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Informe sobre la actividad desarrollada en Silicon Valley para incentivar la creatividad en las empresas a traves de la creación artistica participativa, Incluye un modelo de flujos sociales

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  2. 2. CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | ADVISORS Board of Directors Dr. Harry Saal, President Ann Gralnek Susan Hammer, Vice President Michael Hackworth Robert Wayman, Treasurer Christine Harris Pat Compton Kim Polese Todd Flynn Kim Walesh Cultural Initiatives Staff John Kreidler, Executive Director Kate Cochran, COO & Director, Leadership Development Brendan Rawson, Director, Community & Neighborhood Arts Program Dana Powell, Ed.D., Director, Creative Education Program Aimée Ipson, Professional Development Coordinator, Creative Education Program Lilia Agüero, School Grants Coordinator, Creative Education Program Jennifer Leclerc, Communications Coordinator Vanessa Shieh, Administrative Coordinator Advisors to this Project Jerry Allen Peter Giles Nancy Ragey Deputy Director for Cultural Executive Director Vice President Affairs The Tech Museum of Innovation Community Foundation City of San José Silicon Valley Nancy Glaze Elisbeth Challener Director, Arts Program Alberto Torres Executive Director The David and Lucile Packard Partner Villa Montalvo Foundation McKinsey & Company William Davidow Susan Hammer Kim Walesh General Partner Member Director Mohr Davidow Ventures State of California Collaborative Economics Board of Education Bruce Davis Barbara Waugh Executive Director Scott Heckes Worldwide Change Manager Arts Council Silicon Valley Assistant Chief of Grant Programs Hewlett-Packard Company California Arts Council Chris Dwyer Vice President Doug Henton RMC Research President Collaborative Economics Todd Flynn Founder Alan Hess SmartCalendar, Inc. Columnist San José Mercury News This project has been a collaborative effort of the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, Americans for the Arts, the City of San José Office of Cultural Affairs, and Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley. In addition, Cultural Initiatives convened a group of leaders from industry, the arts, and government to develop the framework of this document. The group was expertly guided by Doug Henton and Kim Walesh of Collaborative Economics. We greatly appreciate the generosity of our project advisors toward shaping this research. The Knight Foundation has been a leader in the development of community indicators projects throughout the country. In partnership with Americans for the Arts, the Knight Foundation chose three communities—Fort Wayne, Indiana, Charlotte, North Carolina, and San José—for a unique demonstration project. Each local community was asked to develop the quantitative indicators that best measure the health and vitality of its local arts and cultural sector. Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley partnered with the City of San José to perform the local data collection and analysis. Through an open process of information sharing with the Knight Foundation, Americans for the Arts, and the two other pilot communities, we developed indicators that we believe best capture Silicon Valley’s arts and cultural sector.
  3. 3. Welcome to Cultural Initiatives Creative Community Index. CulturalInitiatives developed the Index to provide an objective source ofinformation about the artistic, creative and cultural life of Silicon Valley.We hope this document will help promote public dialogue and informdecisions about these issues and serve as a foundation for monitoringour progress toward shared goals for the arts and cultural sector inour region.We would like to thank the Knight Foundation, Americans for the Artsand the City of San José for their generous support in the publication ofthe Index.Our research for this project has been extensive. Through personalinterviews in three different languages with over 350 Silicon Valleyresidents, we have gained a solid understanding of what residents thinkabout arts and culture in the region. Using 125 survey responses fromlocal arts and cultural organizations, we have broadened ourunderstanding of the programming, audiences, finances, and operationsof the nonprofit cultural sector. We also collected information from arange of secondary data sources to achieve a comprehensiveunderstanding of the role of creativity and cultural life in the region.All of this information is summarized in this report.To initiate this project, it was necessary to establish an organizingframework for understanding the arts, culture and creativity of SiliconValley. We convened an Indicators Advisory Group to assist us indeveloping our framework. Through a process of facilitated discussions,the advisors established a basic tenet for us to build upon: in order toinsure the future prosperity, vitality and overall quality of life of ourregion, we must intelligently leverage our most valued assets ofcreativity and cultural participation.The advisors identified four key observations as the basis for this belief:1. Creativity is highly valued in the Silicon Valley economy.2. The Creative Industries sector is becoming an increasingly important part of the regions "Innovation Habitat."3. Cultural participation plays a major role in connecting divergent groups and in connecting individuals to their community.4. New, creative approaches are needed to address the civic and social challenges facing the region.Building from this foundation, we have established an organizingframework for the development of quantitative indicators. Beyond thequantitative data available within this Index, we hope readers will alsoconsider the framework as a useful tool for discussion and developmentof Silicon Valley’s unique cultural milieu.Dr. Harry Saal John KreidlerBoard President Executive Director
  4. 4. CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS The Creative Community Framework 3 What You Need to Know About This Report 5 Overview 6 Cultural Indicators: Outcomes 8 Creativity 8 Connectedness 11 Contribution 12 Participation 14 Participation in Arts and Cultural Activities 14 Assets 18 The Creative Sector 18 Venues and Facilities 20 Civic Aesthetics 21 Levers 22 Creative Education 22 Leadership 24 Policies 25 Investment 26 End Notes 28 Methodology 294
  5. 5. THE CREATIVE COMMUNITY FRAMEWORK“If we can direct our creativity outward toward a noble end, it would inspire great work and a wonderful community. Great teams are not formed in the absence of great and worthy goals, nor great communities in the absence of great and worthy visions.” Barbara Waugh, Hewlett-Packard CompanyThe Creative Community Index helps illustrate a growing body of evidence With their assistance, we established a simple conceptual frameworkthat the arts produce tangible social and economic benefits. For the past based on a causal theory of the impact of the cultural sector on a com-two decades, a variety of research has documented the positive influence munity. The theory is that various levers are available for influencingof the arts on human development and on robust economies. More the dynamics of the arts and culture in Silicon Valley. As these leversrecently, research has also begun to highlight the impact of the arts on are exercised (e.g., a local city government establishes an ordinance tothe ambient creativity of cities or regions and on the ability of support the acquisition of public works of art), they generate assetscommunities to establish bonds of social trust and understanding. (e.g. sculptures, fountains or murals). These assets, in turn, provide a basis for public participation in the arts and culture (e.g. enjoying aTo measure the health and vitality of the arts and cultural sector in piece of sculpture in the midst of a shopping district). Finally, theSilicon Valley, it was first necessary to establish a model or hypothesis accumulated results of this participation are measurable outcomes,of how the sector works in our region. Josephine Ramirez at the Getty such as increased feelings of connectedness to neighbors or heightenedCenter in Los Angeles describes this issue clearly in her research on sense of community identification as a result of living in an aestheticallyquantitative efforts to measure the arts: “The need to better under- inspiring environment.stand and articulate the broad societal value of arts and culture is atthe heart of a discussion among a growing circle of arts scholars in the Assumptions Underlying the FrameworkU.S. The problem with most arts-related data and the way it is collected The Advisory Group established the following assumptions in the devel-is that it tends not to be anchored in any theories about the societal opment of this framework:impacts of the arts. Instead, the arts community usually gathers data • The vision of Silicon Valley is that of a creative, connected, contributingthat relates narrowly to itself.” region with a prosperous economy and an attractive quality of life. • Cultural life is a key element of Silicon Valley’s general quality of life.Through the Creative Community Index, we hope to establish a working • Participation in cultural life can enhance people’s connections tomodel of the broad dynamics of the arts and cultural sector in Silicon each other and to place.Valley and of the sector’s interactions with our region’s broader • Creativity is important to Silicon Valley’s future. Cultural participationcommunity life. can enhance creativity. • Silicon Valley should aspire to contribute to the world, going beyondA Guiding Framework its contributions in technology. Cultural participation can produceAt the outset of this project, our Advisory Group sought conceptual new ideas and expressions that contribute to global well-being.constructs about how the arts and culture operate in Silicon Valley. • Twenty-first-century Silicon Valley will define “desired outcomes” ofMany of the advisors are active leaders in the region’s arts sector, cultural life differently than will other regions and generations.while others are occasional participants and thoughtful observers. Creativity Contribution Cultural Outcomes Connectedness Participation in Arts & Cultural Activities Cultural Participation Creative Civic Sector Aesthetics Cultural Assets Venues and Facilities Arts Education Investment Cultural Levers Leadership PoliciesDefining Our Desired Outcomes be addressed were creativity, seen as a significant element in theAs described above, we needed to establish a strong understanding of region’s capacity for sustaining technological and business innovation,the sector’s relationship to the broader community in order to successfully and social connectedness, which was found to be weak in Silicon Valleymeasure the arts and cultural sector of the region. As a first step, we in national research conducted by the Social Capital Benchmark Study.defined the desired outcomes for the sector as it impacts that broader The group also found merit in attempting to document Silicon Valley’scommunity. Given the specific character of Silicon Valley, the Index contribution to the advancement of the arts, in parallel with the region’sAdvisory Group determined that two of the most important outcomes to widely acknowledged contribution to the advancement of technology. 5
  6. 6. CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | CREATIVE COMMUNITY FRAMEWORK What Do We Know About Creativity? painting or listening to a concert). Putnam writes: We can define creativity as “the ability to bring something new or original into being.” But beyond this simple definition, what do we know about To build bridging social capital requires that we transcend our creativity that is important for thinking about the future of Silicon Valley? social and political and professional identities to connect with people unlike ourselves. This is why team sports provide good Creativity is Fundamental to Innovation venues for social capital creation. Equally important and less Some may think of creativity as an attribute confined to artists or the exploited in this connection are the arts and cultural activities. arts. But here in Silicon Valley, we know that creativity is foundational; Singing together (like bowling together) does not require shared it has complex impacts on our society and economy. Historically, the ideology or shared social or ethnic provenance. For this reason, application of creativity has proved critical across the breadth of human among others, I challenge America’s artists, the leaders and enterprise: commerce, philosophy, science, law, aesthetics, trades, funders of our cultural institutions, as well as ordinary Americans: even athletics. To understand the importance of creativity in Silicon Let us find ways to ensure that by 2010 significantly more Valley today, three areas are of particular interest: Americans will participate in (not merely consume or “appreciate”) cultural activities from group dance to songfests to community • Technological and Business Innovation—Creativity in the economy is theatre to rap festivals. Let us discover new ways to use the arts about devising new products, services, technologies, industries, and ways as a vehicle for convening diverse groups of fellow citizens. of doing business. Silicon Valley pioneered a new kind of economy that competes based on innovation—the generation and application of new Art manifestly matters for its own sake, far beyond the favorable ideas. Innovation results from creative people and the creative process. effects it can have on rebuilding American communities. Aesthetic objectives, not merely social ones, are obviously important. That • Artistic and Cultural Innovation—Creativity is about advancing the said, art is especially useful in transcending conventional social fine and performing arts, literature, commercial arts, popular culture, barriers. Moreover, social capital is often a valuable by-product of and amateur arts. creativity has produced entirely new forms of cultural activities whose main purpose is purely artistic. literature, painting, dance, music, architecture, and other aesthetic (Putnam, Bowling Alone, p.411) expressions. For example, Silicon Valley is at the leading edge of the development of new digital media for artistic expression. Participation in arts and culture is a step toward engaging people more broadly in other elements of civic life—life beyond their family and work. • Civic Innovation—Creativity in civic life has produced a range of public innovations in the built environment and in social institutions: the apart- What Do We Know About Contribution? ment block, the aqueduct, the subway, the skyscraper, public education, What do we know about contribution that is important in thinking about social security, and democratic institutions. In Silicon Valley today, the future of Silicon Valley? creativity is also key to improving how we live together as a community and how we solve the civic challenges associated with growth and The notion of contribution can be viewed from at least two perspectives: technological advances, including social cohesion, urban form, trans- 1.) the contribution that Silicon Valley makes to the global advancement portation, educational opportunity, and environmental stewardship. of the arts and culture; and 2.) the local contribution that the arts make to the enrichment of our families, our communities and our personal lives. Thinking broadly about the application of creativity in Silicon Valley leads to a working definition: Creativity is the process by which ideas Artists and arts institutions in Silicon Valley are often pressing the limits are generated, connected and transformed into things that are valued. of performance and the visual arts by using leading technologies that not This broad notion of creativity encompasses innovation, entrepreneurship only define the frontiers of art, but also, through the Internet and other and expression. It connotes both the art of generating new ideas and technologies, have the capacity to reach audiences throughout the world. the discipline of developing, sharing and applying those ideas. Among the local organizations that have actively promoted this global contribution are ZeroOne–the Art and Technology Network, A.D. Gallery, What Do We Know About Connectedness? Xerox PARC, The Djerassi Foundation, The Tech Museum of Innovation, What do we know about connectedness that is important in thinking and Children’s Musical Theater. Local artists are uniquely positioned to about the future of Silicon Valley? wrestle with, and interpret the impacts of, Silicon Valley’s innovations. Living here, we are often on the cusp of how technological advances inte- Arts and cultural activities can play a critical role in connecting people grate with our personal and community lives. It is a prime perch for many across cultures and affinity groups, helping them to identify commonalities artists. This potential cross-fertilizing of the sciences and humanities is a and value differences. As people participate in enjoying an activity tremendous opportunity for Silicon Valley to contribute to the broader together—whether singing in a choral society or attending an ethnic human community. street festival—they can connect with one another and form personal bonds. Cultural participation can include amateur arts, community Creating and sharing art—whether as a spectator, professional artist, celebrations, festivals, vibrant public spaces where people gather, or amateur practitioner— can be both a personal and a social experience. recreational tournaments, and neighborhood block parties. The arts provide value requiring no further justification due to their inherent contribution to the health, inspiration, and fullness of our lives. Cultural Participation Builds Social Capital This potential contribution of the arts to the quality of life in Silicon Cultural participation helps build a more cohesive, connected community. Valley cannot be ignored. Too often, residents consider the Valley an Evidence is growing that the long-term health of communities and uninspiring and sterile place. In a 1999 San José Mercury News poll of economies is tied to a healthy stock of social capital—bonds of trusting, more than 1,000 residents, two out of every five workers would leave knowing, reciprocal relationships. the Valley if they could take their jobs with them. More recently, empirical research has begun to demonstrate some of the more practical As a form of civic engagement, cultural participation is an important contributions of artistically rich regions: public schools that produce way of strengthening social capital. Professor Robert Putnam of motivated, well-rounded students, robust economies that can adapt to Harvard University explains that some civic engagement—voter shifting trends and attract global talent, and communities that can education, neighborhood watch, attending community meetings—can be perceive and solve difficult challenges. like “civic broccoli,” important and purposive, but not necessarily fun or inspiring. In contrast, people tend to participate in the arts and culture In summary, our work at Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley is based on our for personal growth or sheer enjoyment. Opportunities to create social belief that creativity, connectedness and contribution are deeply relevant capital through cultural participation are highest when people are to our community. The Creative Community Index seeks to test our involved as active participants or presenters of an activity; opportunities theories and to examine in detail the importance and impact of these are lowest when the people are primarily spectators (e.g., looking at a outcomes to the residents and arts providers of the Silicon Valley region.6
  7. 7. CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THIS REPORTHow To Read This ReportThis report is structured according to a guiding framework that organizes measured indicators into four categories. Outcomes: The desired outcomes of a healthy cultural life; broad-based creativity, social connectedness among diverse people and contribution to the quality of life in Silicon Valley Participation: Residents’ participation in arts and cultural activities, including the extent to which diverse people participate together Assets: The mix of cultural assets present in the community, including talent in the creative sector (nonprofit, public and private), venues and facilities, and the aesthetic quality of our environment Levers: The extent to which we leverage and build our cultural assets and encourage people’s interaction with these assets through arts education, leadership, investment, and policiesSurvey MethodologiesFor the development of this report, Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley contracted the survey research firmCultural Access Group to implement a major in-person “intercept” survey of 361 Silicon Valley residents abouttheir behavior and beliefs regarding arts and culture in their community. Cultural Access Group specializes insurveying across cultural and language barriers. Interviews were conducted in English, Spanish andVietnamese at 18 locations throughout Santa Clara County. In addition, Cultural Initiatives developed anexhaustive database of 531 Silicon Valley nonprofit arts and cultural organizations and surveyed them on arange of programming, financial and management issues. We received responses from 125 organizations andconducted in-depth interviews with 22 of them. For an expanded discussion of this research process pleasesee the Methodology section beginning on page 29.Future Research PlansThe Creative Community Index is a quantitative research project seeking to measure creativity and culturalvitality—intangible constructs that are difficult to quantify. Cultural Initiatives believes it is important tocomplement this work with an established qualitative methodology that will shed light on these issues usinga different, yet equally valid, approach. To this end, we are in the process of launching sociological fieldresearch of participatory arts in the region. We will be gathering stories and observations of how SiliconValley residents become engaged in the arts and how the arts impact their lives.Glossary of Terms Arts Education: Includes the spectrum of dance, music, theatre, visual and multi-arts program instruction occurring in Silicon Valley schools and institutions Creativity: The process by which ideas are generated, connected and transformed into things that are valued Creative Sector: The mix of nonprofit arts and for-profit creative industries such as technology develop- ment, arts and entertainment, design, filmmaking, and architecture that exhibit high rates of per employee value-added input to the goods and services they produce Civic Aesthetics: The combination of elements that contribute to an attractive urban design, and the devel- opment of buildings and public spaces that foster community and encourage creativity Connectedness: The extent to which people feel connected to other people and to their neighborhoods, cities or region; the social networks of trust and reciprocity that define social capital Contribution: The opportunities that the arts provide to enrich our lives and to creatively give back to our communitiesCultural Participation: Includes attending the visual and performing arts, as well as a range of arts and cultural activities that bring people together to interact, experience, share, and enjoy creative expression Cultural Policies: The decisions, regulations and incentives put into place by private and public entities that affect the cultural sector of a community 7
  8. 8. CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | OVERVIEW OVERVIEW OVERVIEW Silicon Valley’s Opportunity Silicon Valley’s reputation for excellence lies in its technological and ELEMENTS OF A CREATIVE CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT economic achievement. Building on this base and the incredible milieu Sir Peter Hall’s research aimed to answer the question, “What for business innovation, Silicon Valley can pioneer a next-generation makes for a creative city?” Hall finds a number of common factors metropolitan community where creativity leads not only to continued that historically have worked together to foster a par ticularly technological excellence, but to artistic, cultural and civic innovation. creative cultural environment. Throughout human history, certain cities and regions have emerged as pinnacles of human creativity. Sir Peter Hall, in his landmark book Cities • Rapid accumulation of new wealth in new hands during a time of in Civilization, examines the combination of forces that fostered particular rapid economic transition cities as centers of cultural, technological or civic excellence. Hall finds that cities have historically tended to excel in a single realm. He holds • Attraction of talented and ambitious people, bringing new ideas, open the possibility that a truly creative city of the twenty-first century worldviews and an understanding of the significance of a period, will excel in multiple realms, building on the creative fusion of art and and passion to influence its unfolding technology that began to emerge in twentieth-century America. • Crossroads of culture, where information from different traditions What Have We Learned? was exchanged and synthesized through “interculturalism” and trade Through this Index project we have found that two of the most important issues to be addressed in fostering a vital community are creativity and • Social and values tension, including a clashing of new values with social connectedness. traditional values that led to new lifestyles, roles, relationships, and bases for class distinction Creativity Asked whether they thought of themselves as an artist in any fashion • Reconfiguration of social networks as individuals from different and, if so, how, 51% of 361 Silicon Valley interviewees said, “Yes,” and occupations and positions in society—such as intellectuals, wealth described a myriad of activities such as playing a musical instrument, makers, artists, and aristocrats—commingled in new relationships, knitting, singing, or various other creative pursuits. Many also mentioned leading to cross-fertilization of ideas and perspectives that their work in the technology sector allowed them to be creative— 12% mentioned activities such as computer programming, software • High civic aspirations and collective action as individuals and development or web design. Residents of Silicon Valley recognize that associations (e.g., professional, business and civic associations) creativity directly affects our society and economy. From idea generation expected and demanded that the public aspects of their city be great through experimentation, prototyping, commercialization, positioning, and marketing, creativity is woven throughout the economic life of our • Physical places that fostered interaction and mixing of people region. Graphic designers, creative writers, photographers, animators, with diverse talents and views, such as plazas, salons, meeting and music producers are taking their place in the technology workforce. houses, and cafes. At least 12% of Silicon Valley jobs can be described as creative in nature. On average, these jobs pay more than 40% above the average wages for all other jobs in the region. required for school children. However, compared to national data, we Ar ts education is also fundamental to our community’s creative see that the amount of ar ts instruction offered in our public schools is health, and local residents are adamant about its impor tance. far below the national average (see char t at left). Ninety-two percent of sur vey respondents said that the ar ts should be Connectedness Arts Education, Local vs. National Availability of local arts education falls well below national average. A key factor in the life of any community is the extent to which people feel connected to each other and to their neighborhood, city or region. 100% Sil icon V l aley Developing connection to place is increasingly important in our highly 90% mobile society and can help overcome a sense of isolation that people 80% Nation may feel living far from extended family and their community of origin. This is especially important in Silicon Valley, where the proportion of 70% foreign-born residents is more than three times the national average. 60% Participating in cultural traditions and social interactions in neighborhood 50% settings is a particularly powerful way of creating community. Because 40% cultural participation often provides a neutral meeting ground, it is 30% particularly conducive to bridging differences, be they socioeconomic, ethnic, educational, or generational. 20% 10% Our forms of preferred cultural participation in Silicon Valley vary across 0% demographic factors, providing a rich mix of active engagement. For Music VisualArts Dance Theatre example, 50% of Latinos mention dancing (many different kinds) as Percentage of elementary grade level students receiving arts education, one of their favorite forms of cultural participation with others; among by artistic discipline Asians, 23% mentioned singing in a group as a favorite form of participation. Men were twice as likely as women to mention playing8
  9. 9. “Silicon Valley has been the creative hotbed of the innovation economy. It is time to channel that creativity to make the Valley a better place to live.” – Alberto Torres, McKinsey & Company Importance of the arts and rating of the region Looking Forward Many Silicon Valley residents highly value their arts and cultural activities, however, Creativity and cultural participation offer Silicon Valley tremendous the region does not receive as high of marks as a place to pursue such interests. opportunities. The region can evolve a distinctive identity as a place90% that nurtures creative exchange and cultural connections among all our80% residents—a vibrant creative and cultural milieu.70%60% Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley believes that developing Silicon Valley50% as a diverse Creative Community is essential for sustaining the local40% innovation economy and for strengthening fundamental elements of community vitality—social capital, sense of place, civic spirit, community30% innovation. As we look to the not-so-distant future, we see four main20% reasons why Silicon Valley needs to value and nurture creativity and10% cultural participation in a fundamental way: 0% Highly Valued Rating the region Highly Valued Rating the region 1. New economics values creativity. Creativity is essential for the new economics of Silicon Valley, where our competitive advantage relies upon our ability to innovate. Cultural participation helps develop the creative skills that will be required by the Silicon Valley workforce as a whole. Percentage of Silicon Percentage of Silicon Valley Valley residents that “high- residents that “highly” value 2. Creative sector is a key part of an innovation “habitat.” The creative ly” value their personal participating in artistic and cultural sector—including commercial businesses, nonprofit artistic activities and the activites with others and the institutions and independent artists—is becoming a more important percentage that rate the percentage that rate the part of Silicon Valley’s innovation “habitat.” region as a good place to region as a good place to pursue such interests pursue such interests 3. Culture connects people and place. Talented people—the Valley’s most important resource—are increasingly sophisticated consumers of place. Cultural participation can help bond Silicon Valley residents music with others, whereas women more frequently mentioned singing to each other and to this place while providing a unique quality-of-life in a choir. These facts only scratch the surface of our diverse interests asset for all. in cultural activities. Unfortunately, only 56% of Silicon Valley residents gave their community a good rating as a place to participate with 4. Civic and social creativity is vital. Creativity is essential to addressing others in their favorite cultural activities. civic and social concerns in Silicon Valley. Cultural participation opens the door to civic and social creativity and can inspire more Attending performances and visiting exhibitions can also serve to build visionary strategies and novel approaches. connectedness. Indeed, many residents described these as forms of active participation that they enjoy doing with others. Unfortunately, If we enhance Silicon Valley’s creative and cultural life and connect it we do not attend such events on a very consistent basis. Only 46% of more deeply to the economic life of the region, Silicon Valley’s legacy residents attended a live performance more than twice in the past year, to future generations and the world will not only be a new kind of and only 23% visited a museum of any kind more than twice. Further- economy, but a new and better kind of world community. more, when asked to rate Silicon Valley as a place to attend live performances and visit museums, only 53% gave the region a good What Residents Would Like to Learn wsrating. However, the manner in which we attend is interesting—only Residents have many creative interests; one in four 23% of the attended performances were in facilities designed as would like to learn to play a musical instrument. performance venues: concert halls, theatres or opera houses. The remaining 77% were in multi-purpose facilities, both indoor and outdoor, Play musical instrument such as stadiums, school gyms or auditoriums, parks, or places of worship. Cooking Painting Photography/Film Drawing Acting/Theatre Dance (all kinds) Singing QUESTIONS FOR REGIONAL DISCUSSION: Creative writing We hope the Creative Community Index will provide a Gardening foundation for readers to further explore three key questions: Ceramics/Sculpture Carpentry • How important are culture and creativity to Silicon Valley’s Others economic and civic future? Sewing • What should be the desired outcomes of arts and cultural 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% life in twenty-first-century Silicon Valley? Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: If you had the opportunity to learn a new form of • How would you measure progress? creative expression, what would that be? 9
  10. 10. CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | OUTCOMES OUTCOMES What does a creative community look like? Picturing the ideal vibrant arts and cultural sector for our community is not easy. People have different ideas of how this sector should ultimately benefit both individuals and entire communities. For the purposes of this report, we have sketched out three categories as a basis for understanding the benefits of a vibrant arts and cultural sector—creativity, connectedness and contribution. Each of these categories is closely interwoven with the other supporting elements of our framework. Our objective is to provide a foundation for discussion of what our community values most as the desired outcomes of this sector. CREATIVITY Why Does It Matter? Creativity is found not only in the arts, but in all forms of human enterprise both individual and collective. Creativity is dual in nature as both an end unto itself, such as when we create a painting for our own enjoyment and fulfillment, as well as a practical means to an end, such as when we invent useful products. In this section, we have divided creativity into two categories, Expressive and Innovative. Expressive Creativity Creativity’s intrinsic benefits are in personal fulfillment and community identity. Creative expression helps us, individually and collectively, to understand who are, where we have come from and where we are going. Individual and community creativity are significant assets for a region that is in constant flux and is a pioneer of change in so many arenas. Our capacity to creatively adapt to new challenges can color our attitude to both personal and social opportunities and dilemmas. What Have We Learned About Expressive Creativity? When asked, “Do you consider yourself to be an artist in any way?” 51% of Santa Clara County survey respondents said, “Yes.” When asked, “How do you express yourself artistically?” residents replied with a wide spectrum of answers, with 55% giving multiple answers. The largest portion of all respondents (26%) said they played a musical instrument, followed by 21% who mentioned some form of creative writing. Across the region’s rich mix of ethnic communities, we found an interesting diversity of artistic expression. Many Latinos (28%) mentioned a textile art such as weaving or knitting, while many Asians mentioned singing (32%) as a favorite activity. In addition to these personal artistic pursuits, 44% of residents mentioned that they consider at least one other immediate family member to be artistic in some way. Artistic Expression Silicon Valley ethnic diversity is reflected in varied artistic interests. 50% Latino 45% Asian 40% 35% Caucasian and all other 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Play musical instrument Singing Creative writing Knitting/Weaving Drawing Painting Acting/Theatre Dance (all kinds) Ceramics/Sculpture Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: How do you express yourself artistically?10
  11. 11. When asked, “Do you consider yourself to be an artist in any way?”51% of Santa Clara County residents said, “Yes.” Other Creative Outlets Silicon Valley technology development provides creative outlet for many residents. Webdesign, software devt., computer misc. Writing Gardening Collecting Art Music Cooking Ceramics/Sculpture Sports Singing Dance (all kinds) Painting Crafts 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: Aside from any artistic activities that you do, what other hobby or work activity allows you to be creative? These artistic pursuits are usually a creative outlet unassociated with Artistic Expression’s Personal Importance an individual’s job. While they may not all be professional artists, residents Residents highly value artistic activities but rate the region still strongly value their opportunities for personal creative expression. weak as a place to pursue these interests . For those who considered themselves to be artists in some way, 77% 90% rated their personal artistic activities as seven or higher on a ten point scale where one meant “unimportant” and ten meant “very important.” 80% However, when asked how they rated their community as a place to pursue their artistic interests, only 54% gave the region a score of 70% seven or higher. Fourteen percent gave the region a low rating 60% between one and three. 50% Defining what might be considered “artistic” or “creative expression” is obviously tricky. For this reason, we used open-ended questions, and 40% residents described their own artistic or creative interests. In addition 30% to asking about artistic self-definition, we also asked residents if they had a hobby or work activity that allows them to be creative. Fifty-five 20% percent said, “Yes.” Of the 49% of respondents who earlier had not identified themselves as artists, 38% said they do have a hobby or work 10% activity that allows them to be creative. Many individuals explained 0% that their work in the technology sector allowed them to be creative— 1-3 4-6 7-10 12% mentioned activities such as computer programming, software development or web design. Responses also included, “I make and modify motorcycles,” “I am a radio disc jockey,” and “I work in my garden.” Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 meaning “not important” and 10 meaning “very important,” how important to you are your personal artistic activities? On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 meaning “poor” and 10 meaning “excellent,” how do you rate your community as a place to pursue your own artistic interests? 11
  12. 12. CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | OUTCOMES CREATIVITY “A creative economy is the fuel of magnificence.” – Ralph Waldo Emerson Innovative Creativity As a practical matter, creativity plays an important role in our economy, our education and our addressing of societal concerns. Creativity is key in a chain of activities that make Silicon Valley a strong economic force. Patented Innovation From idea generation through experimentation, prototyping, commercial- Number of new Silicon Valley patents quadrupled since 1992. ization, positioning, and marketing, creativity is woven throughout the 10000 economic life of this region. 9000 What Have We Learned About Innovative Creativity? Patent activity is one measure that helps us gauge our ongoing ability to 8000 innovate and create in these arenas. Patents reflect the initial discovery and registration of innovative ideas. Despite the recent economic 7000 downturn, Silicon Valley continues to innovate and patent. In 2001, 8,646 patents were issued to Santa Clara County companies and 6000 individuals—a growth of more than 100% over the past four years. On a per capita basis, Santa Clara County leads the nation and is granted 300 5000 patents for every 100,000 residents. The closest significant competi- 4000 tors are Boulder, Colorado (167 per 100K), Rochester, New York (162 per 100K), and Austin, Texas (130 per 100K). 3000 Patents Not only do local individuals and companies produce many patents, but 2000 the patents themselves are often highly “creative” and influential. Silicon Valley patents tend to be cited by other patent applications at 1000 a rate of about twice the national average, 11.6 times versus 5.5 times for a five year-old patent. High citation counts are associated with 0 important inventions that are fundamental to future innovation. In 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 addition, the rate of innovation in our region continues to quicken. The median age in years of those patents cited by the latest patent applications has dropped from 6.9 to 6.5 in the past four years. Total number of patents issued to Santa Clara County companies and residents each year, 1992-2001 The fastest growing sectors of patent activity in Silicon Valley are biotechnology, primary metals, and computers and peripherals. Annual patent activity in each of these sectors more than doubled in the last five years. Rate of Innovation Cycle time of patent innovations continues to quicken. 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.7 Years 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.2 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Median age, in years, of past patents cited by newly awarded Silicon Valley patents, 1992-200112
  13. 13. CONNECTEDNESS “Artists and entrepreneurs are similar in wanting to create something new – the next big thing.” Todd Flynn, Blue Bridge Corporation Why Does It Matter? Silicon Valley Social Capital A key factor in the life of any community is the extent to which Silicon Valley connectedness is largely defined by income and education. residents feel connected to other people and to their neighborhoods, cities or region. As people develop a connection to others and feel 80% High social trust valued for their contributions, they become more tied to place. Developing connection to place is increasingly important in our highly Diverse network mobile society and can help overcome a sense of isolation and 70% of friends rootlessness that many may feel living far from extended family or their community of origin. These issues are acutely present in Silicon 60% Valley, where the portion of foreign-born residents is more than three times the national average. Nearly two-thirds of Silicon Valley residents are born in another country or are the children of immigrant parents. 50% What Have We Learned About Connectedness? 40% A major study of connectedness in 40 American metropolitan areas, Percentage of Silicon the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey, found that Silicon Valley residents with Valley ranks at or near the bottom in many traditional measures of 30% “high social trust” social capital such as informal socializing, sense of community, giving, and “diverse network volunteering, and membership in civic groups or faith-based communities. of friends,” as 20% defined by the Social Of all 40 communities, Silicon Valley ranked the lowest on an indexed measure of participation and membership in associations and similar Capital Community Benchmark Survey, kinds of groups such as sports leagues, neighborhood associations or 10% by educational service clubs. However, Silicon Valley does exhibit higher levels of attainment and social capital associated with less traditional social groups. For exam- household income ple, half of high-tech workers say that their work life is taking the place 0% College educated High School Household income greater than $75,000 Household income less than $20,000 of traditional community for them. Social Capital Regional Comparisons In Silicon Valley, education and income are the two primary factors that Silicon Valley has a relatively high level define individuals’ levels of social capital or connectedness to their of social trust and diversity of friendships. community. College-educated residents and those with higher household incomes are far more likely to experience greater levels of social capital. 200 Social trust For example, 44% of college-educated residents exhibit a high level of 180 “social trust” compared to only 14% for those with a high school education or less. While our friendships are more diverse, and our trust of other 160 Diversity of100=expected value friendships racial groups is stronger than in other parts of the country, Silicon Valley 140 residents are less likely to have friendships that cut across class lines. 120 Associational involvement A result of this divide is that those with lower household incomes and 100 less education are more likely to be cut off from networks that could lead 80 to a better life—the social capital equivalent of a “digital divide.” 60 Cultural participation is one way to build that sense of community. A 40 key benefit of the arts in a community as diverse as Silicon Valley is the 20 connectedness generated among friends, colleagues and neighbors. 0 Better Together, a national report on civic engagement, states that “the arts represent perhaps the most significant underutilized forum for Minneapolis Silicon Valley Charlotte San Diego Houston rebuilding community in America.” The report notes that the arts are effective drivers of connectedness “because they can provide a safe space to shelve political and ideological differences, or at least manage those differences without conflict. We need not be of the same race, generation, gender, political party, religion, or income group to sing, act or create together.” In particular, artistic activities that engage people Indexed measures of social capital factors compared as direct participants, rather than as spectators, are seen as effective to other emerging technology regions means for building social interaction and trust. 13
  14. 14. CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | OUTCOMES CONTRIBUTION Why Does It Matter? The arts offer tremendous opportunities to enrich our lives and provide personal fulfillment. Creating and sharing art—whether as a spectator, participant, performer, or producer—is an inherently public and social experience. The arts contribute to the quality of life in our region and also offer national and international observers insight into the life of Silicon Valley. This region has made tremendous creative contributions to the global village through innovations in the sciences and in high technology. How are we leveraging our creative talents in the arts to help understand and explain our experiences here in Silicon Valley to ourselves and to the rest of the world? Joan MacIntosh and Holly Hunter in San José Repertory Theatre’s production of By the Bog of Cats Photo by Tom Chargin, courtesy of San José Repertory Theatre THE SAGUARO SEMINAR In its final report, Better Together, Robert Putnam’s Harvard-based Saguaro Seminar identified “five institutional arenas in which the business of rebuilding social capital must take place.” Prominent among these is the arts. The Seminar concluded that “the arts represent the most underutilized forum for rebuilding community in America.” For the arts to play an important role in strengthening social capital, the Based upon these three principles, the Saguaro Seminar makes five Seminar identified three necessary guiding principals: recommendations for rebuilding social capital through the arts. Each recommendation is elaborated upon within the report: • Through the arts, we must look for opportunities to bridge. The arts are exceptionally well situated to enable us to connect and to form trusting ties 1. Increase funding for “community arts” with people unlike ourselves. They uniquely build bridging social capital. 2. Create opportunities for collaboration between arts organizations 3. Make civic dialogue integral to artistic productions • We must revive arts organizations as community institutions. The 4. Incorporate the arts into social problem solving National Endowment for the Arts was created less then 40 years ago. 5. Connect the arts to community service It is still within our recent history when the arts were a far more volunteer- based and participatory endeavor. Too often today the arts have In its conclusion, the Saguaro Seminar attests to the arts as a “powerful become high-priced entertainment venues where people consume force for illuminating civic experience through its ability to create indelible culture rather than connect socially. We need to return to an era in images, to express difficult ideas through metaphor, and to communicate which arts institutions are more akin to public libraries and town beyond the limits of language.” The Seminar asserts that “America needs squares than to sports arenas and multiplexes. to commit itself to creating new and exciting opportunities for shared cultural experiences. Cultural institutions are eagerly reinventing themselves, • Artists and cultural institutions must be included in Community Planning. and all of us need to join them in finding new and innovative roles for the “While policy makers have begun to understand the economic benefits of arts to play in building social capital.” a strong cultural sector, they have not fully understood the civic benefits.” Leaders of the local arts community need to be incorporated fully into the breadth of planning efforts at the local, state and national levels.14
  15. 15. “The arts represent perhaps the most significant underutilized forum for rebuilding community in America.” – Saguaro Seminar Creation of New Artistic Works Sixty-five percent of local arts groups have developed new works in the past five years (1996-2001). No new works 35% New works-locally spec New New works-not locally works– locally specific 43% No new works, 35% New works– not locally specific 22% Percentage of Santa Clara County arts organizations that created originalCreation of New Artistic Works exhibitions or performances between 1996 and 2001, including those newMid-size arts groups lead the way in creating new works. works with specific connection to the local community80%70% What Have We Learned About Contribution? During the last five years, 65% of Silicon Valley arts groups developed60% some form of new work. These activities included original visual art exhibits, commissioning of new music compositions and commissioning50% of new plays, original choreography of new dance pieces, and development of original works for storytelling.40% Forty-three percent of local arts organizations described their new30% works as having a “specific or unique connection to the local Santa Clara County community.” Some of these focused on exhibiting local20% talent of Silicon Valley residents who are visual artists and filmmakers, or commissioning local composers or playwrights. Other projects have10% included the local “Sharkbyte” exhibition in downtown San José or the Tech Museum of Innovation’s production of the film “Spirit of Silicon 0% Valley.” Looking forward, ZeroOne–the Art and Technology Network will host its second major international conference on the nexus of art and $500,000 to <$1m Less than $20,000 $100,000 to <$500,000 $20,000 to <$100,000 $1m and more technology in 2003. Organizations with budgets between $100K and $1 million are the most likely to be developing new works. In addition, new works developed here are highly reflective of our diverse ethnic heritages. Some of these have included visual art exhibitions focused on immigrant and refugee experiences, or the commissioning of new works for cultural festivals. For example, Ballet Afsaneh developed a new dance piece for the Persian Zoroastrian Center’s New Year celebration. Another unique Silicon Percentage of Santa Clara County arts organizations creating at least one Valley project is MACLA’s oral history and visual art exhibition, Ties new original work between 1996 and 2001, by budget size That Bind, which explored the history of intermarriage between Asians and Latinos in the Santa Clara Valley. 15
  16. 16. CREATIVE COMMUNITY INDEX | PARTICIPATION PARTICIPATION Cultural participation is at the heart of our framework. It is the nexus where the community’s cultural and creative assets intersect with the lives of actual residents to generate community outcomes. Cultural participation as a form of civic engagement is an important way of generating creativity, strengthening connectedness and inspiring contribution. Above all, arts and cultural participation can play a critical role in connecting people, helping them to identify commonalities and to value differences. PARTICIPATION IN ARTS AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES Why Does It Matter? As people participate in enjoying an activity together—whether singing in a choral society or attending an ethnic street festival—they are able to connect with one another and form personal bonds. Because cultural participation often provides a neutral meeting ground, it is particularly conducive to bridging differences, be they socioeconomic, ethnic, educational, or generational. Forms of Participation Rating the Region Silicon Valley’s ethnic mix gives rise to many forms Fifty-three percent of residents give the region a of participation and diverse interests. good rating as a place to attend live performances and visit museums. Latino Asian Caucasian and all other 90% 70% 60% 80% 50% 70% 40% 60% 30% 50% 20% 40% 10% 0% 30% Attending concerts, performances, fairs Dancing Going to museums, galleries, exhibitions Singing Going to theatres Music Attending a Book Club 20% 10% 0% 1-3 4-6 7-10 Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: Silicon Valley Opinion Survey: What are your favorite arts and cultural activities that On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 meaning “poor” and 10 you enjoy participating in with others? meaning “excellent,” how do you rate your community as a place to attend live performances or visit museums?16