Climate change: Impacts and strategies on rice production in Africa


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Presented by Kofi Bimpong, with inputs from Boubacar Maneh, Sander Zwart, Koichi Futakuchi and Takashi Kumashiro at the CCAFS Workshop on Developing Climate-Smart Crops for a 2030 World, ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 6-8 December 2011.

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Climate change: Impacts and strategies on rice production in Africa

  1. 1. Climate change Impacts and Strategies on Rice Production in Africa <ul><ul><li>Kofi Bimpong*, Baboucarr Manneh, Zwart Sander, Koichi Futakuchi & Takashi Kumashiro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(* Molecular Biologist) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Developing Climate-Smart Crops for a 2030 World” Workshop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ILRI, Addis Ababa Ethiopia, December 6-8 2011 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of climate change in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Current & Future impacts of climate change on rice production in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Role of AfricaRice Center in adapting rice production to climate change in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions & perspectives </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction Expected effect of Climate change (CC) on agriculture Predicted loss in Africa due to CC = 17-28 % Source: Cline 2007 <ul><li>Higher temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Greater crop water demand </li></ul><ul><li>More variable rainfall & </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme climate events (e.g.: heat waves, increased salinity, floods & droughts) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Paradox of Agriculture to CC While agriculture is the sector most vulnerable to CC, it is also a major cause, directly accounting for about 14% of greenhouse gas emissions And yet, agriculture can be a part of the solution by Helping people to feed themselves & adapt to changing conditions while mitigating CC
  5. 5. Evidence of climate change in Africa
  6. 6. Rising temperatures <ul><li>Temperatures rose by 0.6 ºC over most of Africa in 20 th century at 0.05 ºC/decade </li></ul><ul><li>Five warmest years last century observed since 1988 </li></ul>Mean surface air temperature anomalies for the African continent, 1901–1998 (Hulme et al., 2001)
  7. 7. Declining rainfall in a semi-arid continent <ul><li>Most of Africa already considered as dry land </li></ul><ul><li>Most countries receive less than 500mm of rain annually </li></ul>Map of rainfall zones in Africa
  8. 8. Effects of climate change on rice production in Africa
  9. 9. Climate change & rice production in Africa <ul><li>Rice yields low in Africa relative to other regions of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Extent of yield loss due to CC will differ b/n rice production systems (rainfed lowland & upland, irrigated lowland, mangrove swamp & flooded) </li></ul><ul><li>Most vulnerable systems are rainfed uplands & lowlands (About 80% of total rice land in Africa) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Heat stress in rice production systems <ul><li>All rice production systems will be exposed to heat stress but rainfed uplands are particularly vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>Heat stress leads to high spikelet sterility, low tillering, stunting and accelerated development </li></ul><ul><li>Above 33 ºC sterility of rice drastically increases </li></ul><ul><li>Severe yield reduction often ensues </li></ul><ul><li>Grain quality (chalkiness) increases with high Temp. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Drought stress & rice production in Africa <ul><li>Incidence & severity of drought expected to worsen with CC </li></ul><ul><li>In Africa crop failure due to drought occurs once every 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfed uplands & lowlands are most vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigated lowlands with poor water control also face risks of droughts </li></ul>
  12. 12. Drought stress & rice production <ul><li>Rice is particularly sensitive to moisture stress </li></ul><ul><li>Drought causes reduction in tillering, plant height, spikelet fertility & delays flowering </li></ul><ul><li>Leading to major yield loss </li></ul>
  13. 13. Flooding & submergence in rice production systems <ul><li>Flooding in agricultural fields causes submergence of crops </li></ul><ul><li>Rice in inland valleys may be subject to water-logging following excessive rainfall or sudden floods </li></ul><ul><li>Submergence causes reduction in </li></ul><ul><li>plant growth leading to the death of rice plant </li></ul>
  14. 14. Salt stress & rice production <ul><li>Rising temperatures due to CC induce high evapo-transpiration rates leading to salt accumulation in rice fields </li></ul><ul><li>During years of severe drought, “salt-tongue” in rivers intrudes further inland causing inundation of rice fields with saline water from tidal flows </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of salt stress on rice are similar to those of drought leading to lower yields </li></ul>
  15. 15. Role of rice in adapting to CC <ul><li>Rice can be used to offset major impacts of CC </li></ul><ul><li>Main staple for many SSA & spreading </li></ul><ul><li>Rice demand growing fastest in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Prod. much less than consumption </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Role of AfricaRice Center in adapting rice production to climate change in Africa </li></ul>
  17. 17. AfricaRice networks and climate change <ul><li>STRASA & GSR (Gates Foundation): Salinity, Drought, submergence tolerance, some diseases and pest </li></ul><ul><li>Japan Breeding Program: Heat stress and Blast tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>MICCORDEA Project: Emerging diseases in Africa including blast & BLB) </li></ul><ul><li>GRiSP: Increasing resilience to CC and reducing global warming potential </li></ul>
  18. 18. Main Adaptive Strategies at AfricaRice against Climate Change
  19. 19. <ul><li>Short-term adjustments may be considered the first defence tools against CC and aims to optimise production with minor system changes through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The management of cropping systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The conservation of soil moisture </li></ul></ul>Main Adaptive Strategies at AfricaRice Short Term
  20. 20. <ul><li>The management of cropping systems considers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in rice varieties (varieties with different thermal requirements, varieties with less variable yields) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of greater diversity of rice cultivars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in agronomic practices (sowing/planting dates) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in fertiliser & pesticide use & Integrated approaches </li></ul></ul>Short Term cont.. <ul><li>The conservation of soil moisture considers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated crop and NRM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The management of irrigation (amount & efficiency) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Long-term adaptation may overcome adversity caused by CC through major structural system changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideotype breeding to adapt to CC stresses (heat, salinity, water & disease,) much more rapidly than it possibly today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction & increase use of wide relatives of rice for greater diversity of cultivars </li></ul></ul>Main adaptive strategies at AfricaRice: <ul><ul><li>Changes in nutrient management to reflect the modified growth and yield of crops, and also </li></ul></ul>Long Term <ul><li>Creating favorable policy environments </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Introduction & increase use of wide relatives of rice for greater diversity of cultivars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brar et. al. </li></ul><ul><li>Insect resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Disease resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance to abiotic stresses </li></ul><ul><li>QTLs for yield </li></ul>Useful Traits O. ridleyi O. officinalis O. minuta O. brachyanta O. longistaminata O. rufipogon O. alta
  23. 23. Developing rice varieties with high temperature tolerance <ul><li>Most O. glaberrima acc. found to have higher leaf transpiration rates than O. sativa </li></ul><ul><li>Under non-moisture limiting conditions this helps to dissipate heat faster from leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Peak period for blooming in rice is 11.00 a.m. when temperatures could exceed critical temperature of 33 ºC </li></ul><ul><li>Blooming in some O. glaberrima peaks at 7.00-8.00 a.m. </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially very important escape strategy </li></ul>
  24. 24. Useful traits of O. glaberrima Resistance to abiotic stress Resistance to biotic stress Weed competitive ability Rice yellow mottle virus Drought tolerance Blast Submergence tolerance Sheath blight Tolerance to acidity Nematode Salt tolerance Stem borer Iron toxicity Stalked eye fly Aluminium toxicity Bacterial leaf blight African gall midge
  25. 25. Genetic variation for drought tolerance in rice <ul><li>Significant genetic variation exists in rice for most DT tolerance traits e.g. rapid leaf rolling, rapid stomatal closure, high WUE, OA, deep & thick roots </li></ul><ul><li>Some NERICAs considered as rice technology appropriate to a changing climate due to their earliness </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>Tolerance at germination & early seedling growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During vegetative stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short duration ( < 14 d) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submergence tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer duration (>2 wks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher level of tolerance (Higher regeneration ability) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stagnant water for few months (< 50 cm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance to water stagnation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elongation ability </li></ul></ul>Developing submergence tolerant rice
  27. 27. Developing salt tolerant rice germplasm <ul><li>Both MAS and conventional approach been used to developed salinity tolerance varieities at both the vegetative & reproductive stages </li></ul><ul><li>Some important Traits been considered </li></ul><ul><li>Early vigor, high biomass , low root to shoot ratio, large LA & high HI </li></ul><ul><li>Na/K compartmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Salt exclusion </li></ul>
  28. 28. Adapting rice to climate change through NRM <ul><li>AfricaRice developed an Integrated Crop Management tool ( RIDEV) for agro-climatic classification for crop & NRM in irrigated lowlands </li></ul><ul><li>RIDEV finds optimal combinations b/n individual technologies & natural resource conditions e.g. soil, water, climate, organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Use of modeling identified several management options that were evaluated with farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in increased yields in farmers’ fields in Mali & Senegal </li></ul>
  29. 29. Management strategies to reduce effects of CC on rice production <ul><li>Water management very important in Africa especially in view of CC </li></ul><ul><li>Contour stone lines are effective in uplands in semi-arid areas (Niger, BF) </li></ul><ul><li>Reservoirs are useful in humid zone to permit double cropping </li></ul>
  30. 30. Management strategies for rice <ul><li>To avoid submergence and reduce salt injury, farmers often transplant older seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>However, older seedlings suffer more from transplanting shock than younger seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Aerobic rice varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow plowing to prevent bringing salts in subsoil to the topsoil </li></ul><ul><li>Regular flushing to reduce soil salinity to a manageable levels </li></ul><ul><li>Work at AfricaRice indicate double-cropped rice fields with drainage were least saline (Senegal) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Favorable policies to adapt rice production to CC <ul><ul><li>Political & social stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of Subsidy & ready market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection against unfair trade practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better infrastructure: road, irrigation; private sector involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price incentives for quality products; Credit to farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political commitment from the highest level </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Conclusions and perspectives
  33. 33. Conclusions and perspectives <ul><li>CC already impacting negatively on livelihoods in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>wide relatives of rice can be a useful source of alleles for developing rice varieties tolerant to major abiotic stresses in SSA </li></ul><ul><li>Need for greater involvement of climatologists & GIS experts in developing climate-resilient rice technologies </li></ul><ul><li>There is a dire need to strengthen research capacities </li></ul>O. glaberrima O. sativa NERICA
  34. 34. Thank you! Merci! Center of Excellence for Rice Research