ul><ul><li>it’s the sum of IRV + TV + ERV </li></ul><ul><li>is related to body size and on average is 2.6dm 3 for males and 2.1dm 3 for females. </li></ul><ul><li>its higher in swimmers and divers </li></ul><ul><li>Its lower in older people and people who have lung disease such as emphysema </li></ul>Vital capacity (VC) <ul><li>volume of air that cannot be removed and remains in the lungs at the end of a maximum expiration </li></ul><ul><li>this air keeps the alveoli partly inflated and enables gas exchange to continue between breaths </li></ul>Residual volume (RV) <ul><li>volume breathed in by a maximum inspiration at the end of a normal inspiration </li></ul>Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) <ul><li>volume breathed out by a maximum effort at the end of a normal expiration </li></ul>Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) <ul><li>On average 0.5dm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>The volume of air inhaled or exhaled at each breath at rest. </li></ul>Tidal volume (TV) description Type of lung capacity
  12. 12. Measuring your tidal volume and vital capacity (TV = the amount of air that is inhaled and exhaled in a normal breath) (VC= the maximum volume of air which can be expired following maximal inspiration) <ul><li>For measuring tidal volume : Exhale into the tube, forcing air into the beaker and displacing a volume of water equal to the volume of air exhaled. </li></ul><ul><li>For measuring vital capacity : Exhale into the tube - this should be a normal exhalation followed by forcing as much air as possible from the lungs.      . </li></ul>Estimated VC: Males: 2.6dm 3 Females: 2.1dm 3 Female 2 Female 1 Male 2 Male 1 VC (dm 3 ) TV (dm 3 ) Student
  13. 13. Describe what this spirogram shows…
  14. 14. Work out the missing… a b c d f e
  15. 15. Which factors affect lung volume? people living at low altitudes people living at high altitudes non-athletes professional athletes heavy smokers Non - smokers shorter people tall people females males Smaller volumes Larger volumes
  16. 16. Working out lung capacities Find spirograms from different types of people
  17. 17. Effects of exercise on ventilation NAS p14
  18. 18. Questions <ul><li>2. During hyperventilation, breathing is very rapid with deep inhalations and exhalations. How would a graph of hyperventilation compare to normal breathing? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Emphysema reduces the flexibility of alveolar walls in the lungs so that they are unable to recoil normally from expiration. This results in an increased residual volume. How would a spirogram of a person with emphysema compare to that of a healthy person, assuming the same total lung capacity? How would emphysema affect the vital capacity? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Simple respirometers <ul><li>Q16. NAS p114: </li></ul><ul><li>What is a simple respirometer? </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram – labelled and explained </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of it? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul>
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