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CED 250 REVIEWER
Course Description: Historical, conceptual and philosophical foundations and principles of
Describe the concepts and the interdisciplinary and multifaceted nature of community
Explain the components of the CD process and their interrelationships
Find out how the components and principles of each component that can be applied in the CD
Explain the social, cultural, political, economic and environmental dimensions of CD and their
effects on the process
Appraise the various strategies of community development as to their strengths and
Definition of Community
People within a geographically bounded area involved in social interaction and with one or
more psychological ties with each other and with the place they live.
4 Components of Definition
Community involves people
Area or territory
People who live within a geographically defined area and who have social and psychological ties
with each other and with the place where they live (Mattessich and Monsey, 2004 as cited by Phillips
and Pittman, 2009). – the definition refer first to people and the ties that bind them and second is
Functions of Community
2. Socialization – process by which society transmits prevailing knowledge, social values, and
behavior patterns to its individual members.
3. Social Control –process through which a group influences the behavior of its members toward
conformity with its norm.
4. Mutual Support – ex. Exchange labor
Development – process of social change aimed not only at raising the level of the material welfare of
people but also maximally developing their human potentials.
Basic Fundamentals of Development
Human Being – cause and end of development
Values, knowledge, skills, spirituality, and resources + can be tapped in the development
Characteristics of Development
Undergoes stages, Not value free, Not free from politics, Not an isolated phenomenon, Implies
improvement and growth, Liberating, Integral, Pervasive, Situation – specific
Human Dignity is at the center of empowerment, participation, and justice
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Human dignity refers to the state of being, inherent worth of individual. Begins with a personal
concept of oneself and the sum of man’s potentials to be fully man
Empowerment is the sustained process in which people, through collective action and reflection,
come to better understand and be more self-reliant to become authors of their lives and destiny
in the pursuit of human development. The process of transferring socio-economic and political
power from one center to another, or the creation of new socio-economic power centers that
complement or compete with traditional centers.
Participation is the enlightened, responsible, active and sustained involvement of the community in
the development process, from problem identification to planning, implementation,
monitoring and evaluation, and benefit sharing.
Justice refers to the equitable access to and distribution of resources, services and benefits, as well as
the recognition of the right of people to their cultural heritage.
Characteristics of Development
Not value free
Not free from politics
Not an isolated phenomenon
Implies improvement, growth
Definition of Community Development
A process in which a community is strengthened in order to creatively help meet its own needs:
physical, spiritual, mental, psychological, social, economic and political (Palmer, 2004)
An applied social science concerned with the study and practice of people’s collective action in
ensuring the holistic and corporate well-being of the people (Luna, 1997).
Applied Social Science- CD is rooted on the basic social sciences in initiating social change for the
betterment of the people in the community. It employs the scientific processes in problem solving.
Study and Practice – CD is concerned with both enhancement of the theory and the improvement of
CD Praxis- reflection-action-reflection (RAR)
People’s Collective Action – basic element of CD is initiative and involvement of the community
people in the various phases of problem solving and R-A-R process
Holistic and Corporate Well-Being – CD is concerned with the socio-economic-political, cultural,
spiritual, and physical well-being of the people
History of CD
1930 CD introduced in the US with reference to community planning.
Drew experiences in adult education, community services, and social welfare
programs in the US and UK.
Influenced by American and European voluntary agency efforts and missionary
groups and philanthropic institutions in the developing countries.
1948 First used officially at the British’s Cambridge Conference on the Development of
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Was proposed to help the British African Territories prepared for independence by
developing their local government and economy.
CD was seen a process in which people organize and jointly solve problems,
relying mainly on local resources, with assistance, where necessary, from the
government and non-government organizations.
1950 CD efforts launched primarily in British territories in Africa
Prominence of CD in developing countries as a result of promotion and financial
support from the US.
1952 First major CD program was initiated in India with support from US Foreign
Economic Assistance Agency and Ford Foundation.
1953-1958 Establishment of CD program in Iran (1953), Philippines and Pakistan (1955),
Jordan (1956), Indonesia (1957), Korea (1958)
1960 Over 60 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America had CD programs.
CD was seen as a new field requiring training in community analysis, community
organization, community education, and social action.
CD was seen as a means to mobilize rural people to achieve socio-economic,
cultural, and political objectives, and as a response to the threat of international
communism during the cold war era.
1965 Most CD programs had been terminated
Reasons for decline of CD programs: disillusionment of many political leaders with
program performance, sharp reduction of support from US and other donors, and
shifting of resources to support the green revolution program.
Attributed to: the failure of the Trickle down theory of economic development to
address the barriers of equity and economic growth, benefit did not accrue to the
rural people, and poor majority did not respond to CD.
Beyond 1965 Many countries continued their CD programs and each country has her own story to
Community Development as an Art and Science
A person needs good people and community
skills with an eye and mind of wisdom that is
always looking to help the people themselves
discover their own way in development.
Tools of CD to do a good job within the
communities they work. Diagram venn, transect,
Goals and Objectives of Community Development (Yemshaw, 1994)
To generate socio-cultural, political, economic, ecological empowerment of the people,
participation of the people, and justice to the people.
Concepts of CD
CD as a Process
Moves by stages from one condition or state to the next
Involves a progression of things in terms of specified criteria
Expressed chiefly in social relation
One or two people or a small elite within or outside the local community make decisions -----
local community making decisions
Minimum cooperation ----- maximum cooperation
Low participation---high participation
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Resources and specialists come from outside----local people making use of their own
Emphasis is upon what happens to people socially and psychologically
CD as a Method
A means to an end; a way or working so that a goal is attained
A very useful approach to accomplish some important goals
Emphasis is upon some end, e.g. public health, improved agricultural productivity, social welfare, etc.
CD as a Program
Embodies a set of activities to be carried out by officials, specialists and local people in some time
sequence and at budgeted costs.
Composed of problems, objectives, and solutions, and sometimes a definite time frame.
Highly formalized programs tend to focus upon the program or activities and not on the people
involved in the program.
CD as a program comes into contact with subject-matter specialists such as health, welfare,
agriculture, industry, etc.
CD as a Movement
CD is a crusade/cause to which people become deeply committed
Not a neutral process but carries an emotional charge
Stresses and promotes the idea of community development as interpreted by its devotees
Has charismatic leaders who enunciate its ideology
CD as a System
CD as a unitary whole made up of components or subsystems such as people, technology, resources,
institutions, environment, etc. which are interrelated and interacting
Emphasis is on being holistic and integrative
CD as a Field of Study
CD as a locus of scientific research
As CD advances, empirical studies are needed
Results of such studies are valuable inputs to the development of CD
CD Methods/Fields of CD
Involves gathering all information and deeper investigation about community issues, people’s
awareness and responses, and what can be done to respond to the issues.
Also referred to as social investigation during community organizing, training needs analysis during
community training and education, and situational analysis in community planning.
Participatory versus Traditional Research – role of the researcher, role of the people, who determines
the research agenda, who uses the information, who is empowered?
Participatory Research: Principles – people’s participation and empowerment, people as subjects of
the research process, researchers and community people are both doers and learners in the research
Participatory Research: Methods – qualitative (secondary data review, direct observation/participant
observation, semi-structured interview, case studies, etc.) Quantitative (livelihood analysis, time trend,
Participatory Research: Process – identification of research problem, formulation of research design,
data gathering, data analysis, data presentation, and planning for community action.
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Phases: social preparation phase, community integration, consolidation and expansion, and phase out
Area-based organizing, sectoral organizing, alliance and coalition
Community value formation, skills development for collective action, and conscientization
Ensures that people become aware and critical of their situation such that they realize that they can
play a role in changing their situation to make it more just and responsive to their needs.
1.Preparatory Phase (TNA, formulation of training design, modules, training aids, formation of the
training team, preparation of logistics)
What can the community people do to respond to the identified problems, considering the available
time and resources?
Principles: responsiveness, participation, flexibility, feasibility, and coordination
Community Resource Management: environmental conservation and rehabilitation, social
enterprises, and community economic enterprises
Community Development Approaches
1. Community-Based Approach
A development program/project conducted at the stakeholder’s locality.
CD happens in the specific geographic boundaries of the community.
Programs and action plans and their administration are done ad intra.
Technically encompassing and comprehensive.
Envisions to create self-reliant communities with strengthened local capability and leadership.
Organizers may either be outsiders or community members.
2. Area-Based Approach
Covers a wider area (compared to community-based approach) which may include a district or a
Focused on common thrusts like forestry or agriculture.
Areas cover a wider geographic scope involving different individuals and communities.
Considers the vast area as one program area coverage for management effectiveness and efficiency.
Envisions transfer of the project upon completion to the municipality
Examples: Bicol River Basin Development, Laguna Lake Development Authority
Other Features: Office located in the site, funded by foreign donors, community organizing becomes
peripheral, with limited time or project duration, managed by a line agency, autonomous of local
leadership, taps local organizations as partners.
3. Welfare Approach
Addresses immediate community, individual, group or marginalized people’s needs
Works with vulnerable groups e.g urban poor, street children, differently-able, elderly, orphans, etc.
Programs are implemented for these sectors so that they can join mainstream development. Examples
of Programs: Rehabilitation of drug patients, home for the elderly, etc.
Requires professionally trained personnel
Institutions are established e.g. Home for the Aged, Boy’s Town, etc.
4. Spiritual-Psychosocial Approach
Carries a tinge of religiosity towards values transformation, personal development, and social
Underscores the tenets of faith, its theological and hermeneutical implications to social action.
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Envisions to transform and develop human individuals through conversion of the heart
Examples: Marriage encounter groups, Church renewal programs, Basic Eccesiastical Communities
5. Life-Cycle and Rights-Based Approach
Promotes the basic and primary rights of human individuals according to their life stages
A priori rights
Focused on Total Development of the Human Potential (TDHP)
TDHP program planned and implemented within specific age-chronology category e.g. early
childhood (0-6), children and youth (7-17) adult (18-60), elderly/senior citizens (61+)
Programmatic response implemented in each age category, as a promotion of individual rights toward
the development of human potential
Example: Early Child Care Development (ECCD) Program – a system that refers to the full range of
health, nutrition and early childhood education, and social services programs that provide for the
holistic needs of young children and mothers from birth to six years old, to promote their optimum
growth and development.
6. Armed Revolution Approach
Embraces a comprehensive system transformation through armed revolution
Justifies that armed revolution is the only way to overhaul the oppressive system that causes poverty
Proponents believe that the powerful and their state machineries will never entertain change or
development for the poor majority
Seeks to establish a socialist system
Advocated by Marxists
Seeks to eradicate poverty and eliminate the oppression against the poor
Armed resistance will fight against the elite which dominates the society
Philosophical Foundations of CD
Definitions of Philosophy
The knowledge of the ultimate causes of things. It gives an individual a critical look upon life’s real
values and upon human conduct.
A system of thoughts by which it is sought to understand the world view, the meaning and values.
A world view or doctrines of values, meanings and purposes of human life.
The Need for CD Philosophy
Provides for efficiency in CD work.
Guides us in the use of proper methods in CD work.
Links the CD philosophy with our personal outlook in life.
Nature of CD Philosophy
Aimed at the well-being of people.
As an inspiration to the people and the will to achieve the goals.
Linked with the ideals of democracy, liberty, justice, peace, brotherhood, and dignity of the
Statement of the basic ideas that expresses the ultimate causes of CD. It is the enunciation of
the nature, origin, aims and the distinctive principles and methods of CD.
Community Development Philosophy
Community development is about helping people to help themselves. It works by harnessing
individual potential and transforming it through education and strong partnerships into just and
sustainable solutions that build better futures for all.
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Generally, before people can start to look for sustainable solutions to their existing problems,
they need new skills. They need to be empowered. Education and capacity building are the most
effective tools for empowering people and the more that are involved in the learning process, the
more powerful the change for good will be.
The key finding seems to be that development tends to fail when it is based on a top-down
model and it seems more likely to succeed when based on a grass roots movement.
CD Philosophy (Surf-Aid International, 2005)
The development of people, and the fulfillment of their potentials.
CD is about helping people to help themselves. CD works by harnessing individual potential
and transforming it through education and strong partnerships into just and sustainable
solutions that build better future for all.
For development to be successful it has to be sustainable and community-led.
Communities have a right to participate in decisions that affect their living and working
Only community development that gives people decision-making power is sustainable.
Genuine participation requires community involvement in all phases of change (planning,
implementation, maintenance, and monitoring phases)
Participation must build on gender equality and include youth and the elderly.
Capacity development is essential to promote equal participation from women, men, and
Communities are prime stakeholders among development actors to identify problems, improve
and maintain their settlements.
Charity makes communities depended upon aid.
Theory – branch of science or art consisting of its explanatory statements, accepted principles, and
methods of analysis as opposed to practice. A set of statements or principles devised to
explain a group of facts or phenomena especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is
widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena.
Those who prefer action to theory is not bound by traditions or narrowly defined strategies based on
unproven or probably unprovable theories of human behavior or social organization. Believe
that theory cannot inform practice because it is generated at a distance.
Network of theoretical elements ranges beyond a few normative propositions.
Involves a wide variety of descriptive theories drawn from the social sciences and social
Theoretical base is the product of eclectic approach to theory building.
Eclectic Approach to Theory Building – CD borrows and will continue to borrow models and
theories from other sciences that seem helpful (sociology, psychology, ecology, anthropology,
Requires constant situational theory building due to: variety in communities, variations in
circumstances from place to place and time to time, rapid changes going on in the
environment, and varying CD objectives and conditions
Jumble of definitions and theoretical bits and pieces constantly being arranged, modified, and
CD theory revolves around and anchored on a core of coherent definitions and propositions
which is provisional and subject to change.
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Core Concepts of the CD Theory
Characteristics of CD
Focus on a unit called community
Conscious attempts to induce non-reversible structural change
Use of paid professionals/workers
Initiation by groups, agencies or institutions external to the community unit
Emphasize public participation
Participate for the purpose of self-help
Increase dependence on participatory democracy as the mode for community (public decision-
Use of holistic approach not sectoral
“Unless the element of self-help and the incremental opening of the decision-making systems
to participation are features of an approach to community improvement, it should not be
designated community development” (Cook, 1994).
Functions of Theory in CD
Objects of CD practice is improvement in operating communities
Normative in nature – deals with what ought to be or what is better
Theory is needed to provide a guide for behavior in very specific circumstances
Primary Functions of CD Theory – to provide norms or prescriptions for the practitioner’s
actions and a model of practical help to the communities
Theories are classified by function
But CD theories are organized based on the questions they attempt to answer
- To give power to another, to provide the means of exerting or asserting power as a behavior
practiced by individuals. Means giving or providing power to another (Kenneth Pigg, 2002).
- A multi-dimensional social process that helps people gain control over their own lives. It is a
process that fosters power in people, for use in their own lives, their communities, and in their
society, by acting on issues that they define as important (Page and Czuba, 1999).
- Expansion of assets and capabilities of poor people to participate in, negotiate with, influence,
control, and hold accountable institutions that affect their lives (World Bank, 2002).
1. Powerlessness – characterized by a lack of access to financial, political, legal, institutional or
media resources. Psychologically it is characterized by low energy and feelings of apathy,
dependency, hopelessness or helplessness.
2. Protesting – characterized by active critiques and confrontation or challenges of the status
quo. Psychologically, it involves high emotional energy, anger, frustration and hostility.
Shortages of power are typically blamed on the powerful group, and there is a notable lack of
empathy to power group. Because polarization is common, appropriate facilitation during this
phase involves use of techniques to encourage dialogue and problem solving and discourage
violence. Interventions may be needed to facilitate the movement of groups from protesting
what they do not want to examining what they do want.
3. Proposing – after a degree of awareness and protest, groups want to withdraw and look
inward-rethinking their own values and establishing their identity as different from the power
group. At a psychological level it involves introspection and assertion of the group’s
independence, often involves an attitude of superiority of one’s values or a (re) discovery and
celebration of cultural or group identity. Facilitating movement from protesting to proposing
involves asking the group for its vision of what it wants and for concrete proposals to solve
problems or implement that vision. Thus visioning, strategic planning, values clarification,
cultural and identity related activities are most effective at this stage. Facilitating movement
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towards renewed interaction and shared activities involves a process of reconciliation or
forgiveness. When individuals and groups have a strong sense of their own identity, they are
able to move to more equal power relationships.
4. Partnering – characterized by shared decision-making and shared access to resources.
Psychologically there is an awareness of the value of working together with the previous
power group, to accomplish mutual goals. It is a recognition of inter-dependence or perhaps
more descriptively, inter-dependence, in that the relationship is one of equals. Both parties are
free from and free to interact as appropriate in the situation. Appropriate activities or
interventions during this phase involves structures that support shared decision-making among
relatively equal partners.
Transformational Model of Empowerment (Barlett, 2004)
Empowerment involves a transformation: when people are empowered there is a
profound and lasting change in the way people live their lives.
Three elements of this transformation: means, process, and ends.
The means: enabling factors, including rights, resources, capabilities and
The process: making choices. The process involves a number of steps: analysis,
decision-making and action. And the process can be carried out by individuals or
The ends: people taking greater control of their lives.
All three elements of the transformation are needed for empowerment to take place. A
change of means, on its own, may produce certain benefits such as access to services;
but without process those benefits are a form of patronage rather than empowerment.
On the other hand, attempts to change process without the means being in place will
result in frustration and failure.
In many cases this transformation is cyclical, with a change in ends bringing about a
further change in the means of empowerment.
Social Capital – the aggregate of the actual or potential resources which are linked to
possession of a durable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance
or recognition (Bourdieu, 1980).
Social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them
Social capital reflects access to power, organization, connection to resources and power
brokers (Flora and Flora, 2008).
Categories of Social Capital
1. Based on whether social capital involves socio-economic institutions and networks or
relates to individual states of mind.
Structural Form (observable social structures such as networks, organizations and rules they
embody; also called institutional capital)
Cognitive Form (norms, values, attitudes, also called relational capital)
2. Based on the level of economic structure that social capital affect:
Macro level (national)
Meso level (regional and community)
Micro level (household or individual)
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3. Based on functions that social capital works inside one community or between several
organizations and/or individuals in different communities:
Bonding type (intra-community tie)
Bridging type (intercommunity horizontal tie)
Linking type (vertical connection)
Bracing type (vertical and horizontal connection within a limited actors)
Dimensions of Social Capital
Dimensions of Social Capital Description
Networks and Memberships Networks – size, internal diversity, and the extent of assistance in case
of trouble are measured as standards.
Membership – the numbers of groups and associations, the frequency of
joining group activities, the extent of involvement in groups, and the
membership diversity are well used.
Network and membership have positive effects on the well-being of
community dwellers and then community development.
Social trust Key factor for enhancing individual well-being as well as socio-
economic development at the community level.
Collective action and reciprocity Outcome of social capital.
Community Social Capital
Extent to which members of a community can work together effectively.
Includes the abilities to develop and sustain strong relationships; solve problems and make group
decisions; and collaborate effectively to identify goals and get work done.
Attribute of a community, not of any specific members.
The level depends upon the number and strength of ties and bonds that community members have with
Involves interconnections among people who reside in the same community.
Influence of Social Capital to Development
Influences community development in two ways: structural and cognitive.
Structurally, interconnections among people within a community create a web of social networks.
Cognitively, interconnections create a shared sense of purpose, increase commitment, promote mutual
trust, and strengthen norms of reciprocity among community residents.
Role of Social Capital in CD
By recognizing the existence of social capital, our understanding of the way communities operate and
how they function is enhanced and directs CD strategies towards interventions that will help (re) build
Social capital may be a useful concept for practitioners, researchers and policy makers in bringing the
missing social into economic and fiscal policy debates.
Purpose of Development Work – to collectively bring about social change and justice by working
with communities to: identify their needs, opportunities, rights, and responsibilities; plan, organize,
and take action; evaluate the effectiveness and impact of action (National Occupational Standards in
Community Development Work)
Community Development Work – seeks to engage communities actively in analyzing the issues
which affect their lives, and setting goals for improvement and taking action, by means of empowering
and participative process.
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CD vs. Rural Development (RD)
Item CD RD
Objective Aims to improve the overall well-being of
the people in the community holistically
Aims to improve the socio-economic,
political, cultural, psychological, and
ecological well-being of people in a
community with common interest.
Aims to enhance the ability and
capability of the rural poor to
better manage their resources
Aims to increase output and
productivity without attempting
to restructure existing pattern of
property and wealth.
Target Community as a whole, rural as well as
Majority of the poor people in
the rural areas
Process Continuous educational process Continuous educational and
Approach More bottom up, less top-down More top-down, less bottom-up
Political Interference Local government or communities
National and provincial
governments for the
implementation of the projects
Imposition No imposition, more on empowerment
More chances of imposition
rather than empowerment or
Change Agent Minimum role, if needed Maximum role, always with the
people during the initial project
CD vs Extension Education (EE)
ITEM CD EE
Goals/Objective Development of literacy,
managerial skills, governance,
political will, environment, etc.
Development of KASAP
Locus of Subject Multi-faceted/integrated needs Technology-based
Target/Focus Groups Individuals/families
Decision-Makers Groups Individuals/families
Change Agent Proficient in team building,
Subject matter specialists with
high level of SIR
Locus of Operation Rural and urban Rural and urban
Process Educational Educational
Structure May not have a program for
which people will be organized
Usually with a program
Community Organizing – process which builds/mobilizes people and other community resources
towards identifying and solving their own problems, establishing people’s awareness and capacities to
stage their own future, taking action collectively considering the bureaucratic structure and restrictive
Nature of Community Organizing: process by which a community identifies its problems and finds
solution to them through collective mobilization of community people and resources. The ultimate
goal/objective of community organizing is to effect changes in the social and environmental
institutions so that people can direct their own lives.
Benefits from Community Organizing: from a social welfare point of view, it can contribute
significantly to the efficiency and effectiveness of public programs by improving their acceptance,
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design and chances of long-term success. Second, it can increase both social equity and self-reliance of
Aims/Goals of Community Organizing: to achieve effective power for the people so they can
determine their own development and shape their own future. To establish and sustain relatively
permanent organizational structures which best serve the people’s needs. To build or join alliances that
is useful to the people.
Principles of Community Organizing
1. Community organizing involves consciousness-raising through experiential learning. (Central
to the community organizing process is the development of awareness and motivation among
the people to act upon their problems
2. Community organizing is participatory and mass-based.
3. Community organizing is based on democratic leadership. (group-centered, not leader-
Steps in Community Organizing
1. Entry into the community
2. Integration with the people
3. Social investigation
4. Problem identification and analysis
5. Planning and strategizing
6. Core group formation
7. Organization development and mobilization
8. Evaluation and reflection
9. Turn-over and phase-out
Community Development Worker (CDW)
A CDW is a community-based, resource person who collaborates with other community workers to
help fellow community members to obtain information and resources from service providers. The aim
is to assist the community to learn how to progressively meet their needs, achieve their goal, realize
their aspirations and maintain their well-being
Often act as a link between communities and local government and other statutory bodies. They are
frequently involved in addressing inequalities, and projects tend to target communities perceived to be
the work disadvantaged.
Participatory change agents working within communities from where they are selected, where they
live, and to whom they are answerable for their activities.
They are supported financially and functionally by a range of government spheres and departments.
Other Names for CDW
Change agent, change actor, initiator, facilitator, intermediary, consultant, and interventionist.
Tasks of Community Development Worker
Identify community issues, needs and problems
Develop new community-based programs and resources
Evaluate and monitor existing community programs
Enlist the cooperation of government bodies, community organizations and other private institutions.
Help raise public awareness on issues relevant to the community.
Provide leadership and coordination of programs.
Act as facilitator to promote self-help in the community.
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Prepare reports and policies
Network to build contacts and fundraising
General Characteristics of CDW
Technical capability, administrative capability, smooth interpersonal relationship (SIR), job
orientation, and leadership capability
4 Key Roles of CDW
Other Roles: Planner, catalyst, advocate, solution giver, process helper, resource linker, mediator and
negotiator, network builder, coordinator, educator, and leader.
Knowledge Requirements of CDW
Range of human needs, values and motives, change, KASP (knowledge, attitudes, skills, practices),
issues at hand (cultural, social, and health), community groups including excellent awareness of
language spoken by the community, informed and practical view of his role, community support and
Work Guidelines of CDW
Work with the poor and oppressed, not for them
Development is an awakening process
Let people grow
Build up the people’s solidarity
Build up the people’s organization
Commitment towards social justice and empowerment
Maintain confidentiality of information
Focus and service for the community
Openly acknowledge any potential conflict of interest
Use processes, methods, and tools responsibly
Strive to engender an environment of respect and safety where all participants trust that they can speak
freely and where individual boundaries are honored
Use of skills, knowledge, tools, and wisdom to elicit and honor the perspectives of all
Practice stewardship of process and impartiality toward content
Attitudes and Beliefs of CDW
Primary concern for the benefit of the ultimate user
Belief that change should provide the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Belief that people have needs and a right to understand why changes are being made and to participate
in choosing among alternative change and ends
Respect for existing institutions
Skills Requirement of CDW
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Conflict management, networking, resource generation, advocacy, leadership development,
negotiation, communication skills both verbally and in writing across various contexts and
organizations, ability to work with a range of people in different settings including professionals from
statutory and voluntary organizations and members of the public, ability to work independently and
organize own workload , ability to work across a range of organizations and stakeholders, ability to
help design, deliver, and evaluate community needs, flexible approach and ability to work
independently and on own initiative, ability to deal with complex issues facing vulnerable groups in
the community, and good organizational and interpersonal skills.
Issues, Problems, and Trends in Community Development
Issues – defined as the result of an event that has occurred and has a positive or negative impact on the
project and should be analyzed and dealt with via actions
Problem – an obstacle which makes it difficult to achieve a desired goal, objective or purpose; an
Issues in Community Development
Top-Down Approach CD programs being planned by the top management
Blueprint of CD programs
Induced community needs
Selection of Community
CDW as a generalist or a specialist
Diversity of CDW roles (catalyst, process helper, solution giver,
resource linker, etc.)
Complexity of the client system and the environment
Dual Loyalty of the CDW “Serving two masters at the same time.”
Work for the agency he represents?
Work with the people he serves?
Use of Model Program A successful program in one place is recommended nationwide.
Difficulty of Interagency
Different agencies work for CD with their own objectives
Duplication of programs
Confusion to the people
Politicizing CD Program With a change in political leadership, there is a change in the CD
CD programs being used to influence votes
Problems in Community Development
Limited Community Resources
Resource-poor communities, conflict in resource use (intra village, inter-village), role of CDW
as resource linker
High population growth rate, inadequate services and facilities, low/limited education, social
inequality, and clientele resistance towards change/development
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Weak leadership, vested interest, poor implementation of laws and policies, political
interferences, and lack of political will
Poverty, low productivity, low income, lack of capital, landlessness, and lack of facilities
Bureaucracy, graft and corruption, inadequate salary structure, lack of dedicated and
committed workers, wide geographical coverage of CDW, and institutional resistance
Fatalism, values and attitudes, and traditions
Natural calamities, deforestation, health and sanitation, pollution, and climate change
Trends in Community Development
Giving the communities the opportunity and responsibility to manage their own
resources, define their own needs, goals and aspirations, and make decisions
affecting their well-being
People’s Participation Has been very elusive, ladder of participation, and genuine participation
Participation should focus on the following aspects: Social, economic, and
cultural issues; Needs mechanisms/structures to operationalize the process from
the village to the highest level of government; Process of raising critical
consciousness of people about their problems; Participatory research
CD in the millennium should focus on its performance in terms of the following
questions: What organization and under what conditions have worked best?
Should it be formal or non-formal? Who should initiate? What social preparation
is needed? When are the people ready for community organizing? Is the
cooperative the answer to a CO?
Community Education Concerned with developing people’s capability: Community value formation
(cooperativism, collective concern, nationalism, etc.), Skills development for
collective actions, Conscientization = “learning to perceive social, political, and
economic contradictions, and to take action against oppressive elements of
“A sustained process in which people, through collective action and reflection,
gain a deep understanding of the causes of their powerlessness and the
confidence in themselves to take responsibility for their own development”.
“Giving local officials autonomy and responsibility in planning and allocating
local resources in the task of uplifting their own social and economic
Elements of Empowerment – Local Government (autonomy and responsibility –
planning and resource allocation), people’s initiatives, basic services and
infrastructure provided by government, sustainable development, and equitable
Realization of the 8
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Achieve universal primary education
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Development Goals by
Promote gender equality and empower women
Reduce child mortality
Improve maternal health care
Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
Climate Change and
Disasters are becoming more frequent
Community-Based Disaster Management (hazard mapping, vulnerability
assessment, capacity assessment, planning, community organizing, and
community mobilization and volunteerism)
Lessons Learned in Community Development
For development to be successful it has to be sustainable and it has to community-led.
Communities have a right to participate in decisions that affect their living and
Only community development that gives people decision-making power is
Genuine participation requires community involvement in all phases of change: that
means at planning, implementation, maintenance and monitoring phases.
Participation must build on gender equality and include youth and the elderly.
Capacity development is essential to promote equal participation from women, men
Communities are prime stakeholders among development actors to identify problems,
improve and maintain their settlements.
Charity makes communities dependent upon aid.
Community development recognizes that the most important outcome of community change is
empowered communities that can solve serious issues by working together. Given clear information
and appropriate capacity, education and financial support, poor men and women can effectively
organize themselves to identify community priorities and address local problems.
The community development process is long and tricky. But given time, dedication and skills,
it works well.
Community development takes on the mantle of developing stronger communities of people
and the social and psychological ties they share.
The development of community in part includes the building of social capital.
The level of a community’s social capital influences the way community development evolves
for that specific community; it also influences the pace at which community development
efforts may occur.
1. How is community development related to development?
2. What are the ethical standards to which professional community developers should adhere?
3. What can leaders do to facilitate community and development?
4. What is the purpose of conducting community assessment?
5. Why is it important to assess the local economy for community and economic development
decisions and policy making?
6. How is economic impact analysis useful in community and economic development decisions?
7. Describe a process to encourage citizen participation in neighborhood planning and
8. What are community development indicators and why are they useful?
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9. What are some types of community development indicators?
10. Why is there no single ideal sustainable community?
11. Explain community development concepts/principle and use a framework to show that people
is the central of community development?
12. What are the approaches of community development?
13. What are the analytical tools used to analyze community development activities and projects.
What are the contributions of those tools for policy improvement?
14. Explain methods that usually used to develop skills and knowledge of people in community
15. Cite 3 components of community development?
16. What are the functions of community development?
17. What are the strategies of community development?
18. What are the attitude and ethics of community development workers?
19. What are the roles of community development workers?
20. What are the knowledge and skills of community development workers?
21. What are the issues in community development?
22. How are you going to implement a community development project?
23. Present a case study. What are the major problems? What are your programs and activities to
handle the problems? What are your approaches? What are your expectations?
Explain community development as discipline/academic discipline?
Answer: Academic discipline acquire knowledge and skills able to apply in the formulation and
translating the knowledge (concepts, theories, principles and methods) and skills through the process
of scientific investigation and empirical research (process of research evaluation and
formulation/implementation of programs/projects/activities), problem identification, setting objectives,
hypothesis, assumption, gathering of data (analysis, recommendations and conclusion) during the
implementation conduct, formation evaluation (mid-year and year-end review of in-house and field),
after completion of research ex-post evaluation, and ex-post facto evaluation (facts as benchmark
information for evaluation).
Explain, discuss and relate community development in global scenario in the context of
modernization or industrialization?
Answer: Community development in global scenario in the context of modernization or
industrialization has undergone various transformation or changes in terms of its goals, objectives,
principles and approaches/strategies. Table 1 explained the various changes that occur in
Aspect Before Now
CD Goals Economic growth and
productivity (GNP and GDP
indicators for development)
Economic growth, efficiency, equity and
sustainability (more focus on social and
human development indicators)
CD Objectives Social welfare
Peace and political stability
Mutual cooperation among different groups
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Reduction of poverty
Respect of local culture and the
Social and moral integration
CD Principles Respect of culture
People-oriented, must start where
the people are
Democratic in spirit
Cooperation and coordination
with the development oriented
Understand and learn the cultural pattern of
CD program should be based on the felt
needs of the people in the community
People’s participation, empowerment and
social justice at all levels and democratic
Equitable sharing of benefits and
sustainable use of local resources
Social integration and social relations
Empowerment of marginalized, excluded
vulnerable and oppressed people.
Ecologically sound programs, projects and
activities and ecologically sustainable
Top down, centralized planning,
M & E and decision-making
Growth-oriented and welfare
Sectoral or piecemeal projects and
Literacy and education among
adult people, local institution
building and leadership
Bottom-up, decentralization in planning, M
& E, decision-making process
Responsive, integrated, holistic and multi-
Needs assessment approach and felt needs
of the people in the community
Mass mobilization and participation, social
action, public advocacy and mutual support
Community education and KASAP
programs for the community
Networking and coordinative efforts of
Co-management to self-help
Furthermore, community development in the world context before was a dole-out program and
projects. But later on, the process changes through self and self-reliance where the community
involved in the planning, decision-making and implementation.
As a conclusion, community development in global scenario played important role in the
development process in the community life of local people, as well as the whole society whether living
in an urban and rural area in the context of modernization or industrialization.
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Comprehensive questions July 27, 2012
1. What is community development?
2. What are empowerment, participation, social justice and human dignity?
3. Framework of the mentioned above.
4. How are you going to develop a community project and how are going to evaluate the project.
What is evaluation model that are you going to apply to measure your project achievement?
5. If you are assigning as a CD worker, what do you should equip yourself to be fully serve your