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ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
ECU Verification & Validation
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ECU Verification & Validation

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A presentation on various the need for model based control development and embedded control strategy verification and validation strategies.

A presentation on various the need for model based control development and embedded control strategy verification and validation strategies.

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  • 1. Automotive Embedded Software Verification and Validation Strategies Shankar Akella www.emmeskay.com info@emmeskay.com EMMESKAY, INC. EMMESKAY SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS Pvt. Ltd. 47119, Five Mile Road No. 20, Kannadasan Salai, T. Nagar Plymouth, MI 48170 USA Chennai 600 017 INDIA Phone: (734) 207 – 5564 Phone: +91 – 44 – 2436 1318 FAX: (734) 207 – 5556 FAX: +91 – 44 – 2436 1350 CONFIDENTIAL
  • 2. Presentation Objective Automotive Embedded Software Verification Overview of Model Based Control (MBC) and Validation Strategies Development Process Presentation Objective Introduce Automotive embedded software Presentation Outline verification and validation strategies Model Based Control Development Verification and Validation Static Verification & Validation Dynamic Verification & Validation Model based Verification & Validation 2
  • 3. Presentation Outline Automotive Embedded Software Verification Model Based Control (MBC) Development and Validation Strategies Process Presentation Objective Verification and Validation Presentation Outline Static Verification and Validation Strategies Model Based Control Development Dynamic Verification and Validation Strategies Verification and Model based Verification and Validation Validation Strategies Static Verification & Validation Dynamic Verification & Validation Model based Verification & Validation 3
  • 4. Trends in Vehicle Electronic Content Automotive Embedded Software Verification Trends in Vehicle E/E content and Validation Strategies # ECUs in a typical Luxury car Code Size (MB) Mercedes S-class Presentation Objective 70 500 60 Presentation Outline 400 50 Model Based Control 40 300 Development 30 200 Verification and 20 Validation 100 10 Static Verification & 0 0 Validation 1995 1997 2000 2003 2006 1990 1998 2005 Dynamic Verification & Validation E/E as % of Average Vehicle Cost 35 Model based 30 Verification & Validation 25 20 15 10 5 0 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Electric Electronic 4
  • 5. Trends in Vehicle Electronic Content Automotive Embedded Software Verification Increase in number of ECUs in turn increases the and Validation Strategies complexity & number of communication networks inside vehicle Presentation Objective Presentation Outline In Vehicle Networks Model Based Control Development Local Interconnect Network (LIN) Verification and Controller Area Network (CAN) Validation Length of Wiring Harness FlexRay Network Static Verification & 2000 2000 Media-Oriented Service Transport (MOST) Validation 1500 Dynamic Verification & 1000 Validation 500 Model based 35 Verification & Validation 0 1955 2005 5
  • 6. Trends in Vehicle Electronic Content Automotive Embedded Future Trends Software Verification and Validation From IBM’s Automotive Strategies 2020 Global Study Presentation Objective Presentation Outline Model Based Control Development Verification and Validation Static Verification & Validation Dynamic Verification & Validation Model based Verification & Validation “The complexity of the vehicle will grow exponentially as future innovations enable it to become more intelligent and connected” ”… estimate that 90 percent of future innovation will be based on electronics, most of which will be embedded software” 6
  • 7. Drivers for Increase in Electronic Content Automotive Embedded Software Verification and Validation Telematics Strategies Presentation Objective Emission & Other Regulations + Customer Expectations Presentation Outline Model Based Control Performance Safety Development Verification and Validation Static Verification & Validation Power Train Chassis Safety Comfort # of Features Dynamic Verification & Validation Engine Control Brake Control Telematics Model based Verification & Validation Parking Assist Automatic Climate Control Steer-by-wire Night Vision Adaptive Cruise Control 7
  • 8. Challenges facing Automotive Electronics Automotive Embedded Software Verification Increased System Scale and Complexity and Validation Strategies Increase in number of ECU’s Presentation Objective Increase in number of communication networks Presentation Outline Model Based Control Development Electronics growth & complexity Verification and is resulting in the following Validation issues Static Verification & Validation Dynamic Verification & Validation Longer Lower Increased Model based Development Time Quality Costs Verification & Validation Requires new development techniques to solve these issues 8
  • 9. How to handle the Challenges Automotive Embedded Software Verification and Validation Start Is AC on Strategies Compute Torque False Demand True Recompute Compute Engine load Engine Load Recompute Determine Engine Engine Inputs Inputs Stop Presentation Objective Advanced Control Presentation Outline Distributed ECU’s Strategies Model Based Control Power Train Chassis Safety Comfort # of Features Development Engine Control Brake Control Telematics Verification and Validation Parking Assist Realization Software concept Good Processes Automatic Climate Control requires Requirements Analysis & Tools Static Verification & Steer-by-wire Night Vision Architectural Design Validation Adaptive Cruise Control Stage 1: Detailed design, code, debug, test and delivery Dynamic Verification & Validation Stage 2: Detailed design, code, debug, test and delivery Model based Stage n: Detailed design, code, debug, test and delivery Verification & Validation Model Based Control Development Process is one such process Skilled Resources 9
  • 10. Control Development Process Automotive Embedded Software Verification and Validation Strategies System Calibration and Requirements Release Presentation Objective ANALYSIS PRODUCT Presentation Outline CALIBRATION & Model Based Control RELEASE Development Specifications to meet Verification and Application Integration Validation Requirements and Testing Static Verification & SYNTHESIS / PRODUCT TESTING Validation DESIGN Dynamic Verification & Validation Model based Verification & Validation System Implementation Embedded Code IMPLEMENTATION 10
  • 11. Model Based Control Development Automotive Embedded Analysis Software Verification and Validation Vehicle system model is used to analyze the Strategies vehicle performance and derive subsystem/ component requirements from vehicle/subsystem requirements Presentation Objective Design Presentation Outline Models of the controller are constructed and Model Based Control are tested against vehicle system models Development through simulation in an iterative process to check if requirements are satisfied Verification and Validation Implementation Static Verification & Embedded C-code is automatically Validation generated from the controller models Dynamic Verification & Validation Vehicle System Dynamics Vehicle System Dynamics Testing Model based Vehicle System Dynamics Vehicle System Dynamics Embedded C-code running on the target Verification & Validation Signal Conditioning Signal Loads processor (ECU – Electronic Control Unit) is verified on a test platform that emulates actual vehicle behavior Calibration With the vehicle system model emulating the actual vehicle, the ECU is calibrated to meet C- requirements before calibration is done on C- code Controller code the real vehicle Controller Controller 11
  • 12. Model Based Control Development Automotive Embedded Software Verification and Validation Strategies Analysis Design Implementation Testing & Calibration Model Based Approach Traditional Approach Presentation Objective Presentation Outline Model Based Control Development Verification and Validation Documents Manual Prototype Based Static Verification & Validation Dynamic Verification & Validation C n ller S b ystem o tro u s Model based 1 -K- Kp D ired es Proportional Gain rpm 1 rpm to Ki KTs Throttle Ang. limit rad/s P t S b z-1 lan u system Verification & Validation Integral Gain output D crete-Tim is e 0 edge180 N Integrator 2 in gra r in u te to p t 1 Timing valve timing N e b in gra n na le te tio co tro r o ut n lle utp 1 Throttle Ang. mass(k) AC ir harge rad/s prevent windup to rpm Throttle Ang Torque Teng Engine Speed, N ass(k+1) m mass(k+1) N N 30/pi 2 trigger Engine trigger C bus om tion Tload Speed N Throttle &Manifold Load Vehicle C pres ion om s Dynam ics drag torque 3 Throttle Degrees Load Models Automatic Virtual & Prototype Based 12
  • 13. Verification and Validation Automotive Embedded Software Verification and Validation Strategies Verification Validation Presentation Objective The Process of evaluating a The Process of evaluation of a Presentation Outline system or component to system or component during or at Model Based Control determine whether the product of the end of the development Development a given development phase process to determine whether it Verification and satisfy the conditions imposed at satisfies specified requirements Validation the start of the phase Static Verification & Validation Are we building the software Are building the right software? Dynamic Verification & right? Validation Does the software conform to Does the software do what the Model based Verification & Validation specifications? user really wants? 13
  • 14. Verification and Validation Automotive Embedded Validation Software Verification and Validation Strategies Validation Requirements Vehicle Testing Presentation Objective Presentation Outline Requirements Model Model Based Control Development Verification and Verification Validation Static Verification & Verification System Validation System Design Integration Dynamic Verification & Validation Model based Design Model Source Code Verification & Validation Implementation 14
  • 15. Why is Verification and Validation Important Automotive Embedded Software Verification Recent Auto Recalls due to Software Failure and Validation Strategies Toyota Prius – HEV Presentation Objective Year 2005 Presentation Outline Recalled 160,000 vehicles worldwide Model Based Control Software error stalls the gasoline engine Development from operating [NHTSA AID PE05029] Verification and Validation Daimler Chrysler – Jeep Commander, Static Verification & Validation Wrangler, Grand Cherokee Dynamic Verification & Year 2007 Validation Recalled 296,550 vehicles Model based Software error in ABS ECU allows Verification & Validation momentary delay in braking during some maneuvers which can cause a crash without any warning [NHTSA ID 07V434000] $ Between 2005-2007 approximately 700,000 vehicles of different makes are recalled due to Software errors 15
  • 16. Why is Verification and Validation Important Automotive Embedded Software Verification and Validation Safety Critical Strategies Presentation Objective Loss of life Presentation Outline Model Based Control Injury or illness Development Verification and Embedded Serious Environmental Validation Malfunctions Static Verification & Software damage Validation System Dynamic Verification & Validation Significant loss or Model based damage to property Verification & Validation Software Criticality level helps in determining effort Major economic loss level required for verification and validation Business Critical 16
  • 17. Current State of Verification and Validation Automotive Embedded Software Verification Current Verification and Validation techniques rely mostly on physical and Validation prototypes. Hence this process is Strategies Time consuming Expensive Presentation Objective Presentation Outline Model Based Control Development Verification and Validation Static Verification & Validation Dynamic Verification & Validation Model based Verification & Validation From “Production code generation for engine control system”, IAC 2004 17
  • 18. Objectives of Verification and Validation Automotive Embedded Software Verification and Validation Strategies 1. Ensure that that software performs intended functions correctly 2. Ensure that the software performs no unintended functions Presentation Objective 3. Increase the confidence level in using the software Presentation Outline Model Based Control Development Verification and Validation Static Verification & Validation Dynamic Verification & Validation Model based Verification & Validation 18
  • 19. Verification and Validation Strategies Automotive Embedded Software Verification Verification and Validation Strategies can be broadly and Validation Strategies Categorized into Presentation Objective Strategies involve Strategies involve Presentation Outline analysis of static simulating code and Model Based Control system observing the behavior to Development representation to uncover errors. uncover errors Verification and Validation Static Dynamic Static Verification & Validation Dynamic Verification & Validation Model based Verification & Validation Model Based Strategies involve analysis using a formal model of the code to uncover errors 19
  • 20. Static Verification and Validation Automotive Embedded Static Verification and Validation strategies involve analysis Software Verification and Validation of code without executing the code Strategies Presentation Objective Presentation Outline Model Based Control Development Software Inspections Verification and Validation Static Verification & Validation Dynamic Verification & AST Validation Source Code Control flow graph Automated Static Verification Call trees Model based Verification & Validation Automated Analysis 20
  • 21. Static Verification and Validation Automotive Embedded Software Inspections Software Verification and Validation Strategies Software inspections involve inspecting the code and other documents to identify errors Presentation Objective Usually inspection checklists are used during the Presentation Outline inspections Model Based Control Inspection checklists Development Verification and Data faults Validation Control faults Static Verification & I/O faults Validation Interface faults Dynamic Verification & Validation Storage management faults Model based Exception management faults Verification & Validation Code inspections can be performed on incomplete version also Manual process hence to be effective requires Good process Guidelines or checklists Process discipline 21
  • 22. Static Verification and Validation Automotive Embedded Software Verification Static verification using automatic tools and Validation Strategies There are automatic tools which can find following errors without executing the C-code Presentation Objective Presentation Outline Dead code Model Based Control Out of bounds arrays & pointers Development Read access to non-initialized data Verification and Invalid arithmetic operations Validation Division by zero Static Verification & Validation Square root of a negative number Dynamic Verification & Overflow and under flow on integers and floating point Validation numbers Model based These tools use advanced techniques like semantic Verification & Validation analysis and data flow analysis to identify these errors Two Commercial Tools available for Static Verification 1. Polyspace (Recently acquired by Mathworks) 2. Coverity 22
  • 23. Dynamic Verification and Validation Automotive Embedded Dynamic Verification and Validation strategies involve Software Verification and Validation simulating code and observing the behavior to identify errors Strategies Open Loop Closed Loop Presentation Objective Presentation Outline Controlled System Model Based Control Behavior Development Verification and Controlled Validation Functional System Static Verification & Test Stimuli Generation Validation Test Stimuli Dynamic Verification & Validation Structural Controller Model based Verification & Validation Code Simulation environment Model in the Software in Processor Hardware in Loop the Loop in the Loop the Loop Simulation Simulation Simulation Simulation 23
  • 24. Functional (Requirements based) Validation Automotive Embedded Software Verification and Validation Strategies Functional Test stimuli is generated based Test Vectors Presentation Objective Requirements on functional requirements Presentation Outline Model Based Control Development Verification and Validation Functional validation can determine whether the control system behaves as expected/desired Static Verification & Validation Functional validation requires functional requirements Dynamic Verification & which are Validation Clear (no ambiguities) Model based Verification & Validation Complete Consistent Test vectors are generated from the requirements alone and no need of the source code for the controller. Model Based development enables execution of functional validation early in the development process 24
  • 25. Structural Verification Automotive Embedded Software Verification and Validation Strategies Source Code Test stimuli is generated based Test Vectors on source code Presentation Objective Presentation Outline Model Based Control Development Test vectors are generated in such a way that the generated Verification and test vectors will maximize a chosen structural coverage metric Validation Popular Structural coverage metrics are control flow based Static Verification & metrics Decision Validation Condition Dynamic Verification & Validation Decision Model based if ( (a > 10) && (b > 5) && (c > 0) ) Condition and Decision Verification & Validation Modified Condition and Decision C1 C2 C3 Conditions Structural verification can ensure that the software does not perform any unintended actions 25
  • 26. Open Loop Verification & Validation Automotive Embedded Software Verification and Validation Strategies Controlled System Presentation Objective Input Actuators System Sensors Outputs Processing Processing Dynamics Processing Processing Presentation Outline Model Based Control Development Verification and Controller Code Validation Static Verification & Validation Used for First level testing Dynamic Verification & Validation Easy to implement & execute Model based Very useful when controller code is changing rapidly during Verification & Validation initial development stages Useful for testing the controller behavior in the presence of sensor failures Requires sufficient knowledge of the controller algorithm for effective use. 26
  • 27. Closed Loop Verification & Validation Automotive Embedded Software Verification and Validation Strategies Controlled System Presentation Objective Input Actuators System Sensors Outputs Presentation Outline Processing Processing Dynamics Processing Processing Model Based Control Development Verification and Validation Controller Code Static Verification & Validation Dynamic Verification & Validation Model based Controller code functional behavior verification Verification & Validation Requires high fidelity models to represent the controlled system behavior Useful to test the diagnostics functions 27
  • 28. Model in the loop Simulation Automotive Embedded Software Verification Simulation involving controller model and controlled system and Validation model in a desktop. Strategies Presentation Objective Controller Subsystem Plant Subsystem Presentation Outline edge180 N 1 -K- Kp 1 Timing valve timing D ired es Proportional Gain rpm 1 rpm to Ki K Ts Throttle Ang. rad/s limit 1 Throttle Ang. mass(k) Air Charge rad/s to rpm Integral Gain z-1 output Throttle Ang Torque Teng Model Based Control Engine Speed, N mass(k+1) mass(k+1) D crete-Time is N N 30/pi 0 2 Integrator trigger Engine 2 integrator input trigger Combustion Tload Speed N N enable integration Throttle & Manifold Compression Load Vehicle Development controller output Dynamics drag torque prevent windup 3 Throttle Degrees Load Verification and Controller Model Controlled system Model Validation Static Verification & Model in the loop Simulation Validation Dynamic Verification & Validation Very useful for testing the control algorithm alternatives Model based Can be performed early in the control development process Verification & Validation to identify infeasible designs and hence saves lot of time. High fidelity controlled system models can be used as the simulation is non-real time. 28
  • 29. Software in the loop Simulation Automotive Embedded Software Verification Simulation involving controller code and controlled system and Validation model in a desktop. Strategies Presentation Objective Plant Subsystem edge180 N Presentation Outline 1 Timing valve timing 1 Throttle Ang Throttle Ang. Engine Speed, N mass(k+1) mass(k) mass(k+1) Air Charge N Torque Teng rad/s to rpm Model Based Control Development N 30/pi 2 trigger Engine trigger Combustion Tload Speed N Throttle & Manifold Load Vehicle Compression Dynamics drag torque Throttle Degrees 3 Load Verification and Validation Controller Code on Desktop Controlled system Model Static Verification & Validation Software in the loop Simulation Dynamic Verification & Validation Useful in identifying implementation errors Model based Can be performed before the availability of controller Verification & Validation hardware. High fidelity controlled system models can be used as the simulation is non-real time. 29
  • 30. Processor in the loop Simulation Automotive Embedded Software Verification Co-simulation involving controller code on the target and Validation processor and controlled system model on a desktop Strategies Presentation Objective Plant Subsystem 1 Timing edge180 valve timing N Presentation Outline rad/s Model Based Control 1 Throttle Ang. mass(k) Air Charge to rpm Throttle Ang Torque Teng Engine Speed, N mass(k+1) mass(k+1) N N 30/pi 2 trigger Engine trigger Combustion Tload Speed N Throttle & Manifold Compression Load drag torque Vehicle Dynamics Development 3 Verification and Throttle Degrees Load Controller Code on Target Controlled System Model Validation Static Verification & Validation Processor in the loop Simulation Dynamic Verification & Validation Controlled system model and target exchange data using Model based standard communication protocols (like RS232). Verification & Validation Useful in identifying target processor related implementation errors (like memory limitations) High fidelity controlled system models can be used as the simulation is non-real time. 30
  • 31. Hardware in the loop Simulation Automotive Embedded Software Verification Real time co-simulation involving the controller code on the and Validation target processor and controlled system model on a real time Strategies computer Presentation Objective Plant Subsystem Presentation Outline edge180 N Model Based Control 1 Timing valve timing Throttle Ang. mass(k) Air Charge rad/s 1 to rpm Throttle Ang Torque Teng Development Engine Speed, N mass(k+1) mass(k+1) N N 30/pi 2 trigger Engine trigger Combustion Tload Speed N Throttle & Manifold Load Vehicle Compression Dynamics drag torque Throttle Degrees 3 Load Verification and Validation Controller Code on ECU Controller System Model Static Verification & Real Time Validation Hardware in the loop Simulation Dynamic Verification & Validation Controlled system model and ECU exchange data using IO Model based Verification & Validation channels available in the ECU Useful in identifying both IO & processor related implementation errors High fidelity controlled system models requires high-end computing machines to simulate these models in real time. Very useful to test controller behavior under extreme operating conditions 31
  • 32. Dynamic Verification and Validation Automotive Embedded Model-in-the-Loop Software Verification Simulation and Validation Strategies Software-in-the-Loop Simulation Processor-in-the-Loop Presentation Objective Simulation Presentation Outline Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Model Based Control Development Functional errors √ √ √ √ Verification and Validation Programming errors √ √ √ Static Verification & Validation Compiler errors √ √ Dynamic Verification & Validation Real-time scheduling problems √ Model based Verification & Validation Speed/memory problems √ I/O software √ Accuracy effects √ √ √ From “General HIL Overview” presentation by dSpace 32
  • 33. Dynamic Verification and Validation Automotive Embedded Tools which support Dynamic Verification & Validation Software Verification and Validation Matlab/Simulink Strategies Model in the loop Simulation Ascet Matlab/Simulink Presentation Objective Software in the loop Simulation Ascet/Intecrio Presentation Outline Processor in the loop Simulation Matlab/Simulink Model Based Control Matlab/Simulink Development Ascet/Intecrio Hardware in the loop Simulation Verification and RT-Lab Validation RTI Static Verification & Tools for Automatic Test Vector Generation from Validation Simulink M odel Dynamic Verification & Validation BEACON Tester ADI Model based Verification & Validation MATT [Matlab Automated Testing Tool] University of Montana Reactis Reactive Systems STB [Safety Test Builder] TNI Software T-VEC Tester for Simulink T-VEC Simulink Design Verifier MathWorks 33
  • 34. Dynamic Verification and Validation Automotive Embedded Software Verification and Validation Validation Strategies Requirements Vehicle Testing Presentation Objective Hardware In Loop Simulation Presentation Outline Model Based Control Requirements Development Hardware In Model Verification and Loop Simulation Validation Verification System Static Verification & System Design Validation Integration Dynamic Verification & Validation Processor In Model In Loop Loop Simulation Model based Verification & Validation Simulation Design Model Source Code Software In Loop Simulation Implementation 34
  • 35. Model based Verification and Validation Automotive Embedded Software Verification Model based Verification and Validation strategies involve analysis of and Validation the embedded software code using a formal model Strategies Presentation Objective These techniques are also known as Formal Methods or Presentation Outline Formal Verification Model Based Control Mainly two techniques Development Model Checking Verification and Validation Theorem Provers Static Verification & …. Validation Creating the formal model for the embedded software is the Dynamic Verification & Validation key. Model based If there are errors in generating the formal model then the Verification & Validation verification cannot capture 35
  • 36. Model based Verification and Validation Automotive Embedded Software Verification Model Checking and Validation Strategies Property C n ller S b o tro u system 1 -K- Kp (Formal Language) Presentation Objective D ired es Proportional Gain rpm 1 rpm to Ki KTs Throttle Ang. limit rad/s Integral Gain z-1 output D crete-Tim is e 0 Integrator Presentation Outline 2 in grator in t te pu N en bleinteg tio a ra n co tro r ou u n lle tp t prevent windup Model Based Control Simulink Model Development Model Model (Formal Language) Checking Verification and Tool Validation Static Verification & Validation Dynamic Verification & Yes if model satisfies the property Validation C-code Counter example if model does not satisfies property Model based Verification & Validation Several Different Types of Model Checkers Explicit, Symbolic, Bounded, Infinite Bounded, … Exhaustive Search of the Global State Space Consider All Combinations of Inputs and States Equivalent to Exhaustive Testing of the Model Produces a Counter Example if a Property is Not True 36
  • 37. Model based Verification and Validation Automotive Embedded Software Verification Formal Verification tools and Validation Strategies Tool Model Properties Developing Presentation Objective Organization Presentation Outline SMV SMV SMV Carnegie Model Based Control Mellon Univ Development SPIN PROMELA PROMELA AT&T Bell Labs Verification and Validation (LTL) Static Verification & SCADE Lustre Lustre Commercial Validation (Simulink to Dynamic Verification & Validation Lustre is Model based possible) Verification & Validation Simulink Simulink Simulink Commercial Design Verifier 37
  • 38. References Slide 4: Graham Hellestrand,” ESL Development Gets A Leg Up”, Chip Design, December/January 2005. (available online at http://www.chipdesignmag.com/display.php?articleId=57&issueId=8) “How to master the electronics challenge”, Roland Berger Trend Study, July 2005 Ola Larses, “Architecting & Modeling Embedded Systems”, Doctoral Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden,2007 Slide 5: http://www.freescale.com/files/graphic/other/IVNETWORK_STAT.jpg Slide 6: “Automotive 2020 Clarity beyond the Chaos”, IBM Global Business Services, IBM, August 2008. Slide 17: Tetsuji Katayama, Akira Ohata & Yoshitaka Uematsu, “Production Code Generation for Engine Control System”, International Automotive Conference, Stuttgart, Germany, 2004. Slide 32 “HIL Simulation Overview”, Presentation from dSpace 38
  • 39. Thank you 39

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