Cooperation and art.The role of culture in development cooperation by cornelia dümcke
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How can development and innovation work with arts. The slides come from Dr. Cornelia Dümcke. Berlin

How can development and innovation work with arts. The slides come from Dr. Cornelia Dümcke. Berlin

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    Cooperation and art.The role of culture in development cooperation by cornelia dümcke Cooperation and art.The role of culture in development cooperation by cornelia dümcke Presentation Transcript

    • The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Goethe-Institut Alumniportal 4 December 2012, 17:00 – 18:00 (MEZ) Webinar Presentation by Dr. Cornelia Dümcke Culture Concepts, Berlin, Germany Contact: info@cultureconcepts.de
    • The overarching theme: culture and development • Many ways to reflect the intersections between culture and development • Culture influences development processes. This idea is by no means new • Nevertheless, the role of culture in development cooperation is still a subject matter of a controversial debate See Bibliographie © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 2 INTRODUCTION – Why is this presentation a challenge for me?
    • In my work, three questions were of particular relevance • Why do we need culture and the arts and their respective actors in the context of development processes of today’s societies? • How do these issues concern regions where arts and culture are currently not a priority in terms of national policy making and public support? • And, how can we confirm and give an evidence base for arguments that the money spent on cultural projects is a legitimate and valuable investment, also in the development cooperation? © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 3 INTRODUCTION – Why is this presentation a challenge for me?
    • CONTENT 1 Clarifying the terms 2 Brief review of policy declarations 3 ‘Mapping’ the field 4 What culture and creative industries can provide 5 Funding and resources: Is money an issue? 6 Evaluation and measurement: A matter of concern? 7 Lessons learned: What might be ‘good practice’? 8 Outlook: What more do we need now? © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 4
    • The problem with defining and understanding ‘Culture’ and ‘Development’ and it’s intersections • ‚Culture’ and ‘Development’, these are words that can mean different things to different people and in different contexts • Even the term of ‘Progress’ in today’s societies is understood differently See Bibliographie © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 5 1. Clarifying the terms
    • Culture can be defined in many ways • In my presentation, the word is understood in the same meaning as used by the UNESCO: “The set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group. It encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs.” Source: UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001) • Art is the highest manifestation of culture. It encompasses a diverse range of human activities, creations, and modes of expression, including music, literature, film, sculpture, and paintings; and may include tangible and intangible manifestations © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 6 1. Clarifying the terms
    • Defining ‘development’ in today’s world is even more challenging • According to one view, development is a process of economic growth, a rapid and sustained expansion of production, productivity and income per head • According to the other, development is seen as a process that enhances the freedom of the people involved to pursue whatever they have reason to value. This view of human development (in contrast to narrowly economic development) is a culturally conditioned view of economic and social progress • I am in favour of the latter concept © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 7 1. Clarifying the terms
    • Culture and development cooperation are linked in a number of different ways • Interventions of development cooperation are an enormous field that can involve, for example, the global fight against poverty and hunger, economic development, environment, education, conflict resolution, institutional capacity building, governance, issues of gender and youth etc. • Culture is not an explicit priority in development cooperation • Later in my presentation, I will demonstrate how culture and development cooperation could be linked See Bibliographie © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 8 1. Clarifying the terms
    • Since the 1970’s, • the cultural dimensions of development have been under focus from several global players such as the UNESCO, United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the World Bank, the Commonwealth, the EU and others • In recent years, there was much renewed attention given to the theme of culture and development, or ‘the cultural dimension of development’ • See Bibliographie © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 9 2. Brief review of policy declarations
    • The UNESCO Convention (2005) is of particular relevance • The Convention contains the request for the integration of culture in development policies and development cooperation • In particular article 13 - Integration of culture in sustainable development – states: “Parties shall endeavour to integrate culture in their development policies at all levels for the creation of conditions conducive to sustainable development and, within this framework, foster aspects relating to the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions.” (UNESCO Convention 2005: 8) See Bibliographie © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 10 2. Brief review of policy declarations
    • Recent Policy Declarations • The previous ‘triangle model’ of development included the economic, the social inclusion and environment agendas • Today, there is a stronger basis for claiming that culture becomes the ‘fourth pillar’ of development • A recent recognition is of the key roles that the creative industries can play for creativity and innovation in terms of economic and social development processes See Bibliographie © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 11 2. Brief review of policy declarations
    • It remains to be seen to what extent political declarations and theory are translated into the practice of development cooperation • Against this background, actors of both the development and the cultural arena seem to share a (more or less) common understanding that the issue is not whether culture matters in developmental processes • The real issue, rather, is how culture matters © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 12 2. Brief review of policy declarations
    • What is the place of culture and creative industries in development cooperation? • The practice and definition of cultural activities varies according to the definition used and the institutional, economic and social, geographical and other context • See ‚Mapping‘ the field, page 14 There is a certain degree of simplification in the ‘Mapping’ which must be acknowledged. I emphasize that the entire range of all cultural activities possible can not be reduced to simple diagrams. But it reminds us of how broad the field is © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 13 3. ‚Mapping‘ the field
    • ‘Mapping’ the field of cultural activities and sectors © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 14 3. ‚Mapping‘ the field Cultural tourism Heritage tourism Cultural infrastructure Urban development Regional development etc. Cross-cutting sectors / themes Performing arts Music Literature Museums, Archives, Libraries Visual Arts etc. Film and Media Music industry Publishing Design Fashion Craft etc. Arts/ Culture Creative industries
    • A ‘Tool’ we have used in our work: HOW culture matters With reference to Could and Marsh (2004), the different levels are identified on which culture plays a role in development contexts © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 15 3. ‚Mapping‘ the field Being able to express is a fundamental part of self-determination, community engagement and the capacity to imagine a future. Development processes that encourage people to express themselves have far scope for being successful and sustaining. Poverty is more than lack of income: it includes the inability to lead a full creative life by being excluded from participating in decisions that affect you that in turn lead to a poverty of aspiration, motivation and will. EXPRESSION This focuses on the forms or medium of communication used in a development programme to achieve its aims. They include using radio, film, song, photography, writing as well as how they are disseminated, such as through exhibitions or participatory events. METHOD How local practices, traditions, languages or objects can be used for development (e.g. Theatre for HIV/Aids prevention). CONTENT The need to understand the social, political, cultural and economic environment within which a development is taking place. CONTEXT CULTURE matters as …
    • © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 16 3. ‚Mapping‘ the field Today, we can identify a rich field of intervention of culture and the creative industries in countries in transition which could be used in development cooperation See step 4 of this presentation • The scene is fragmented, and therefore it is not sure, to which extent development organisations are open or hesitant to include culture and creative industries in their policies and actions • Several programmes and projects of development agencies are not been reviewed under a ‘cultural lens’ • The challenge is to make such projects or programmes of development agencies for example in the heritage and tourism sector, recently also in the sector of the creative industries, more visible and transparent through a cultural ‘lens’
    • Intersections between culture and development cooperation • There are complex ethical, economic and political issues involved in identifying the ways in which culture and the arts may or may not influence development • Generally, situating both culture and the arts within a development context is not easy • Finding a common language is a major part of this difficulty © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 17 4. What culture and creative industries can provide
    • In my visits to a wide selection of projects, direct questions were put to partners to gain their responses on the topic • Most confirmed difficulties in properly analysing these aspects but felt that broadly, culture was a significant part of development • Some partners valued culture in a narrower sense - mostly as a means for and/or method within development • Others spoke of the economic benefits through the creation of employment or the income generation potential of the creative industries • Many grappled to express the more intangible and intrinsic values of culture and the arts, but nevertheless felt it was a crucial aspect that should not be overlooked © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 18 4. What culture and creative industries can provide
    • A ‘Tool’ we used – What culture can provide The tool is a means to clarifying links between the culture agendas on the one hand, and the development agenda on the other. © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 19 4. What culture and creative industries can provide DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION Over arching developmental objectives: Poverty Reduction, HIV/AIDS, Governance, Natural Resource Management etc. ART, CULTURE and CREATIVE INDUSTRIES How arts, culture and creative industries contribute to developmental objectives Main interconnected levels of interventions, benefits and impacts: Source: Dümcke, Cornelia / du Plessis, Nicolette 2010 - direct economic impacts of the creative industries - direct economic benefits and impacts (e.g. job creation, culture and art as content producer for the emerging cultural industry, part direct economic effects on tourism industry) - indirect economic benefits and impacts (endogenous effects for city and regional development, through city branding; cultural tourism, etc. ) - social cohesion, defined as a set of shared norms, and values for society which encompasses the diversity of different backgrounds ensuring similar positive life opportunities for all - incorporating economically, engendered or ethnically marginalised communities - local and regional regeneration - community based regeneration of cities, city quarters and regions - exposure and information dissemination - education opportunities - access to culture as a human right (Article 27 of the Bill of Human Rights) - enabling cultural actors as agents of change - culture and arts contribution to identity finding debates - artists and cultural practitioners as critical observers - dialogue and exchange Economic developmentSocial developmentHuman rights development & identity related issues
    • The following list demonstrates possible fields of collaboration in development cooperation See the Bibliographie with references to concrete projects • Education: This is a field rich in creative collaborations • Health: Arts programmes have demonstrably therapeutic and medical benefits • Environment: This is a rapidly growing sector that has engaged artists in awareness-raising campaigns on climate change, recycling, alternative energy sources etc. © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 20 4. What culture and creative industries can provide
    • The following list demonstrates possible fields of collaborations in development cooperation See the Bibliographie with references to concrete projects • Social cohesion/inclusion: Arts and culture offer new tools for professionals to work with vulnerable groups (e.g. children; young people; people with disabilities; elderly; women; ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities; and displaced/immigrants) • Social transformation and change: Projects seek a change in the society through interventions • Community development: Artists and culture professionals can have a vital role in the revitalisation of a community, increasing safety and security © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 21 4. What culture and creative industries can provide
    • The following list demonstrates possible fields of collaborations in development cooperation See the Bibliographie with references to concrete projects • Human rights, democracy and citizenship: These are sectors where artists can give voice to many issues • Conflict resolution: Artists can offer creative working methods and an effective means of dialogue. Arts and culture do not resolve conflicts but where there is a cultural centre, violence decreases • Creative industries: The role of the creative industries is of high relevance for economic development and job creation © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 22 4. What culture and creative industries can provide
    • Funding is a relevant factor when we discuss the role of culture in development cooperation • Government budgets are currently being cut in many countries • In countries where arts and culture are currently not a priority in terms of public support and national policy making, the art and culture sector is even more vulnerable • Artists are forced to constantly adjusting their applications to the shifting needs and agenda’s of funders © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 23 5. Funding and resources: Is money an issue?
    • Main funding/financing-related problems • Arts and culture have to compete with other sectors (education, creative industries) • Funding bodies value the role of arts and culture but do not want to pay for it • The changing priorities and paradigms of international donors • When artists work in other roles (e.g. as a social worker), the work should be funded from budgets other than those earmarked as arts/cultural © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 24 5. Funding and resources: Is money an issue?
    • How can development cooperation respond? • Opening of the programmes of development cooperation for the establishment of art and culture programmes and for the creative industries (‘best practice’ should be transferred) • Access of artists and creative practitioners to already existing ‘technical development’ programmes (e.g. poverty reduction, health, urban development, cross-cutting theme gender) • Establishment of new cooperation agreements • Establishment of new technical assistance programmes with a specific focus on culture and the creative industries © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 25 5. Funding and resources: Is money an issue?
    • A matter of concern? • Both is a matter of concern, in the cultural sector as well in the sector of development cooperation • We live in a world of measurement ”Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts.” Albert Einstein © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 26 6. Evaluation and measurement
    • Own findings (Evaluation and strategy development of Art and Culture Programmes of SDC in 3 world regions) • The artistic and cultural sector faces the challenge of proving its value in a way that can be understood by decision makers (which is not an easy task) • Each evaluation design occurs under specific cultural, economic and political settings (important to clarify the starting point: what kind of value should be measured and in which specific settings is it done) • As important as measurement is, the problem is how to develop convincing indicators. Conventional indicators are not working in ‘blurring’ settings © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 27 6. Evaluation and measurement
    • Other findings (see Bibliographie) • Impact assessment is difficult but necessary. Evidence-based evaluation is important for the cultural and creative sector • Lack of evaluations, measurements, indicators etc. is considered a fundamental problem • Due to the lack of indicators and measurements it is difficult to develop convincing arguments for funders • This situation highlights the need to produce new types of indicators, research methods and instruments • The cultural sector itself is not in favour of using indicators. Arts practitioners have a resistance to use parameters © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 28 6. Evaluation and measurement
    • What might be ‘good practice’ … between the actors in the sector of culture and creative industries and those of the development cooperation? © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 29 7. Lessons learned?
    • Learning from failures • Not knowing the local situation • Not involving the local partners • Instrumentalize arts and artists • Support of projects without an ‘exit strategy’ • To recognise: What happens when the protection provided under a donor country project ends? • To prevent: ‘We bring a solution to you’ • No clear objectives © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 30 7. Lessons learned?
    • Learning from ‘good practice’ • If possible, meet on equal footing • Identification of cultural and creative initiatives • Support of local initiatives before ‘bringing in’ own concepts • Capacity building • Participation • Giving a voice • Open, creative forums without a predefined approach • Facilitate structures without shaping content © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 31 7. Lessons learned?
    • Learning from ‘good practice’ • Create spaces in which cultural actors, scientists and ‘agents of change’ can freely develop their ideas; without the patrons, the governments and authorities exerting influence on the general direction in terms of content • Support various forms of cooperation: with local partners and partners among each other (also intraregional and transnational) the implementing organizations among each other: more coordination of individual projects more cooperation between international donors © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 32 7. Lessons learned?
    • What more do we need now? • Putting theory into praxis • In terms of future actions, my main message is that art and culture and the potential of the creative industries should have a more central role in the society © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 33 8. Outlook
    • Artists and cultural professionals are seismographs and actors of change • Art and culture not only entertain and inspire, but cultural projects and art productions can unfold their specific effects in a variety of spheres in society • For this, they need resources as well as intelligent and effective organizational and conceptual support © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 34 8. Outlook
    • © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 35 8. Outlook What should be done by cultural actors? • Building visibility and communication about the power and value of culture and creative industries • Generate more evidence and research on the role of culture in other areas (education, health, civic wellbeing, environment etc.) See Bibliographie • To learn to tell (and ‘translate’) their actions and stories in other languages and to different stakeholders (such as actors of development cooperation) • Stronger capacity-building within the cultural and creative sector
    • © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 36 8. Outlook What should be done by actors of development cooperation? • Better understand the role of culture in societal and economic transformation processes • Test new models and institutional frameworks to co-operate on specific projects (broader funding opportunities!) • Be open to support more evidence-based research for the cultural and creative sectors • Support for the creative industries is important, but there is also a need for ‘Seed Funds’ for independent artists and cultural actors • Moving the emphasis from the ‘result’ to the ‘process’ itself
    • Apply ‘culture’ as a ‘lens’ to all policy areas The most constructive use of the term of ‘culture’ is the concept that ‘culture’ is a ‘lens’ that should be applied to the development and evaluation of all policy fields, including the policy and practice of development cooperation © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 37 8. Outlook
    • Outlook In the words of Eduardo Galeano, writer and social activist from Uruguay: Utopia lies at the horizon. When I draw nearer by two steps, it retreats two steps. If I proceed ten steps forward, it swiftly slips ten steps ahead. No matter how far I go, I can never reach it. What, then, is the purpose of utopia? It is to cause us to advance. © Dr. Cornelia Dümcke | www.cultureconcepts.de | 04.12.2012 | The Role of Culture in Development Cooperation Seite 38