1. INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION & RESEARCH (IPER) ASSIGNMENT OF ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT ONIMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING & GREEN HOUSE EFFECT IN HANDLOOM INDUSTRYSUBMITTED TO- SUBMITTED BY-Prof. MADHUKR SAXENA SANDEEP PATEL
2. S.NO. TOPICS Introduction, Role of Handloom Sector 1 Impact of Global Warming 2 Annual GreenHouse Gas Emssion 3 Conclusion 4
3. INTRODUCTIONThe Textile industry occupies a unique place in our country. One of the earliest to comeinto existence in India, it accounts for 14% of the total Industrial production, contributes tonearly 30% of the total exports and is the second largest employment generator after agriculture.Today, Indias textile sector comprises four important segments:�Modern textile mills�Independent Power looms�Handlooms and�GarmentsROLE OF HANDLOOM SECTOR:The Handloom sector plays a very important role in the country’s economy. It is one ofthe largest economic activities providing direct employment to over 65 lakhs persons engaged inweaving and allied activities.This sector contributes nearly 19% of the total cloth produced in the country and also addssubstantially to export earnings. Handloom is unparalleled in its flexibility and versatility,permitting experimentation and encouraging innovations. The strength of Handloom lies in theintroducing innovative designs, which cannot be replicated by the Power loom sector. Thus,Handloom forms a part of the heritage of India and exemplifies the richness and diversity of ourcountry and the artistry of the weavers.RAW MATERIALSHandloom primarily uses natural fibres such as: cotton, silk and, jute.Prices of these fibres have been increasing during production and processing. Cotton productionin India is expensive because of intensive and high usage of costly agricultural inputs such aspesticides and fertilisers.Secondly, while the fibre production most often happens in the vicinity of the weavers, theirprocessing is done in distant areas, and as such the prices to the weaver are higher.
4. IMPACT OF GREEN HOUSE EFFECT & GLOBAL WARMING ON HANDLOOMINDUSTRY Global warming may have positive as well as negative impacts. Farmers have access toadvanced agricultural technologies, which will help them to adapt to climate change. The cropproduction may increase unless the warming is too great or extreme weather becomes morecommon. Agriculture in less-developed countries may experience more negative effects..CO2Fertilization Plants require CO2; rising levels may actually help plant growth. However, the increasedplant growth requires adequate water supply and other fertilization, such as nitrates. Experimentsin which crops are grown in CO2-rich air show that the CO2 fertilization effect could becomesmall after a few years.Impact of climate change Despite technological advances, such as improved varieties, genetically modifiedorganisms, and irrigation systems, weather is still a key factor in agricultural productivity, aswell as soil properties and natural communities. The effect of climate on agriculture is related tovariability’s in local climates rather than in global climate patterns. The Earths average surfacetemperature has increased by 1 degree F in just over the last century. Consequently, agronomistsconsider any assessment has to be individually considering each local area. Climate change induced by increasing greenhouse gases is likely to affect cropsdifferently from region to region. For example, average crop yield is expected to drop down to50percent in Pakistan according to the UKMO scenario whereas corn production in Europe isexpected to grow up to 25percent in optimum hydrologic conditions. More favorable effects onyield tend to depend to a large extent on realization of the potentially beneficial effects of carbondioxide on crop growth and increase of efficiency in water use. Decrease in potential yields islikely to be caused by shortening of the growing period, decrease in water availability and poorvernalization.Temperature potential effect on growing period Duration of crop growth cycles are above all, related to temperature. An increase intemperature will speed up development. In the case of an annual crop, the duration betweensowing and harvesting will shorten the shortening of such a cycle could have an adverse effecton productivity because senescence would occur sooner.Effect of elevated carbon dioxide on crops Carbon dioxide is essential to plant growth. Rising CO2 concentration in theatmosphere can have both positive and negative consequences. Increased CO2 is expected to have positive physiological effects by increasing the rate ofphotosynthesis. Currently, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is 380 parts permillion. In comparison, the amount of oxygen is 210,000 ppm. This means that often plants maybe starved of carbon dioxide, due to the enzyme that fixes CO2, rubisco also fixes oxygen in the
5. process of photorespiration. The effects of an increase in carbon dioxide would be higher on C3crops (such as wheat) than on C4 crops (such as maize), because the former is more susceptibleto carbon dioxide shortage. Studies have shown that increased CO2 leads to fewer stomatadeveloping on plants which lead to reduced water usage. Under optimum conditions oftemperature and humidity, the yield increase could reach 36%, if the levels of carbon dioxide aredoubled.Source:-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Greenhouse_Gas_by_Sector.pngEffect on quality Reduced nitrogen content in grazing plants has also been shown to reduce animalproductivity in sheep, which depend on microbes in their gut to digest plants, which in turndepend on nitrogen intake.Agricultural surfaces and climate changes Climate change may increase the amount of arable land in high-latitude region byreduction of the amount of frozen lands. A 2005 study reports that temperature in Siberia hasincreased three degree Celsius in average since 1960 However, reports about the impact ofglobal warming on Russian agriculture indicate conflicting probable effects: while they expect anorthward extension of farmable lands, they also warn of possible productivity losses andincreased risk of drought. Sea levels are expected to get up to one meter higher by 2100, though
6. this projection is disputed. A rise in the sea level would result in an agricultural land loss, inparticular in areas such as South East Asia. Erosion, submergence of shorelines, salinity of thewater table due to the increased sea levels, could mainly affect agriculture through inundation oflow-lying lands. Low lying areas such as Bangladesh, India and Vietnam will experience major loss ofrice crop if sea levels are expected to rise by the end of the century. Vietnam for example reliesheavily on its southern tip, where the Mekong Delta lies, for rice planting. Any rise in sea levelof no more than a meter will drown several km2. Of rice paddies, rendering Vietnam incapableof producing its main staple and export of rice.Erosion and fertility The warmer atmospheric temperatures observed over the past decades are expected tolead to a more vigorous hydrological cycle, including more extreme rainfall events. Erosion andsoil degradation is more likely to occur. Soil fertility would also be affected by global warming.However, because the ratio of carbon to nitrogen is a constant, a doubling of carbon is likely toimply a higher storage of nitrogen in soils as nitrates, thus providing higher fertilizing elementsfor plants, providing better yields. The average needs for nitrogen could decrease, and give theopportunity of changing often costly fertilization strategies. Due to the extremes of climate thatwould result, the increase in precipitations would probably result in greater risks of erosion,whilst at the same time providing soil with better hydration, according to the intensity of the rain.The possible evolution of the organic matter in the soil is a highly contested issue: while theincrease in the temperature would induce a greater rate in the production of minerals, lesseningthe soil organic matter content, the atmospheric CO2 concentration would tend to increase it.Glacier retreat and disappearance The continued retreat of glaciers will have a number of different quantitative impacts. Inareas that are heavily dependent on water runoff from glaciers that melt during the warmersummer months, a continuation of the current retreat will eventually deplete the glacial ice andsubstantially reduce or eliminate runoff. A reduction in runoff will affect the ability to irrigatecrops and will reduce summer stream flows necessary to keep dams and reservoirs replenished.Approximately 2.4 billion people live in the drainage basin of the Himalayan rivers. India,China, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar could experience floodsfollowed by severe droughts in coming decades In India alone, the Ganges provides water fordrinking and farming for more than 500 million.Ozone and UV-B Some scientists think agriculture could be affected by any decrease in stratosphericozone, which could increase biologically dangerous ultraviolet radiation B. Excess ultravioletradiation B can directly effect plant physiology and cause massive amounts of mutations, andindirectly through changed pollinator behavior, though such changes are simple to quantifyHowever, it has not yet been ascertained whether an increase in greenhouse gases woulddecrease stratospheric ozone levels. In addition, a possible effect of rising temperatures issignificantly higher levels of ground-level ozone, which would substantially lower yields.
7. CONCLUSIONS Handloom Industry which largely depends on Agriculture sector for its raw material willhave adverse impact on the livelihood of millions of people. 1) Average crop yield is expected to affect crop diversity from region to region. 2) Remarkable increase in poverty in developing world. 3) Soil fertility is greatly affected by global warming. 4) Decrease in stratospheric ozone, increase ultra violet-B which is very dangerous. 5) Scheduled of planting and harvesting of different is changed.