Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Climate change and crop pest scenario

2,989 views

Published on

CA bhawanipatna

  • Be the first to comment

Climate change and crop pest scenario

  1. 1. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITSCLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON CROPIMPLICATIONS ON CROP PEST SCENARIOPEST SCENARIO ByBy Dr.L.N.MohapatraDr.L.N.Mohapatra Associate Director of ResearchAssociate Director of Research Regional Research and Technology Transfer StationRegional Research and Technology Transfer Station BhawanipatnaBhawanipatna
  2. 2. Climate changeClimate change Climate Change is one of the mostClimate Change is one of the most important global environmental problems today.important global environmental problems today.  It is a term used to describe a gradual increase in theIt is a term used to describe a gradual increase in the average temperature of earth atmosphere and itsaverage temperature of earth atmosphere and its oceans, a change that is believed to be changing theoceans, a change that is believed to be changing the earth’s climate for ever.earth’s climate for ever.  It is a long-term change in the statistical distribution ofIt is a long-term change in the statistical distribution of weather pattern over periods of time that range fromweather pattern over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years.decades to millions of years.  It may be limited to a specific region, or may occurIt may be limited to a specific region, or may occur across the whole world.across the whole world.
  3. 3. Reasons for climate changeReasons for climate change • Planet Earth comprises of several layers. It starts withPlanet Earth comprises of several layers. It starts with the three layers of the earth called as Crust , Mantle andthe three layers of the earth called as Crust , Mantle and Core and then five layers of atmosphere namely,Core and then five layers of atmosphere namely, Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, ThermosphereTroposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere and Exosphere.and Exosphere. • Now, the atmosphere provides air, water, warmth andNow, the atmosphere provides air, water, warmth and protects the earth from the harmful rays (UV) of the sun.protects the earth from the harmful rays (UV) of the sun. • The earth partially absorbs energy from the sun andThe earth partially absorbs energy from the sun and simultaneously releases it in the form of infra red wavessimultaneously releases it in the form of infra red waves (as heat we feel). This heat is not completely lost to(as heat we feel). This heat is not completely lost to space, but is partially absorbed by some gases presentspace, but is partially absorbed by some gases present in very small quantities in the atmosphere called asin very small quantities in the atmosphere called as green house gases(GHGs) and they remit some of thisgreen house gases(GHGs) and they remit some of this heat to the earth surface.heat to the earth surface.
  4. 4. Reasons for climateReasons for climate change:change: Man made activities :Man made activities : • Burning of coal and oil for homes, factories andBurning of coal and oil for homes, factories and transportation has increased the concentrationtransportation has increased the concentration of Greenhouse Gases (carbon dioxide,of Greenhouse Gases (carbon dioxide, methane,nitrous oxide,ozone andmethane,nitrous oxide,ozone and chlorofluorocarbons) in the atmosphere, that ischlorofluorocarbons) in the atmosphere, that is making the earth warmer day by day.making the earth warmer day by day. This again causesThis again causes • the mountain glaciers and frozen ice-capped seathe mountain glaciers and frozen ice-capped sea and land masses to melt, leading to the increaseand land masses to melt, leading to the increase in the amount of water in rivers, thus leading toin the amount of water in rivers, thus leading to the rise of amount of water in oceans, whichthe rise of amount of water in oceans, which exert pressure on continental and oceanic platesexert pressure on continental and oceanic plates and leads to their movement inside, thus leadingand leads to their movement inside, thus leading to earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic activities,to earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic activities, etc.etc.
  5. 5. Reasons for climateReasons for climate change:change:• • Global atmospheric carbon oxide has increased appxly by 30%Global atmospheric carbon oxide has increased appxly by 30% which is responsible for an increase of 0.6which is responsible for an increase of 0.6oo C in mean annualC in mean annual global surface temperatureglobal surface temperature • There will be an increase in the atmospheric temperature toThere will be an increase in the atmospheric temperature to the tune of about 1.8 to 4.0the tune of about 1.8 to 4.000 C by the end of 2100.C by the end of 2100. • Burning fossil fuels alone accounts for 83% of India’s carbonBurning fossil fuels alone accounts for 83% of India’s carbon dioxide emission.dioxide emission. • India will become the 3India will become the 3rdrd largest emitter of green house gaseslargest emitter of green house gases by 2015.by 2015. • If no climate policy interventions are made the concn. OfIf no climate policy interventions are made the concn. Of atmos. carbon dioxide may increaseatmos. carbon dioxide may increase upto- 405-460ppm by 2025upto- 405-460ppm by 2025 445-640ppm by 2050445-640ppm by 2050 540-970 ppm by 2100.540-970 ppm by 2100.
  6. 6. • Indian Agriculture (ruminants, riceIndian Agriculture (ruminants, rice cultivation,manure management,cropcultivation,manure management,crop residues etc.,) contributed 17.7 mresidues etc.,) contributed 17.7 m tonnes of methane and 0.14 m tonnestonnes of methane and 0.14 m tonnes of nitrous oxide with global warmingof nitrous oxide with global warming potential (GWP) of 386.1 m tonnespotential (GWP) of 386.1 m tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent .carbon dioxide equivalent . • Ruminants are found largestRuminants are found largest contributer of GWP (85%)followed bycontributer of GWP (85%)followed by rice cultivation (23%) and soil(10%)rice cultivation (23%) and soil(10%) Reasons for climate change:Reasons for climate change:
  7. 7. Possible impact of climate changePossible impact of climate change • Unprecedented heat waves:Unprecedented heat waves: • Cyclone- Intensity of Storm wouldCyclone- Intensity of Storm would increase by at least 10%increase by at least 10% • Flood- Precipitation may increase by 5-Flood- Precipitation may increase by 5- 10% due to intensification of the10% due to intensification of the hydrological cyclehydrological cycle • DraughtDraught • Decreased snow coverDecreased snow cover • Erratic monsoonErratic monsoon
  8. 8. Possible impact of climate changePossible impact of climate change o Rising sea level causing displacement alongRising sea level causing displacement along coast linecoast line • Hot summer and warmer winterHot summer and warmer winter • Increased water salinityIncreased water salinity • More soil salination- decreased soil fertilityMore soil salination- decreased soil fertility • Less cultivated land- Less crop productivityLess cultivated land- Less crop productivity with low quality agricultural producewith low quality agricultural produce • Increased incidence of insect pest and insectIncreased incidence of insect pest and insect borne diseases in human being and effect onborne diseases in human being and effect on rainfed agriculture , fisheries,livestock,healthrainfed agriculture , fisheries,livestock,health
  9. 9. Threats due to climate change inThreats due to climate change in AgricultureAgriculture • Increased temperatureIncreased temperature drastically affected the ricedrastically affected the rice production due to decrease inproduction due to decrease in crop duration in Philippinescrop duration in Philippines (10% reduction in yield in rice(10% reduction in yield in rice per 1per 100 C rise in temperature.C rise in temperature. • Reduction in yield due toReduction in yield due to warm days and nights: leadswarm days and nights: leads to less elongation of riceto less elongation of rice grain and lower quality of ricegrain and lower quality of rice ,higher chaffyness,higher chaffyness
  10. 10. Threats due to climate change inThreats due to climate change in AgricultureAgriculture • An increase of 6An increase of 600 C in temperatureC in temperature and precipitation deficit of 300mmand precipitation deficit of 300mm reduced the maize yield by 36% inreduced the maize yield by 36% in European UnionEuropean Union • It will lead to a shift in cultivationIt will lead to a shift in cultivation of crops in non traditional areaof crops in non traditional area and change in cultural practicesand change in cultural practices • Increase in temp. and carbonIncrease in temp. and carbon dioxide cause availability of lessdioxide cause availability of less irrigated water and more pest andirrigated water and more pest and diseases of crop.diseases of crop.
  11. 11. Threats due to climate change in IndianThreats due to climate change in Indian AgricultureAgriculture • IARI study “ Vulnerability ofIARI study “ Vulnerability of Indian Agriculture to climateIndian Agriculture to climate change” reveals :change” reveals : - an increase in temperature- an increase in temperature by 1by 100 C may reduce the yield ofC may reduce the yield of wheat ,soyabean, mustard,wheat ,soyabean, mustard, ground nut and patato by 3-ground nut and patato by 3- 10%.10%. • If the trend of climate changeIf the trend of climate change continue in the same pace,continue in the same pace, the losses will be 10-40% bythe losses will be 10-40% by 21002100..
  12. 12. Threats due to climate change in IndianThreats due to climate change in Indian AgricultureAgriculture • For one degree rise inFor one degree rise in temperature in areas liketemperature in areas like Uttar Pradesh, PunjabUttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana couldand Haryana could amount to a loss of aboutamount to a loss of about 6 million tonnes of wheat6 million tonnes of wheat annuallyannually • 0.5 degree rise in winter0.5 degree rise in winter Temperature would reduceTemperature would reduce wheat yield by 0.45t/ha.wheat yield by 0.45t/ha.
  13. 13. Effect of climate change on cropEffect of climate change on crop pestspests  Increased level of temperature andIncreased level of temperature and carbon dioxide due to climate changecarbon dioxide due to climate change have a profound influence on crop pestshave a profound influence on crop pests (arthropods)(arthropods)  Insects are poikilothermic(coldInsects are poikilothermic(cold blooded organism), the temperature ofblooded organism), the temperature of their body is proximately the same astheir body is proximately the same as that of the environment.that of the environment.  Temperature increase associated withTemperature increase associated with climate change affect theirclimate change affect their reproduction,development and survivalreproduction,development and survival
  14. 14. Effect of climate change on crop pestsEffect of climate change on crop pests • UV radiation weakens the health of plants which leaves themUV radiation weakens the health of plants which leaves them more vulnerable to pests and diseases which are earlier minor.more vulnerable to pests and diseases which are earlier minor. • A rise in the carbon dioxide conc. increases the C:N ratio ofA rise in the carbon dioxide conc. increases the C:N ratio of plants reducing the nutritional quality for the protein limitedplants reducing the nutritional quality for the protein limited insects which increases their food intake (compensatoryinsects which increases their food intake (compensatory feeding).feeding). • Study says there is dilution of N by 10-30% and it cause 40%Study says there is dilution of N by 10-30% and it cause 40% increase in food consumption by herbivores.increase in food consumption by herbivores. • Increased carbon dioxide may cause a slight decrease in NIncreased carbon dioxide may cause a slight decrease in N based defenses (alkaloid) and slight increase in carbon basedbased defenses (alkaloid) and slight increase in carbon based defenses (tanins) in plants which breaks down of resistance ofdefenses (tanins) in plants which breaks down of resistance of plants to insects .plants to insects . Example: Sorghum midgeExample: Sorghum midge Stenodiploisis sorghicolaStenodiploisis sorghicola .. Pest out breaks are more likely to occur with stressed plants as aPest out breaks are more likely to occur with stressed plants as a result of weakening of plants defensive system, and thusresult of weakening of plants defensive system, and thus increasing the level of susceptibility to insect pests.increasing the level of susceptibility to insect pests.
  15. 15. Impact of climate change on insectImpact of climate change on insect pests populationpests population • Extension of geographical rangeExtension of geographical range It has been noted that insect population under increasing temperature is under move towards higher latitudes and elevation. • Increasing over winteringIncreasing over wintering • Change in population growth rateChange in population growth rate It has been estimated that with a 2o C temperature increase insects might experience one to five additional life cycles per season • Increased number of generationsIncreased number of generations • Extension of development seasonExtension of development season
  16. 16. Impact of climate change on insectImpact of climate change on insect pests populationpests population • Change in crop pest synchronyChange in crop pest synchrony • Change in inter specific interactionChange in inter specific interaction • Increased risks of invasion by migrantIncreased risks of invasion by migrant pestspests • Introduction of alternative hosts and overIntroduction of alternative hosts and over hostshosts
  17. 17. Examples of change in pest behaviour dueExamples of change in pest behaviour due to climate changeto climate change  Unusually severe draughtUnusually severe draught increases the damage byincreases the damage by spotted stem borer in sorghumspotted stem borer in sorghum  Boll worm incidence in cottonBoll worm incidence in cotton may increase by 4.17% with anmay increase by 4.17% with an increase of maximumincrease of maximum temperature by 1temperature by 100 CC  Aphid abundance increasesAphid abundance increases with an increase of carbonwith an increase of carbon dioxide and temperaturedioxide and temperature
  18. 18. Examples of change in pest behaviour dueExamples of change in pest behaviour due to climate changeto climate change • More occurrence of Cabbage maggot,More occurrence of Cabbage maggot, onion maggot , European corn boreronion maggot , European corn borer and Colorado potato beetleand Colorado potato beetle • High temperature with humidity areHigh temperature with humidity are subjected to severe cut worm damagesubjected to severe cut worm damage • It will lead to earlier infestation byIt will lead to earlier infestation by Helicoverpa zeaHelicoverpa zea inin North AmericaNorth America andand H.armigeraH.armigera in North Indiain North India • Shorter dry spell lead to more mites,Shorter dry spell lead to more mites, mealy bug infestationmealy bug infestation
  19. 19. Examples of change in pest behaviour dueExamples of change in pest behaviour due to climate changeto climate change  Longer growing seasons with warmer climate will enable insect pests such as grasshoppers to complete a greater number of reproductive cycles during spring,summer and autumn.  Increase in rainfall will largely affect the species particularly the beetle with poor dispersal capabilities, which will limit their ability to expand their home. Lower winter mortality of insects due to warmer winter temperatures could be important in increasing insect populations
  20. 20. Examples of change in pest behaviour dueExamples of change in pest behaviour due to climate changeto climate change  Changes in climatic variables have led to increased frequency and intensity of outbreaks of insect-pests. Outbreak of sugarcane woolly aphid Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner in sugarcane belt of Karnataka and Maharashtra states during 2002-03 resulted in 30% yield losses
  21. 21. Examples of change in pest behaviour dueExamples of change in pest behaviour due to climate changeto climate change  Changes in climatic variables have led to increased frequency and intensity of outbreaks of fruitfly in cucurbits particularly due to high temperature and high RH  Increasing infestation of rice crop by swarming caterpillar,hispa,stem borer and bacterial blight
  22. 22. Recent pest problem in different crop due toRecent pest problem in different crop due to change in climate and cropping season inchange in climate and cropping season in IndiaIndia • • Paddy: Pink stem borer, White stem borer, panicle mite,Paddy: Pink stem borer, White stem borer, panicle mite, blue beetle in Kerala, white grub inblue beetle in Kerala, white grub in Uttaranchal ,Uttaranchal , root aphid in upland riceroot aphid in upland rice • Maize: Corn borerMaize: Corn borer Helicoverpa armigeraHelicoverpa armigera in Andhrain Andhra PradeshPradesh • Cotton: Tobacco caterpillarCotton: Tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera armigeraSpodoptera armigera • Sugar cane: Wooly aphid, Yellow mite, cane flySugar cane: Wooly aphid, Yellow mite, cane fly
  23. 23. Recent pest problem in different crop due toRecent pest problem in different crop due to change in climate and cropping season inchange in climate and cropping season in IndiaIndia • Red gram: Spotted pod borer, LeafRed gram: Spotted pod borer, Leaf webberwebber • Chilli: Blossom midgeChilli: Blossom midge • Ground nut: Leaf minerGround nut: Leaf miner • Castor: Tobacco caterpillarCastor: Tobacco caterpillar SpodopteraSpodoptera armigeraarmigera
  24. 24. Impact of Climate change on naturalImpact of Climate change on natural enemiesenemies • Climate change can have diverse effects onClimate change can have diverse effects on natural enemies of pests species, likenatural enemies of pests species, like enhanced mortality with increasingenhanced mortality with increasing temperatures, their decreased effectiveness intemperatures, their decreased effectiveness in controlling pests when pest distribution shiftcontrolling pests when pest distribution shift into regions outside the distribution of theirinto regions outside the distribution of their natural enemies, affected by climate.natural enemies, affected by climate. • Changes in temperature will also alter theChanges in temperature will also alter the timing of diurnal activity patterns of differenttiming of diurnal activity patterns of different groups of insects and change in interspecificgroups of insects and change in interspecific interactions could also alter the effectivenessinteractions could also alter the effectiveness of natural enemies for pest management.of natural enemies for pest management. • Temperature not only affects the rate of insectTemperature not only affects the rate of insect development, but also has profound effect ondevelopment, but also has profound effect on fecundity and sex ratio of parasitoids.fecundity and sex ratio of parasitoids.
  25. 25. Impact of Climate change on naturalImpact of Climate change on natural enemiesenemies • Natural enemies of the insect-pests are more sensitive to the climatic extremes like heat, cold, wind and rains. • Precipitation changes can also affect predators, parasites and pathogens of insect-pests resulting in a complex dynamics. • With changing climate, incidence of entomopathogenic fungi might be favoured by prolonged humidity conditions and obstinately be reduced by drier conditions
  26. 26. Impact of Climate change onImpact of Climate change on pollinators:pollinators: • Climate change affect the phonology,Climate change affect the phonology, local abundance and large scalelocal abundance and large scale distribution on plants and pollination.distribution on plants and pollination. Insect pollinated plants react moreInsect pollinated plants react more strongly to increased warming thanstrongly to increased warming than wind pollinated plants.wind pollinated plants. • Quantum of pollination decrease asQuantum of pollination decrease as there is disruption of naturalthere is disruption of natural synchronization between the flowersynchronization between the flower opening and visit of the pollinators likeopening and visit of the pollinators like honey bees, wasps and butterflies.honey bees, wasps and butterflies. • Increasing spring temperatures mayIncreasing spring temperatures may decrease flower abundance and affectdecrease flower abundance and affect the relative abundance of pollinatorthe relative abundance of pollinator species. . Recent study says that forspecies. . Recent study says that for every one degree celsius rise inevery one degree celsius rise in temperature there will be 14% loss intemperature there will be 14% loss in butterfly population.butterfly population.
  27. 27. Effect of Climate change on cropEffect of Climate change on crop protection technologiesprotection technologies • Increase in temperature and precipitation lead to rapidIncrease in temperature and precipitation lead to rapid dissipation of insecticide residues for which moredissipation of insecticide residues for which more frequent application is needed.frequent application is needed. • Increase in temperature, U.V. radiation and decrease inIncrease in temperature, U.V. radiation and decrease in R.H. may render natural plant products, entomoR.H. may render natural plant products, entomo pathogenic virus, fungus, bacteria, nematode to be lesspathogenic virus, fungus, bacteria, nematode to be less effective.effective. • Due to high temperature the synthetic pyrethroids andDue to high temperature the synthetic pyrethroids and biopesticide show less efficacy due to degradation.biopesticide show less efficacy due to degradation. • Break down of natural resistance in crop plants to insectBreak down of natural resistance in crop plants to insect pests.pests.
  28. 28. Effect of Climate change on cropEffect of Climate change on crop protection technologiesprotection technologies • Activity and effectiveness of natural enemiesActivity and effectiveness of natural enemies ( parasites and predators ) is also affected.( parasites and predators ) is also affected. • Effect of Climate change on transgenic cropEffect of Climate change on transgenic crop Soil moisture, soil fertility and temperatureSoil moisture, soil fertility and temperature have strong influence of expression ofhave strong influence of expression of Bacillus thuringiensisBacillus thuringiensis toxin diploid intoxin diploid in transgenic plants.transgenic plants. Ex- Cotton bollworm (Ex- Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa virescensHelicoverpa virescens)) destroys the Bt transgenic cotton due todestroys the Bt transgenic cotton due to high temperature in Texas. Possible reasonhigh temperature in Texas. Possible reason is inadequate production of toxin protein andis inadequate production of toxin protein and effect of environment on transgenic crop.effect of environment on transgenic crop.
  29. 29. Climate change and pestClimate change and pest management: Challenges Aheadmanagement: Challenges Ahead • Emission of greenhouse gases can beEmission of greenhouse gases can be minimized through adoption of conservationminimized through adoption of conservation agriculture like direct seeded rice, aerobic rice,agriculture like direct seeded rice, aerobic rice, SRI(System of Rice Intensification), cropSRI(System of Rice Intensification), crop diversification, organic farming, bio-organicdiversification, organic farming, bio-organic fertilisers and biological pest control, etc.fertilisers and biological pest control, etc. • Development of crop growth simulation modelsDevelopment of crop growth simulation models will be of greater relevance in new emergingwill be of greater relevance in new emerging research areas such as climate change impactsresearch areas such as climate change impacts on pests and crop yield.on pests and crop yield.
  30. 30. Climate change and pestClimate change and pest management: Challenges Aheadmanagement: Challenges Ahead For effective pest management there is need to :For effective pest management there is need to : • Predict and map trends of potential changes inPredict and map trends of potential changes in geographical distribution and study how climaticgeographical distribution and study how climatic changes will affect development, incidence andchanges will affect development, incidence and population dynamics of insect pests.population dynamics of insect pests. • Understand the influence of climate change on speciesUnderstand the influence of climate change on species diversity and cropping patterns and their influence on thediversity and cropping patterns and their influence on the abundance of insect pests and their natural enemies.abundance of insect pests and their natural enemies. • Understand the changes in expression of resistance toUnderstand the changes in expression of resistance to insect pests and identify stable sources of resistanceinsect pests and identify stable sources of resistance and pyramid the resistance genes in commercialand pyramid the resistance genes in commercial cultivars.cultivars.
  31. 31. Climate change and pestClimate change and pest management: Challenges Aheadmanagement: Challenges Ahead For effective pest management there is need to :For effective pest management there is need to : • Exhaustive studies on the effect of climateExhaustive studies on the effect of climate change on the efficacy of transgenic crops inchange on the efficacy of transgenic crops in pest management.pest management. • Assess the efficacy of various pest managementAssess the efficacy of various pest management tools under variable environmental conditionstools under variable environmental conditions and develop viable pest management strategiesand develop viable pest management strategies to mitigate the effects of climate change on foodto mitigate the effects of climate change on food security.security.

×