Spain forest management capture co2

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Spain forest management capture co2

  1. 1. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 1 Forest management system for crops with high CO2 capture capacity in Spain. Spain situation: Spain occupies an area of 505,955 square kilometers, ranking it among the fifty largest countries in the world. Most of its territory is located in the Iberian peninsula, the remaining approximately 12,500 square kilometers, are island-Balearic and Canary Islands, over 32 square kilometers corresponding to the cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the coast of Africa. The situation of the Iberian Peninsula in the extreme southwest of Europe, and only 14 kilometers from the African continent, gives Spain a great strategic value with Mediterranean projection on the one hand, and as a crossroads to Africa and America, other. The peninsular of much of Spain also explains the length of its coastline, which is distributed in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. For location, between 36 and 43 degrees north latitude, the climate ranges from temperate oceanic North, the continental Mediterranean and the Mediterranean center on the east and south, which makes the existence of a wet Spain for the North and mountainous areas, the green Spain with lush forests, and dry Mediterranean Spain.
  2. 2. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 2
  3. 3. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 3 Average number of days with frost.
  4. 4. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 4 Red Natura (Natural Reserves).
  5. 5. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 5 More information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Spain Climate change effects in Spain: Spain was one of the European countries most affected by climate change. Some species could disappear, proliferate others would suffer many economic sectors, and increase risks to health. These are some of the impending consequences of climate change in Spain. Alteration of native species One of the most direct effects of climate change in our country is the disappearance or alteration of ecosystems. The brown bear, protected since 1973 and still surviving two species, the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian, will face the complete disappearance of the favorable climatic conditions for survival. Meanwhile, cork, raw cork industry and fundamental factor in soil conservation, Southwest disappear by mid-century Spain, and of Catalonia at the end. Invasive species The temperature rise will enable the proliferation of exotic species. One is the zebra mussel, which was first detected in the Ebro, and that it has spread the Jucar, Segura and Guadalquivir. Its expansion is worrisome because it modifies the physico-chemical properties of water, which affects the native wildlife, and may obstruct normal use of hydraulic constructions where it is installed.
  6. 6. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 6 Another species that proliferates worryingly is the Medusa, whose presence on our shores and is seriously damaging tourism and fishing beach. Effects on the economy The alteration of the species living in our country has a direct impact on economic sectors that depend on them. Among others, the wine is already seeing production hit, with increased risk of frost, under periods of ripening grapes, lack of water and changes in patterns of pests and diseases. The southern regions of the Peninsula will be reduced production in favor of the North, but this can ensure quality. Also feel the effects of climate change in sectors directly dependent on climate. Especially tourism in our country which ranks second in the world by revenue. The heat transferred and at certain times of year the "comfort temperature" for summer tourism, both indoor and beach. The snow tourism, meanwhile, will have to deal with a rise in elevation ski area and a shorter growing seasons. Sea level rise and flooding In addition to sea level rise as a consequence of climate change during the second half of the century to 202 acres of land on the coast of Biscay will be at risk of flooding. Approximately half of this area corresponds to nuclei urbanized, industrial and residential. The fires of the future The increase in average temperature and decreased rainfall will create the ideal breeding ground for forest fires, especially in high mountain areas. In recent years and is appreciating how fires most often exceed 500 epicurean (so-called major forest fires) and are more virulent and difficult to combat. Health Risks Climate change also presents health risks. First, the cold and heat waves will become more extreme end and durable, so that is expected to charge more lives. Moreover, the increase in temperature will favor the living conditions for various types of mosquitoes as well as its ability to transmit infectious diseases. Thus, diseases such as meningitis and hepatitis are transmitted more easily in the areas of risk, while others already eradicated diseases such as malaria, could return to reappear in the Ebro Delta. More information: http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/cambio-climatico/temas/impactos- vulnerabilidad-y-adaptacion/plan-nacional-adaptacion-cambio-climatico/evaluacion- preliminar-de-los-impactos-en-espana-del-cambio-climatico/eval_impactos.aspx
  7. 7. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 7 Forest management system for crops with high CO2 capture capacity. Introduction. The vegetation act as sinks of C major life function, photosynthesis. Using this function, the plants absorb CO2 to compensate both the gas losses that occur by breathing as the emissions produced in other natural processes (decomposition of organic matter).
  8. 8. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 8 CO2 uptake by terrestrial plant ecosystems is an important component in the global balance of carbon (C). A scale considers global terrestrial biosphere post about 2,000,000 tonnes / year (unESA, 2005). This value is the result of the small difference between photosynthetic CO2 uptake and respiration losses, by decomposition of organic matter and by disturbances of different Nature. This value will be called the biosphere net output (GDP), and is the long-term amount is stored in the sink. Sequestered CO2 by plants is the result of differences between atmospheric CO2 absorbed during photosynthesis and CO2 emitted by the atmosphere during respiration. This difference is converted into biomass and usually between 45-50% of the dry weight of theplant. Therefore, while the growth is high, the natural vegetation and agricultural crops are converted into carbon sinks. With this into account, agriculture can become an effective mechanism for mitigate the increase in atmospheric CO2.
  9. 9. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 9 To determine the C sequestered in ecosystems, we must take into C has the stable incorporated into the soil. If the accumulation of soil C is a slower process than the accumulation of biomass, the stability of C the soil is increased. Thus, the soil's ability to store C is important due to accumulated decomposing plant material, from renamed C of humus. Pruning of deciduous trees and can count as carbon loss upon removal of crop planting or burned, while if it decomposes naturally pruning in the ground, becomes an effective immobilization of CO2 over time. Carbon fixation in C3 plants, C4 and CAM. Depending on CO2 fixation, the plant will have a different metabolism and therefore plants are classified into C-3, C-4 or CAM. In them, both the efficiency of water use and as the rate of CO2 fixation is different. C-3 plants: They are characterized by maintaining open stomata during day to allow fixation of CO2, which causes a loss of water by perspiration continuously. At the risk of dehydration caused by environmental stress, these plants produce stomatal closure that causes a large decrease in photosynthesis. C4 plants: are characterized by having open stomata day. As intermediates possess pumping CO2 in the cell, can afford an unexpected stomatal closure, continuity is feasible photosynthetic process, thanks to the CO2 reservoir.
  10. 10. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 10 CAM plants: Stomata open at night. Water losses by transpiration is greatly reduced. They also have a reservoir of CO2, thus also may close stomata without involving an photosynthetic decline. Effect of environmental stresses on CO2 fixation. Environmental stresses such as salinity, drought, high or low decreasing temperature or solar radiation alters the structure and plant metabolism, thus affecting their growth and paper as scavengers of CO2 (Martínez-Ballesta et al., 2009). These factors environment are key variables that affect plant development, as which are essential in the processes of absorption and transport of water and nutrients. Therefore, the effect of these stresses can have numerous consequences for crops, varying both physiological responses short-term individual plants, such as long-term changes in the structure and function of the plants. Numerous studies have shown the plants against environmental factors have a broad range of responses that normally lead to a water shortage (Kimball et al. 2002). Given the strong desiccant air, control water loss has always been a key issue for plants. By First, the water flow through a plant should be sufficient to maintain nutrition and incorporating CO2. And secondly, the assimilation and transpiration are closely linked in almost all plants, the water availability imposes a ceiling on productivity (development) (Steudle and Peterson, 1998). At the same time, to prevent desiccation of aerial parts, the flow of water entering the plant through the roots must compensate the water flow from the leaves. Since physiological processes are extremely sensitive to water deficit, water conservation maintain reasonably high water potential is usually the main problem in areas with warm climates and low rainfall. With increasing temperatures may induce increased photorespiration is a protective mechanism of the photosynthetic apparatus and which does not entail absorption of CO2 (Sofo et al., 2005). The combined action of various environmental factors (water vapor in the atmosphere and Higher temperatures) could lead to an increased production of biomass, but only if the plants also receive a contribution from other essential nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium (the action anthropogenic nitrogen could provide natural ecosystems, as it is a residue of many of our emissions). It is estimated that CO2 fixation will be increased in the next 60 years due to an increase in temperature. It is expected that CO2 fixation is increased by 1% per ° C in regions where the average temperature annual temperature is 30 º C and 10% in regions where the annual average temperature is 10 ° C. Photosynthetic rates would rise by 25-75% in plants C3 photosynthesis (the most common in middle and high latitudes), the doubling of CO2 concentration. The data are less conclusive in the case of plants whose mode is the C4 photosynthetic typical of warm places, being response ranges from 0% to 10- 25% increase (unESA 2005). This problem involves the need for studies to determine the effect of different environmental conditions on the ability CO2 uptake and water and nutrient needs of the crops.
  11. 11. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 11 CO2 Capture in Spain. The vegetation is key against global warming in Spain, since it absorbs a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and also has a great capacity for development, very wooded and many protected. There are large differences according to species. The most efficient are the pine and pine, which absorb 48,870 and 27,180 kilos of CO2 per year, respectively. Instead, cork absorbs only 4,537 kg. Among the tree species common in the cities, the melia is the most efficient. A street with ten of these trees absorb CO2 emitted daily by 10,373 vehicles. The less efficient in this case would be the three acacia thorns, which only absorb CO2 from 1,619 vehicles, the jacaranda, the 1,405, and the elms, the 1,320 cars. One square kilometer of forest generates tons of oxygen per year, a wooded acre urban daily produces oxygen consumed six people, and that a tree absorbs about 20 years the CO2 emitted annually by a vehicle traveling 10,000 to 20,000 kilometers. More trees and shrubs CO2 absorb: TREES: Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) kg.CO2 year 48,870 Pinus pinea (Stone Pine) kg.CO2 year 27,180 Azederach Melia (Melia) 5,969 = 10,373 cars kg.CO2 day year Quercus ilex (Holm) kg.CO2 year 5,040 Qercus suber (Cork) kg.CO2 year 4,537 Gleditsia triacanthos kg.CO2 802 day year = 1,619 cars Ovalifolia Jacaranda (Jacaranda) year = 1,405 1,832 cars kg.CO2 day Ulmus minor (Olmo) kg.C.O2 762 day year = 1,320 cars Populneum Brachichiton kg.C.O2 957 day year = 1274 cars
  12. 12. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 12 Citrus aurantium (Naranjo) 555 cars kg.CO2 year = 762 days Europae Olea (Olive) 570 kg.CO2 year Populus alba (Alamo) 498 cars kg.CO2 year = 831 days Platanus x hispanica (Platano) 478 cars kg.CO2 year = 792 days Sempervirens Cupresus kg.CO2 385 day year = 629 cars Laurus noviles kg.CO2 384 day year = 526 cars Cercis siliquastrum (Tree of Love) 19 years = 33 cars kg.CO2 day Prunus cerasifera (Japanese plum 17 years = 26 cars kg.CO2 day Bignonoides Catalpa (Catalpa) 11 years = 38 cars kg.CO2 day SHRUBS Viburnun tinus (Durillo) 46 years = 77 cars kg.CO2 day Chamaerops humlis (Palmetto) 40 years = 63 cars kg.CO2 day Nerium oleander 31 years = 49 cars kg.CO2 day Arbutus unedo 28 years = 47 cars kg.CO2 day Lantana chamber 6 years = 10 cars kg.CO2 day Ligustrum ovalifolium (Privet) kg.CO2 1.3 day year = 2 cars Myrtus communis (Myrtle) 0.6 Car kg.CO2 year = 0.9 day Pistacea lentiscus (Mastic) 0.2 year = 0.5 cars kg.CO2 day (Paspalum paspalodes (Grama) 1.5 kg.CO2 year Agriculture also plays a key role in the capture of CO2, so, in general, the data obtained from different studies, plants like cauliflower, watermelon, artichoke, melon, peach, nectarine, plum, the lemon and grapes among others, are the most efficient fixing of CO2 per unit of cultivated area. Moreover, we should consider the possibility of using the remains of vegetation and agricultural crop residues as feedstock for the production of renewable energy and by example, biodiesel. If we add all of them in the horticultural industry (skin, flesh, bones and seeds of the fruit) would get a volume really important for processing into raw materials for the production of biodiesel, aromas, livestock feed and / or water, both as purified water for irrigation (Biodisol.com, 2009). All these products increase the eco- efficiency of crops, and lead to sustainable agriculture as a whole. We must not forget other species such as Paulownia stormy, known as kiri or empress tree. With a height of up to 27 meters and large leaves and showy flowers, the kiri became popular as an ornamental plant in Japan, from where it spread to Europe in the nineteenth century. Among its features is its ability to withstand extreme attacks like fire, because it can regenerate their roots and growth vessels quickly even on land almost barren. Therefore often used as a "pioneer plant" on infertile soils because its leaves are rich in nitrogen, provide nutrients to the soil as they decompose, while their roots prevent erosion. Another advantage is that it is the fastest growing tree around the planet and only eight years reaches the size of, say, an oak tree 40.
  13. 13. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 13 In addition, it absorbs ten times more carbon dioxide than any other tree and emits large amounts of oxygen, which makes it a great potential ally in the fight against climate change. With these credentials, in 2008 in Texas began a project called The Kiri Tree Revolution, with the goal of planting one million of these trees to purify the polluted soil of this U.S. state and get back to being suitable for plant growth . Nevertheless, should be implemented gradually and with great surveillance measures for their possible effects on the rest of the ecosystem. Suitable growing land will have freely draining nonsodic friable soil pH 5.5 to 7.5, to depth of at Least 60cm, and a warm / hot growing season with adequate spring / summer rain or 3 to 8 megalitres per hectare per year irrigation water available. In the tropics, elevated plateaus or hills will produce better growth than lowlands. Good site preparation, Fertiliser, and intensive management During the early months are required to Obtain the best results. Seeds of all Paulownia species are short-lived and Have naturally low viability, and there is little prospect That They Will Become invasive weeds. A 10 to 20 hectare planting will be suitable to test for range of clone types, timber management treatments,planting densities, establishment techniques, and in some cases, soil types. For example, a pilot planting Could evaluate-two methods of site preparation, 2 levels of Fertiliser application, and 2 different planting densities, on 2 different soil types. With statistical validation through At least two replicates with 100 trees per treatment, around 3,200 trees of each clone May be required, plus allowance for "buffer" rows around each treatment plot. A pilot program recommended Malthus May Contain around 10,000 trees. The best time for planting is in spring or at the start of the rainy season.
  14. 14. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 14 Carbon finance and markets. There are numerous ways and ongoing efforts to reduce carbon emissions and promote activities that help carbon storage and disposal. This has made the carbon valuable commodity. In order to find a common unit of measurement for this commodity, all GHGs become CO2 equivalents (CO2-eq). the CO2-equivalent traded in carbon markets, which function similar to financial markets. The currency used are carbon credits. market and the type of carbon offset project. During 2009, prices ranged from 1.90 to 13 euros (€) per tonne of CO2-eq. In recent years emerged many financial instruments and market mechanisms. There are two types of carbon markets: the regulated compliance and volunteers. The regulated market is used by businesses and governments, by law, are accountable of their GHG emissions. It is regulated by statutory carbon reduction, and whether national, regional or international. In the voluntary market, however, trade credit occurs on an optional basis. The dimensions of the two markets differ markedly. In 2008, he traded in the regulated market 119,000 million (U.S. $), and the voluntary U.S. $ 704 million (Hamilton et al., 2009). The three Kyoto Protocol mechanisms are very important for the market regulated: the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI acronym English) and the Conditions for trading GHG emissions (ETS, acronym in English). Some countries have legally accepted the Kyoto Protocol, but have other schemes legally binding GHG reduction, or regional2 statewide. Country in development can only participate in the CDM. In general, small projects AFOLU scale in developing countries, the voluntary market is more interesting than the regulated, because the CDM market has a fairly complex mechanisms and procedures for registration project, which exclude most agricultural projects, forestry and reducing 2 P. for Example., Plan GHG Reduction Australian New South Wales (NSW GGAS, acronym in English) and the Regional Initiative GHG in the United States (RGGI, English acronym), which brings together ten states of the U.S. East Coast. Some rule of the CDM: - Additionality of emissions reductions or sequestration must be additional to any that would have occurred without the project. GHG emissions after the implementation of the project should be lower than they would been to date. - Permanence: when the credits counted, an important issue is the carbon storage duration and risk of loss (accident natural or human, such as fires, floods or outbreaks of pests). The not stored indefinitely carbon in forest biomass and the soil, So we developed a credit system for afforestation and reforestation credits that expire approximately within between five and thirty years, and can be refurbished and resold. - Leaks: unforeseen and indirect emissions of GHG resulting from activities projects. For example, if the afforestation of agricultural land results in the migration of those who grew, who deforest some other area.
  15. 15. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 15 Why use plants to remove CO2 is more beneficial than the other techniques. 1. - All techniques anthropogenic inclusions (contrary to what would be a reforestation) produce effects that assumes average but in no way are beneficial for it. 2. - Geologic storage is today a technique which can store a large amount of CO2, but in the future these bags could cause great problems, since although today reservoirs located in parts tectonically stable in the future, as has occurred throughout geological history of the Earth, you can make this happen and we would like great rafts of greenhouse gases would be emitted into the atmosphere in a short time. 3. - The most important cause of species loss on the planet so far has been the destruction of habitats, well, cultivation and replanting creates new habitats for different organisms on the planet, helping to conserve the diversity of species. 4. - The Oceans are becoming more acidic due to the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, some marine organisms are losing and having difficulty getting the calcium carbonate necessary for their existence. Then the ocean is reaching a point where you can not increase CO2 capture. 5. - On the other hand, high adaptability that have the plants and allowing them to withstand large changes over thousands of million years, and therefore continue storing CO2 for a long time with little maintenance. 6.- Possibility of installation of crops to capture CO2 inside or in the vicinity of pollutant sources (industries, roads, cities, oil refineries, cement ...). 7.- Other potencial benefits of sustainable management practices agricultural and forest: - Agroforestry: increased resistance to climatic extremes by improved water retention and enrichment of fertility ground. - Restoration of degraded lands: restoring degraded watersheds and reducing soil erosion. - Overall: increased productivity, increased revenue and food security through a diversified system of production.
  16. 16. Ibán González Fuente Climate Change 16 However, all CO2 capture techniques together against climate change will be more effective and with current 400ppm CO2 is essential a joint struggle against it.

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